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Describe the kidneys with regard to their position to the parietal peritoneum.
Posterior to parietal peritoneum (retroperitoneal)
Which shows the greatest anatomical difference between the sexes: ureters, urinary bladder, or urethra?
What histological feature distinguishes a proximal convoluted tubule from a distal convoluted tubule?
Name the four parts of the nephron.
Renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
Assume that a person did not collect a midstream sample of urine but collected a sample from the beginning of urination. What additional materials might be in greater numbers in this sample?
Additional bacteria & yeast
How can adequate water intake be judged by the color of urine?
Urine should be clear or pale yellow colored. If urine is deep yellow: indication of absence of intake of multivitamins and water
There are about 200 grams of protein in the blood plasma and normally none in urine. What mechanism keeps protein out of the urine, and what structure might be damaged if protein is found in significant amounts in urine?
Glomerular walls normally do not allow for blood protein to pass into the nephron
If you process 180 liters of water through the kidney each day, yet produce only 1.8 liters of urine, approximately how efficient are your kidneys at reabsorbing the water passing through them?
The kidneys are 99% efficient at reabsorbing water
Which one of the following urine sediments is probably due to reduced water intake? (Vegetable fibers, crystals, epithelial cells, & bacterial cells)
What cells found in the urine originally come from the walls of the urethra?
Squamous epithelial cells
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