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Chapter 16

Griffith Study

described the theory of transformation; mouse study with bacteria

Hershey and Chase Study

determined that DNA is the genetic material of inheritance; bacteriophage study


the idea that bacteria take up DNA from their environment;
a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell


virus that attacks bacteria


the bacteriophage that was used in the Hershey and Chase study

Components of Nucleic Acids

The components are:
Phosphate Group
Nitrogen Base

4 Nitrogen Bases of DNA


4 Nitrogen Bases of RNA



1 ringed Nitrogen base
Thymine, Cytosine


2 ringed Nitrogen base
Adenine, Guanine

Chargaff's Rule

30% A
30% T
20% C
20% G

Rosalind Franklin

x-ray diffraction crystalography photographer

In what phase does DNA replication take place?

S Phase...sister chromatids form

Semiconservative Model of DNA Replication

when a double helix replicates, each of the two daughter molecules will have one old strand, derived from the parent molecule and one newly made strand.


untwists the double helix at the replication forks

Single-Strand binding proteins

keeps strands of DNA from recombining, binds to and stabilizes single-stranded DNA until it can be used as a template


An Enzyme that breaks DNA strands allowing them to untwist them during replication

RNA Primer

building block for nucleic acids


adds the RNA Primer; Synthesizes an RNA primer at 5 prime end of leading strand and of each Okazaki fragment of lagging strand

DNA Polymerase

installs new nucleotids; catalyzes the snythesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to a pre-existing chain.

Okazaki fragments

little pieces of DNA on the lagging strand that patches DNA nucleotides.

DNA Polymerase I

Changes RNA nucleotides into DNA nucleotides


Joins partial strands together; joins 3' end of DNA that replaces primer to rest of leading strand and joins Okazaki fragments of lagging strand

DNA Nuclease

Cuts out damaged parts of DNA

Nucleotide Excision

Molecules detect mismatched pairs and replace them with the correct pairs


Junk DNA at the ends of DNA strands

Archibald Garrod

Wrote "Inborn errors of metabolism: was based on his research on a disease called "alkaptonuria or when urine turns black"

Avery, Macleod and McCarthy Study

Treated the DNA with two enzymes, a protease degrades proteins; DNAse degrades DNA.

Template Strand

The strand of the DNA double helix that is copied by a base pair complementary to make an RNA.

Conservative Model

The original molecule; the parental double helix remains intact and an all-new copy is made.


Each strand of both daughter molecules contains a mixture of old and newly synthesized parts.

Helix Destabilizing Proteins

Keeps strands separate

Anti-parallel strands

Top end and bottom end are not parallel, 5 prime has phosphate end and 3 prime has an OH- end.

Leading Strand

the smooth strand

Lagging Strand

the rough strand


and enzyme that adds segments to ends of molecules of DNA/seals the ends acts like bumpers.

Histone Protein

highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cells nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes

P Region

is the small region of a chromosome "petite"

Q Region

is the large region of a chromosome


a region of DNA typically found near the middle of a chromosome where two identical sister chromatids come closest in contact.


microtubule strands connected to centromeres.

Adenine's bonding pair, "A"

"T", Thymine

Guanine's bonding pair, "G"

"C", Cytosine


made of sugar, 1 nucleotide and 1 phosphate


DNA "double helix"


is antiparallel with a 5'prime end and a 3'prime end

Functions of DNA

Transcription (protein synthesis), Translation, Replication


In Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules that have a special nucleotide sequence such as TTAGGG

Replication Fork

a structure has two branching "prongs", each one made up of a single strand of DNA. These two strands serve as the template for the leading and lagging strands which will be created as DNA polymerase matches complementary nucleotides to the templates.

Satellite DNA

segments of repetitive DNA #13, 14, 15, 21 and 22


bead-like structures with 140 base pairs of DNA wrapped around a disc of eight histone proteins.

Scaffolding Proteins

special proteins that help link mucleosomes together for communication and support

Histone Proteins

Proteins that bind to the segment of DNA that links neighboring beads.

Eukaryotes DNA

is acidic, negatively charged and associated with postiviely charged histone proteins.

Meselson and Stahl

Models of Replication; Conservative, semiconservative, disruptive/dispersive

Beadle "Beets" and Tatum

Neurospora research, experiment on fungus and mold - "one gene one enzyme"

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