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Arts and Humanities
History and systems psych exam one
Terms in this set (120)
When the video ended, the subjects were asked if they saw anything unusual while they were counting. Half of them said no. They had not seen the gorilla! This phenomenon has been called ______________________________________, and it has been demonstrated countless times in a number of countries all around the world and with diverse groups of subjects.
Why do we study the history of psychology?
The only framework that binds these diverse areas and approaches and gives them a coherent context is their history, the evolution over time of psychology as an independent discipline. Only by exploring psychology's origins and development can we understand the nature of psychology today. Knowledge of history brings order to disorder and imposes meaning on what may appear to be chaos, putting the past into perspective to explain the present.
We can trace ideas and speculations about human nature and behavior back to the______________________, when Plato, Aristotle, and other Greek philosophers grappled with many of the same issues that concern psychologists today.
fifth century BC
Conversely, we could choose to view psychology as one of the newer fields of study and begin our coverage _______________________________, when modern psychology emerged from philosophy and other early scientific approaches to claim its own unique identity as a for- mal field of study.
approximately 200 years ago
How should we distinguish between modern psychology, which we cover in this book, and its roots, that is, the prior centuries of its intellectual forerunners?
That distinction has less to do with the kinds of questions asked about human nature than with the methods used to try to answer those questions.
Only when researchers came to rely on ___________________________________________________ to study the human mind did psychology begin to attain an identity separate from its philosophical roots.
carefully controlled observation and experimentation
Psychologist who refers to the early philosophical approaches to questions of human nature as the "prehistory" of modern psychology (like ideas from Plato & Aristotle)
The principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research
What kind of problems do historians have that psychologists don't?
The data of history cannot be reconstructed or replicated but psychologists may conduct a laboratory experiment, observe behavior under con- trolled real-world conditions, take a survey, or calculate the statistical correlation between two variables. In using these methods, scientists have a measure of control over the situations or events they choose to study. In turn, those events can be reconstructed or replicated by other scientists at other times and places.
How can historians recreate events?
The data of past events are available to us as fragments: descriptions written by participants or witnesses, letters and diaries, photographs and pieces of old laboratory equipment, interviews, and other official accounts.
John B. Watson
The founder of the behaviorism school of thought. Before he died in 1958 at age 80, he systematically burned his letters, manuscripts, and research notes, destroying the entire unpublished record of his life and career. Those data are lost forever.
In 2006, more than 500 handwritten pages were discovered in a household cupboard in England. They were determined to be the official minutes of Royal Society meetings for the years 1661 to 1682, recorded by_________________.
The papers from the cupboard in England revealed early work done with a new scientific tool, the microscope, and detailed the discovery of bacteria and _________________. Also included was Hooke's correspondence with ________________ about the subject of gravity and the movement of the planets.
spermatozoa; Isaac Newton
In 1984, the papers of _____________________ , who was prominent in the study of learning and memory, were found some 75 years after his death.
In 1983, 10 large boxes were uncovered that contained the handwritten diaries of _____________________, who developed psychophysics. These diaries covered the period from 1828 to 1879, a significant time in the early history of psychology, yet for more than 100 years psychologists were unaware of their existence.
In 1641, an Italian mathematician stole more than 70 letters written by the French philosopher ________________________. One of the letters was discovered in 2010 in a collection housed at a college in the United States. It was subsequently returned to France
Sigmund Freud's first biographer, ____________________, intentionally minimized Freud's use of cocaine, commenting in a letter, "I'm afraid that Freud took more cocaine than he should, though I'm not mentioning that".
When the correspondence of the psychoanalyst __________________ was published, the letters were selected and edited in such a way as to present a favorable impression of Jung and his work. In addition, it was revealed that Jung's so-called autobiography was written not by him but by a loyal assistant.
A scholar who catalogued the papers of ___________________, a founder of the school of thought known as Gestalt psychology, was perhaps too devoted an admirer. When he oversaw the selection of materials for publication, he restricted selected information to enhance Köhler's image.
What did later data reveal about Freud?
Freud has a clouded record of himself. He was actually very favorable and admired, especially by younger generations, and his clinical practice was thriving. However, Freud and his Biographer (Ernest Jones) depicted him as a martyr to the psychological cause and a visionary who was always rejected.
Quote by Freud
"Anyone who writes a biography is committed to lies, concealments, hypocrisy, flattering and even to hiding his own lack of understand- ing, for biographical truth does not exist"
in the more than 70 years since Freud's death in 1939, many of his papers and letters have been published or released to scholars.
In another example of hidden or suppressed data fragments.....
Explain how there can be distortion in translation.
Using Freud as an example, not many psychologists are sufficiently fluent in the German language to read Freud's original work. Most people rely on a translator's choice of the most appropriate words and phrases, but the translation does not always convey the original author's intent.
Three fundamental concepts in Freud's theory of personality are id, ego, and superego, terms with which you are already familiar. However, these words do not represent Freud's ideas precisely. These words are the___________________________________________: id for Es (which literally translates as "it"), ego for Ich ("I"), and superego for Uber-Ich ("above-I").
Latin equivalents of Freud's German words
Intrusion or invasion
to translate is to betray
The intellectual and cultural climate or spirit of the times.
What influences can have an impact on psychology's past?
the Zeitgeist or intellectual climate or spirit of the times— as well as current social, economic, and political forces.
what marked a fundamental shift of emphasis in American psychology?
Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the number of psychology laboratories in the United States was rising steadily, but so was the number of psychologists competing for jobs. By 1900, there were three times as many psychologists with doctoral degrees as there were labs to employ them. Psychologists quickly realized that if their academic departments, budgets, and incomes were ever to improve, they would have to demonstrate to college administrators and state legislators that psychology could be useful in solving social, educational, and industrial problems in the real world. So, in time, psychology departments came to be judged on the basis of their practical worth.
At the same time, because of social changes in the U.S. population, psychologists were presented with an exciting opportunity to apply their skills. The influx of immigrants, along with their high birth rate, made public education a growth industry. Public school enrollments increased 700 percent between 1890 and 1918, and high schools were being built at the rate of one a day. More money was being spent on education than on defense and welfare programs combined.
Many psychologists took advantage of this situation and pursued ways to apply their knowledge and research methods to education.
_____ is another contextual force that helped shape modern psychology by providing job opportunities for psychologists.
World War II also altered the face and fate of European psychology, particularly in __________________________________________________________. Many prominent researchers and theorists fled the Nazi menace in the 1930s, and most of them settled in the United States. Their forced exile marked the final phase of psychology's relocation from Europe to the United States in the twentieth century.
Germany (where experimental psychology began) and in Austria (the birthplace of psychoanalysis)
It was after witnessing __________________________________ that Sigmund Freud proposed aggression as a significant motivating force for the human personality. Erich Fromm, a personality theorist and antiwar activist, attributed his interest in abnormal behavior to his exposure to the fanaticism that swept his native Germany during the war.
the carnage of World War I
Another contextual factor is________________________________________. For many years, such prejudice influenced basic issues such as who could become a psychologist and where he or she could find employment.
discrimination by race, religion, and gender
Received awards from the APA as well as several honorary doctorates and the National Medal of Science for her work on perceptual development and learning. When Gibson applied to graduate school at Yale University in the 1930s, she was told that the director of the primate laboratory would not permit women in his facility. She was also barred from attending seminars on Freudian psychology and was not allowed to use the graduate students' library or cafeteria, which were reserved for men only.
A developmental psychologist, recalled her 1960 admission interview for graduate school at Harvard University. Gordon Allport, the eminent personality psychologist, told her that Harvard loathed accepting women. He said, "Seventy-five percent of you get married, have kids and never finish your degrees, and the rest of you never amount to anything anyway!"
Sandra Scarr noted:
"Then, I did get married, and I had a baby in my third year of graduate school, and I was immediately written off. No one would take me seriously as a scientist; no one would do anything for me—write letters, help me find a job. No one believed that a woman with young kids would do anything. So I went and beat on doors and said, "Okay, here I am" until I got hired. Finally, after about 10 years and after I published a lot of articles, my colleagues began to treat me seriously as a psychologist."
___________________________, a pioneer in the mental testing movement, took the lead in urging the acceptance of women in psychology, reminding male colleagues that they ought not "draw a sex line"
James McKeen Cattell
Currently, more than ______________of all new PhDs in psychology are women.
received his doctoral degree in 1941, recalled that he "had been warned that Jews simply could not get academic jobs, regardless of their credentials" . He began his professional career working at a state mental hospital instead of a university.
was urged by his professors at the University of Wisconsin to change his first name to "something less obviously Jewish" so that he would have a better chance of obtaining an academic job
In 1945, the editor of the_____________________________ proposed that a limit be placed on Jewish applicants to graduate training in that specialty area.
Journal of Clinical Psychology
the first black student to earn a doctoral degree in psychology, received what was considered in 1917 to be a highly positive letter of recommendation to graduate school. His advisor described him as "a colored man ... relatively free from those qualities of body and mind which many persons of different race find so objectionable"
The major university providing psychology instruction for black students was ______________________ in Washington, DC. In the 1930s, the school was known as the "Black Harvard"
In 1933, ________________________ became the first black woman to earn a PhD in psychology. However, her career was restricted to teaching at small southern, historically black colleges
Inez Beverly Prosser
later famous for his research on the effects of racial segregation on children, graduated from Howard University in 1935 with a Bachelor of Science degree in psychology. He was often refused service at restaurants in the Washington, DC, area because of his race. He organized a student protest demonstration against segregation in 1934 and was arrested and charged with disorderly conduct. He noted that this was the beginning of his career as an activist on behalf of integration (Phillips, 2000). Clark's application for admission to graduate school at Cornell University was rejected on the basis of race because, he was told, PhD candidates "developed a close interpersonal, social relationship. They worked very closely with the professors and they were sure that I would be uncomfortable, that I would feel awkward in the situation" (Clark, quoted in Nyman, 2010, p. 84). In 1940, Clark became the first African American to earn a doctoral degree from Columbia University and the first to receive a permanent professorship at the City College of New York
Mamie Phipps Clark
earned a doctoral degree at Columbia but faced both race and sex discrimination. She wrote that "following my graduation it soon became apparent to me that a black female with a Ph.D. in psychology was an unwanted anomaly in New York City in the early 1940s"
Their efforts prospered and became the noted Northside Center for Child Development.
Kenneth & Mamie Clark's work together
Kenneth Clark considered his life to be ________________________________________________.
"a series of magnificent failures"
focuses on the achievements and contributions of specific individuals. According to this viewpoint, progress and change are attributable directly to the will and charisma of unique persons who alone redirected the course of history. The personalistic conception implies that the events never would have occurred without the appearance of these monumental figures. The theory says, in effect, that the person makes the times (e.g. Hitler)
The view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the Zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others. Consider the example of Charles Darwin. The naturalistic theory suggests that if Darwin had died young, someone else would have developed a theory of evolution in the mid-nineteenth century because the intellectual climate was ready to accept such a way of explaining the origin of the human species. Indeed, someone else did develop the same theory at the same time.
The concept of the conditioned response was suggested by the Scottish scientist Robert Whytt in 1763, but no one was interested then. Well over a century later, when researchers were adopting more objective research methods, the Russian physiologist ____________________ elaborated on Whytt's observations and expanded them into the basis of a new system of psychology.
In the 1970s, psychologist __________________ attempted to publish the results of research that challenged the then dominant stimulus-response (S-R) learning theory. Major journals refused to accept his articles, even though the work was judged to be well done and had received professional recognition. Garcia, a Hispanic American, was elected to the Society of Experimental Psychologists and received the APA's Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award for his research. Eventually his work was published, but only in lesser- known, smaller-circulation journals, which further delayed widespread dissemination of his ideas.
A German physiologist, he had definite ideas about the form this new science (his new science) should take. He determined its goals, subject matter, research methods, and topics to be investigated. In this pursuit, he was influenced by the spirit of his times, the current thinking in philosophy and physiology. Nevertheless, it was Wundt in his role as agent of the Zeitgeist who drew together threads of philosophical and scientific thought. Because he was such a compelling promoter of the inevitable, psychology was shaped by his vision.
This stage in the development of a science, when it is still divided into schools of thought, has been referred to as
A paradigm (a model or pattern) is an accepted way of thinking within a scientific discipline that provides essential questions and answers. The notion of paradigms in scientific evolution was advanced by
Thomas Kuhn (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions)
Cognitive psychologist George Miller said that:
"no standard method or technique integrates the field. Nor does there seem to be any fundamental scientific principle comparable to Newton's laws of motion or Darwin's theory of evolution"
E. B. Titchener's system of psychology, which dealt with conscious experience as dependent on experiencing persons.
A system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism's adaptation to its environment.
Watson's science of behavior, which dealt solely with observable behavioral acts that could be described in objective terms
A system of psychology that focuses largely on learning and perception, suggesting that combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual elements.
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of psychotherapy.
A system of psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature.
A system of psychology that focuses on the process of knowing, on how the mind actively organizes experiences.
The duck's inventor, ___________________________________, charged an admission fee equivalent to the average of one week's wages to view this marvel of the age. He quickly became rich, and his mechanical model became "the talk of all the salons, as the nation's leaders debated how it worked and just what it signified for politics, philosophy, and life itself "
Jacques de Vaucanson
The defecating duck
-The year was 1739; the place was Paris.
-One wing alone contained more than 400 moving parts. It was considered one of the great wonders of its time.
-Today we can see far more complicated and realistic figures at any theme park. But remember, this was the eighteenth century, and such a contraption had rarely been seen.
The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry.
The idea of mechanism originated in physics, then called natural philosophy, as a result of the work of the Italian physicist________________________and the English physicist and mathematician ______________________________, who had been trained as a clockmaker. Everything that existed in the universe was assumed to be composed of particles of matter in motion.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) ; Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
According to Galileo, matter was made up of discrete corpuscles or atoms that affected one another by _______________.
Newton revised Galileo's version of mechanism by suggesting that movement was communicated not by actual physical contact but by forces that...
acted to attract and repel the atoms.
Historian Daniel Boorstin referred to the clock as the
"mother of machines"
Note that the _________________had devised huge mechanical clocks as early as the tenth century. It is possible that news of their invention stimulated the development of clocks in Western Europe.
How did life change after clocks were invented?
People came to depend on clocks and to be governed by them. For the first time, punctuality became part of daily life. Activities came to be measured in units of time. Life was "regularized and became more orderly" and, as a result, more predictable. Because of the regularity, predictability, and precision of clocks, scientists and philosophers began to think of them as models for the physical universe.
This idea also became a model in the founding of the United States and the development of _____________________. A commentator observed 200 years later that the Founding Fathers "who were influenced by Newtonian physics and the deist idea of God as cosmic clockmaker, devised a constitutional system of separated powers, checking and balancing one another, mimicking what they considered our solar system's clockwork mechanics" (Will, 2009). Thus, the idea of a clockwork universe transformed nearly every aspect of human experience.
The doctrine that acts are determined by past events.
The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas).
Developed much earlier than the seventeenth century. Ancient Greek and Arabic manuscripts contain descriptions of mechanized figures. China also excelled in constructing them; Chinese literature tells of mechanical animals and fish and of human figures devised to pour wine, carry cups of tea, sing, dance, and play musical instruments.
Two of the most complex and spectacular European automata
both made by Jacques de Vaucanson, were the defecating duck and an animated flute player
The English philosopher ____________________ (1588-1679) wrote, "for what is the heart but a spring, and the nerves but so many strings; and the joints but so many wheels, giving motion to the whole body"
In 1748, the French physician____________________ (who died of an over- dose of pheasant and truffles) reported a hallucination he had experienced during a high fever. The dream persuaded him that people were machines, albeit enlightened ones, like a watch that wound its own springs
Julien de La Mettrie
____________________________, the Danish storyteller, wrote The Nightingale about a mechanical bird.
Hans Christian Andersen
The English novelist _____________________________ perennially popular book, Frankenstein, features a machine monster powered by the newly discovered electrical impulses in nerves that destroys its creator.
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's
The famous Oz books for children by the American writer ________________________ (the basis for the classic movie The Wizard of Oz) are full of mechanical men.
L. Frank Baum
Inventor of the calculator that imitated human mental actions. In addition to tabulating the values of mathematical functions, the machine could play chess, checkers, and other games. It even had a memory that held intermediate results until they were needed to complete a given calculation. Called his calculator "the difference engine", and he referred to himself as "the programmer."
The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience.
1980, the U.S. Department of Defense named the programming language for its military computer control system ______ in honor of her contributions to the development computers.
how did Descartes start the era of modern psychology?
He symbolized the transition to the modern era of science, and he applied the idea of the clockwork mechanism to the human body.
How did Descartes dreams change his life?
The "Spirit of Truth" took possession of his mind and persuaded him to devote his life's work to the proposition that mathematical principles can be applied to all the sciences and thus produce certainty of knowledge. He resolved to doubt everything, particularly dogma from the past, and accept as true only that of which he could be absolutely certain, that determined by the empirical methods.
mind body problem
The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities.
How did Descartes settle the mind body problem?
He proposed to scientists the idea that the mind and body as two separate entities. Matter, the body's material substance, can be said to have extension (in that it takes up space) and to operate according to mechanical principles. The mind, however, is free; it is unextended and lacks physical substance. Descartes's revolutionary idea is that mind and body, although distinct, are capable of interacting within the human organism. The mind can influence the body, and the body can influence the mind.
a movement not supervised or determined by a conscious will to move
Descartes is often called the author of the_______________________. This theory is a precursor of the twentieth-century behavioral stimulus-response (S-R) psychology, in which an external object (a stimulus) brings about an involuntary response, such as the jerk of your leg when the doctor taps your knee with a hammer.
reflex action theory
In 1628, the English physician _______________________uncovered the basic facts about blood circulation within the body.
The mind body interaction
According to Descartes, the mind is nonmaterial in that it lacks physical substance, but it is capable of thought and other cognitive processes.
The only structure of the brain that is single and unitary (that is, not divided and duplicated in each hemi- sphere) is the_______________________, and Descartes chose this as the logical site of the interaction.
pineal body or conarium
Descartes's ______________________ also had a profound influence on the development of modern psychology. He suggested that the mind produces two kinds of ideas: derived and innate.
doctrine of ideas
arise from the direct application of an external stimulus, such as the sound of a bell or the sight of a tree. Thus, derived ideas (the idea of the bell or the tree) are products of the experiences of the senses.
are not produced by objects in the external world impinging on the senses but develop instead out of the mind or consciousness. Among the innate ideas Descartes identified are God, the self, perfection, and infinity.
Descartes's work served as a catalyst for many trends that would converge to form the new psychology. His most important systematic contributions include:
-The mechanistic conception of the body
-The theory of reflex action
-The mind-body interaction
-The localization of mental functions in the brain
-The doctrine of innate ideas
The term and the concept were the work of the French philosopher Auguste Comte, who, when he learned he was dying, said that his death would be an irreparable loss to the world. The doctrine that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable.
stated that the facts of the universe could be described in physical terms and explained by the properties of matter and energy. The materialists proposed that even human consciousness could be understood in terms of the principles of physics and chemistry. The materialists' work on mental processes focused on physical properties, that is, the anatomical and physiological structures of the brain.
_________________________________________________________________ became the philosophical foundations of the new science of psychology. Of these three philosophical orientations, empiricism played the major role. Empiricism could be related to the growth of the mind, that is, to how the mind acquires knowledge.
Positivism, materialism, and empiricism
the nativistic view exemplified by Descartes
holds that some ideas are innate
Locke's major work of importance to psychology is ______________________________________________, which was the culmination of 20 years of study.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
______________________ was concerned primarily with cognitive functioning, that is, the ways in which the mind acquires its knowledge. He rejected Descartes notions of innate ideas.
Locke recognized two kinds of experiences, deriving from:
sensation and reflection
_____________________ can arise from both sensation and reflection and are received passively by the mind. These ideas are elemental; they cannot be analyzed or reduced to even simpler ideas. Through the process of reflection, however, the mind actively creates new ideas by combining simple ideas. These new, derived ideas are what Locke called __________________. They are compounded of simple ideas, and hence they are capable of being analyzed or reduced into their simpler component ideas.
simple ideas; complex ideas
an early name for the process psychologists call "learning." The reduction or analysis of mental life into simple ideas or elements, and the association of these elements to form complex ideas, became central to the new scientific psychology. Just as clocks and other mechanisms could be disassembled—reduced to their component parts—and reassembled to form a complex machine, so could human ideas.
Lockes primary qualities
characteristics such as size and shape that exist in an object whether or not we perceive them.
Lockes secondary qualities
characteristics such as color and odor that exist in our perception of the object.
George Berkeley published:
two philosophical works that were to exert an influence on psychology, An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision (1709) and A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (1710).
Berkeley agreed with Locke that all knowledge of the external world comes from experience, but he disagreed with Locke's distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Berkeley argued that there were no primary qualities. There were only what Locke called secondary qualities. To Berkeley, all knowledge was a function of or depended on the experiencing or perceiving person.
Berkeley applied the ___________________________ to explain how we come to know objects in the real world. This knowledge is essentially a construction or composition of simple ideas (mental elements) bound by the mortar of association.
principle of association
James Mill contributions
His most famous literary work is the History of British India, which took 11 years to complete. His most important contribution to psychology is Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind
applied the doctrine of mechanism to the human mind with a rare directness and comprehensiveness. His stated goal was to destroy the illusion of all subjective or mental activities and to demonstrate that the mind was nothing more than a machine.
John Stuart Mill wrote that his father
"demanded of me not only the utmost that I could do, but much that I could by no possibility have done . . . no holidays were allowed, lest the habit of work should be broken and a taste for idleness acquired"
John Stuart Mill's Creative Synthesis
The notion that complex ideas formed from simple ideas take on new qualities;
the combination of the mental elements creates something greater than or different from the sum of the original elements. He argued against the mechanistic position of his father, James Mill, who viewed the mind as passive, something acted upon by external stimuli. To John Stuart Mill, the mind played an active role in the association of ideas
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846)
a German astronomer interested in errors of measurement
Bessel's finding led to two conclusions
First, astronomers would have to take into account the nature of the human observer because personal characteristics and perceptions would necessarily influence the reported observations. Second, if the role of the human observer had to be considered in astronomy, then surely it would also have to be taken into account in every other science that relied on human observation.
Bessel discovered that the reason Kinnebrook was fired could be attributed to...
a phenomenon called "personal equation"
Physiology became an experimentally oriented discipline during the 1830s, primarily under the influence of the German physiologist _________________________________, who advocated the use of the experimental method.
Johannes Müller (1801-1858)
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