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(M); moles of solute / L of solution


(m); moles of solute / kg of solvent

mole fraction

(X); moles of solute / moles total

% composition

(m/m); grams of solute / grams total X 100

(M) assume:

1 L of solution

(m) assume:

1 kg of solvent

% assume:

100g solution

(x) molefraction assume:

1 mol of solution


able to absorb water because of low vapor pressure


A type of hygroscopic material that is used as a drying agent


A type of hygroscopic material that ends up ultimately dissolving itself

Brownian Motion

keeps colloid particles in motino because of the random vibrations


when water vapor pressure inside the crystal is greater than outside the crystal so that it loses its water of hydration


meaning without water (has been effloresced)


a substance that conducts electricity when dissolved or melted


a colloid thats dispersed phase and dispersal medium are liquids

Tyndall Effect

the scattering of light as it passes through a medium


allows water to separate and attack/absorb other agents easier because it interferes with the hydrogen bonding in water

Amorphous solid

a solid that lacks a regular molecular pattern

Kinetic theory

a theory about gases that gives the ideal gas equation


the change from solid to gas

Vapor pressure

pressure that is exerted by a vapor in equilibrium

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