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Open intro textbook 1.2 (data basics: observations, variables & data matrices)
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Terms in this set (6)
data matrices (function & structure)
- store & record data
- each ROW is called a
case/observation
(each represents a single real-world entity)
- each COLUMN represents characteristics called
variables
adv:
- new rows (for new if individuals/cases) and columns (for new variables) can be easily added to the data set
types of variables
- numerical
- categorical
numerical variables
can take wide range of numerical values
- sensible to +, - or take averages with these
- can be discrete (numerical values w/ jumps e.g. integers) or continuous (e.g. decimals)
categorical variables
- categorical variables take on values that are
names or labels
- e.g. color of a ball (e.g., red, green, blue), gender (male or female), year in school (freshmen, sophomore, junior, senior)
- cannot be averaged or represented by a scatter plot as they have no numerical meaning
Scatter Plot Diagram
- a graph that represents the
relationship between two numerical variables
- each point/dot represents one case
relationships between variables (2)
(1) independent:
- not associated [no evident relationship between them]
(2) associated:
- variables are related in some way
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