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What is the outer region of the kidney called?

(Outer) cortex

Describe the kidneys with regard to their position to the parietal peritoneum.

Posterior to parietal peritoneum (retroperitoneal)

What takes urine directly to the urinary bladder?


What takes urine from the urinary bladder to the exterior of the body?


What blood vessel takes blood from the kidney?

Renal vein

What is the triangular region on the posterior urinary bladder called?


Kidney filtration occurs in a cluster of capillaries called what?


Distal convoluted tubules flow directly into what structures?

Collecting ducts

The blunt point at the end of each renal pyramid is called what?

Renal papilla

What is the renal capsule?

Connective tissue that covers a kidney

Urine flows from the tip of a renal pyramid into what structure?

Minor calyx

Blood in glomerulus next flows to what arteriole?

Efferent arteriole

Which shows the greatest anatomical difference between the sexes: ureters, urinary bladder, or urethra?


Blood in an arcuate vein next flows to what structure?

Interlobar veins

What histological feature distinguishes a proximal convoluted tubule from a distal convoluted tubule?

Brush borders

Name the four parts of the nephron.

Renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule

What type of cell lines the urinary bladder?

Transitional epithelium

Assume that a person did not collect a midstream sample of urine but collected a sample from the beginning of urination. What additional materials might be in greater numbers in this sample?

Additional bacteria & yeast

What metabolic by-product from hemoglobin colors the urine yellow?


How can adequate water intake be judged by the color of urine?

Urine should be clear or pale yellow colored. If urine is deep yellow: indication of absence of intake of multivitamins and water

What is the name of the condition of having measurable amounts of sugar in urine?


What is the normal value for sugar in urine?

No sugar in urine

What substance in urine creates ketonuria?


What is hematuria?

Blood in urine

There are about 200 grams of protein in the blood plasma and normally none in urine. What mechanism keeps protein out of the urine, and what structure might be damaged if protein is found in significant amounts in urine?

Glomerular walls normally do not allow for blood protein to pass into the nephron

Elevated levels of white blood cells produce what condition in urine?


If you process 180 liters of water through the kidney each day, yet produce only 1.8 liters of urine, approximately how efficient are your kidneys at reabsorbing the water passing through them?

The kidneys are 99% efficient at reabsorbing water

Which one of the following urine sediments is probably due to reduced water intake? (Vegetable fibers, crystals, epithelial cells, & bacterial cells)


What cells found in the urine originally come from the walls of the urethra?

Squamous epithelial cells

What cells in the urine come from the wall of the urinary bladder?

Transitional epithelial cells

If your urine contained large numbers of calcium crystals, what might this tell you about the amount of water you drink?

You are not drinking enough water

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