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22 terms

Chemistry Solutions

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Molarity
(M); moles of solute / L of solution
molality
(m); moles of solute / kg of solvent
mole fraction
(X); moles of solute / moles total
% composition
(m/m); grams of solute / grams total X 100
(M) assume:
1 L of solution
(m) assume:
1 kg of solvent
% assume:
100g solution
(x) molefraction assume:
1 mol of solution
Hygroscopic
able to absorb water because of low vapor pressure
Dessicant
A type of hygroscopic material that is used as a drying agent
Deliquescent
A type of hygroscopic material that ends up ultimately dissolving itself
Brownian Motion
keeps colloid particles in motino because of the random vibrations
Effloresce
when water vapor pressure inside the crystal is greater than outside the crystal so that it loses its water of hydration
Anhydrous
meaning without water (has been effloresced)
Electrolyte
a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved or melted
Emulsion
a colloid thats dispersed phase and dispersal medium are liquids
Tyndall Effect
the scattering of light as it passes through a medium
Surfactant
allows water to separate and attack/absorb other agents easier because it interferes with the hydrogen bonding in water
Amorphous solid
a solid that lacks a regular molecular pattern
Kinetic theory
a theory about gases that gives the ideal gas equation
Sublimation
the change from solid to gas
Vapor pressure
pressure that is exerted by a vapor in equilibrium