AP US Government and Politics Vocabulary
All vocabulary words from all the chapters.
Terms in this set (423)
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCING GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA
a means of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
Elite and class theory
argues that society is divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite rules on the basis of its wealth.
institutions that make public policy for a society.
Gross domestic product
the total value of all goods and services produced annually by the United States.
argues that too many strong influential groups cripple the government's ability to make coherent policy by dividing government and its authority.
institutions such as parties, elections, interest groups, and the media, which provide a linkage between the preferences of citizens and the government's policy agenda.
weighing the desires of the majority in choosing among policy alternatives.
protecting the rights and freedoms of the minority in choosing among policy alternatives.
argues that there are many centers of influence in which groups compete with one another for control over public policy through bargaining and compromise.
the list of subjects or problems to which people inside and outside government are paying serious attention at any given time.
where each interest uses its influence to thwart policies it opposes so that no coalition forms a majority to establish policy.
the effects a policy has on people and problems.
institutions such as Congress, the presidency, and the courts established by the Constitution to make policy.
institutions of government designed to respond to each other and to the priorities of the people by governmental action.
an overall set of values widely shared within a society.
this arises when people disagree about a problem or about public policy choices made to combat a problem.
the ways in which people get involved in politics.
determines whom we select as our government leaders and what policies they pursue; in other words, who gets what, when, and how.
things that everyone can share.
a choice that government makes in response to some issue on its agenda.
the relationship between the leaders and the followers.
groups so concerned with one matter that their members cast their votes on the basis of that issue only.
CHAPTER TWO THE CONSTITUTION
opposed the new Constitution, feared the new Constitution would erode fundamental liberties, and argued that the new Constitution was a class-based document serving the economic elite.
Articles of Confederation
the document that outlined the voluntary agreement between states and was adopted as the first plan for a permanent union of the United States.
Bill of Rights
the first ten Amendments to the Constitution passed after ratification specifically protecting individual liberties to fulfill promises made by the Federalists to the Anti-Federalists in return for their support.
Checks and balances
each branch requires the consent of the others for many of its decisions.
the plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention to provide for two chambers in Congress, one representing states equally and the other representing states on the basis of their share of the population.
Consent of the governed
people must agree on who their rulers will be.
a nation's basic law creating institutions, dividing power, and providing guarantees to citizens.
Declaration of Independence
the document used by the signers to announce and justify the Revolutionary War and which was specifically designed to enlist the aid of foreign nations in the revolt.
Equal Rights Amendment
was first proposed in 1923, passed by Congress in 1972, but was not ratified by three-fourths of the states; this amendment mandated equality of rights under the law regardless of gender.
groups of people, currently known as political parties or interest groups, who arise as a result of unequal distribution of wealth to seize the reins of government in their own interest.
articles written to convince others to support the new constitution.
argued for ratification of the Constitution by writing the Federalist Papers; included Madison, Hamilton, and Jay.
the courts have the power to decide whether the actions of the legislative and executive branches of state and national governments are in accordance with the Constitution.
clear restrictions on what rulers could do; this safeguards natural rights.
Marbury v. Madison
Judicial review was established in this 1803 Supreme Court case.
these are rights to which people are entitled by natural law, including life, liberty, and property.
New Jersey Plan
a plan by some of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention to provide each state with equal representation in Congress.
a system based on the consent of the governed where power is exercised by representatives of the public.
Separation of powers
each branch of government would be independent of the others.
a series of armed attacks on courthouses to prevent judges from foreclosing on farms.
the document where the foundations of U.S. government are written, providing for national institutions that each have separate but not absolute powers.
a plan by some of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention to provide each state with a share of congressional seats based on its share of the population.
Writ of habeas corpus
this enables people who are detained by authorities to secure an immediate inquiry and reasons why they have been detained.
CHAPTER THREE FEDERALISM
broad program grants given more or less automatically to states and communities, which exercise discretion in how the money is spent.
grants that can be used only for specific purposes or categories of state and local spending.
where state and the national government responsibilities are mingled and blurred like a marble cake; powers and policies are shared.
transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments.
where states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres of power, much like a layer cake.
the statement in the Constitution which says that Congress has the power to make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out its duties.
powers of Congress found in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution.
the Constitution requires each state to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment.
a system of shared power between two or more levels of government.
the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
a type of categorical grant where states and local governments do not apply for a grant but are given funds on the basis of a formula.
Full faith and credit
Article IV of the Constitution requires states to provide reciprocity toward other states' public acts, records, and civil judicial proceedings.
Gibbons v. Ogden
the 1824 Supreme Court case which further expanded Congress' power to regulate interstate and international commerce by defining commerce very broadly to incorporate every form of commercial activity.
powers beyond Congress' enumerated powers which ensure that it can carry out its duties.
the term used to describe the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments.
McCulloch v. Maryland
the 1819 Supreme Court case, which established the supremacy of the national government over the states, included both enumerated and implied powers of Congress.
Privileges and immunities
the Constitution prohibits states from discriminating against citizens of other states.
categorical grants awarded on the basis of competitive applications.
Article VI of the Constitution states that the supreme law of the land is the Constitution, the laws of the national government, and treaties.
specifies that powers not delegated to the national government are reserved for the state government or the people.
a system where all power resides in the central government.
CHAPTER FOUR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND PUBLIC POLICY
Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the Constitution.
legal and constitutional protections against government infringement of political liberties and criminal rights.
communication in the form of advertising.
Cruel and unusual punishment
Eighth Amendment prohibits such punishment.
forbids cruel and unusual punishment, although it does not define this phrase.
First Amendment prohibits government from establishing a religion; is the basis for separation of church and state.
prohibits government from including illegally obtained evidence in a trial.
prohibits government from forcing individuals to testify against themselves.
establishes freedom of religion, press, speech, and assembly.
prohibits states from denying equal protection of the laws.
Free exercise clause
government is prohibited in the First Amendment from interfering in the practice of religion.
legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment.
publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation.
an actual bargain struck between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime (or fewer crimes) in exchange for the state's promise not to prosecute the defendant for a more serious (or additional) crime.
government instrument to prevent material from being published.
police must have a good reason to arrest someone.
Right to privacy
a contrived right from unstated liberties in the Bill of Rights.
written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for.
testifying against oneself.
designed to protect individuals accused of crimes; includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
political actions instead of words.
Unreasonable searches and seizures
obtaining evidence without a good reason.
CHAPTER FIVE CIVIL RIGHTS AND PUBLIC POLICY
a policy designed to give special consideration to those previously discriminated against.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
strengthened protections of individuals with disabilities by requiring employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" and prohibiting employment discrimination against people with disabilities.
extending citizenship rights to participate to those previously denied them.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
forbids discrimination in public accommodations and facilities.
equal pay for equal worth.
Equal protection of the laws
provided by the Fourteenth Amendment mandating that all people be protected by the law.
Equal Rights Amendment
proposal that equality of rights under the law not be denied on the account of sex.
provides the right to vote for Blacks.
prohibits states from denying equal protection of the laws.
provides women with the right to vote.
taxes levied on the right to vote designed to hurt poor Blacks.
the legal right to vote.
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.
prohibited poll taxes in federal elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a policy designed to reduce the barriers to voting for those suffering discrimination.
practice where only Whites could vote in primaries.
CHAPTER SIX PUBLIC OPINION AND POLITICAL ACTION
a count of the American population conducted every ten years.
a form of unconventional participation designed to consciously break a law thought to be unjust.
the science of human populations.
a poll taken at randomly selected polling places after the citizens have placed their votes.
a consistent attitudinal pattern where women are more likely than men to express liberal attitudes and to support Democratic candidates.
the mixture of cultures, ideas, and peoples in the United States.
a reference to the impending status of White, Anglo-Saxon Americans, currently holding majority status.
an overall set of values widely shared within a society.
a coherent set of values and beliefs about public policy.
the activities used by citizens to influence political outcomes.
the process by which citizens acquire their knowledge, feelings, and evaluations of the political world.
a form of political participation designed to change policy through unconventional tactics.
the distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and issues.
Random digit dialing
phone numbers are dialed at random around the country.
a polling technique which is based on the principle that everyone has an equal probability of being selected as part of the sample.
the reallocation of 435 seats in the House of Representatives based on changes in residency and population found in the census.
a small proportion of the population chosen as representative of the whole population.
the level of confidence involved in a sample result—the level is dependent on the size of the sample.
CHAPTER SEVEN THE MASS MEDIA AND THE POLITICAL AGENDA
specific locations where news frequently occurs.
one of two kinds of media, includes television and radio.
media conglomerates that control a large percentage of daily newspaper circulation and some television and radio stations as well.
politics where technology has shaped political behavior and the political agenda.
the use of detective-like reporting methods to unearth scandals.
media which reaches and influences both elites and the masses.
an event staged primarily for the purpose of being covered.
strategy of some broadcast channels that appeal to a narrow, rather than a broad, audience.
the list of subjects or problems to which government officials and people outside of government closely associated with those officials are paying some serious attention at any given time.
political activists who invest their political capital in an issue.
presidential meetings with the press.
one of two kinds of media, includes newspapers and magazines.
a portion of a speech aired on TV of fifteen seconds or less.
a shot of a person's face talking directly into the camera.
information leaked to the media to see what the political reaction will be.
CHAPTER EIGHT POLITICAL PARTIES
nomination contests where voters are presented with a list of the candidates from all the parties and allows them to pick candidates from all parties.
a set of individuals and groups supporting a political party.
governments where smaller parties combine with larger parties to control half of the seats in the legislature.
nomination contests where only people who have registered in advance with the party can vote.
an election where each party's coalition of support begins to break up and a new coalition of forces is formed for each party.
institutions such as parties, elections, interest groups, and the media translate inputs from the public into outputs from policymakers.
the person responsible for taking care of the day-to-day activities and daily duties of the party.
a coalition of representatives from the states and territories charged with maintaining the party between elections.
the supreme power within each party, which meets every four years, writes the party platform, and nominates candidates for president and vice president.
New Deal coalition
the new coalition of forces (urban, unions, Catholics, Jews, the poor, southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals) in the Democratic party that was forged as a result of national economic crisis associated with the Great Depression.
nomination contests where voters can decide on election day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contest.
the battle between the two dominant parties in the American system.
when voters move away from both parties.
periods during which there has been a dominant majority party for long periods of time.
the self-proclaimed preference for one or the other party.
what voters know or think they know about what each party stands for.
a particular kind of party organization that depends on both specific and material inducements for rewarding loyal party members.
process whereby the major political parties form new support coalitions that endure for a long period.
one of the key inducements used by machines whereby jobs are given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone.
a team of men and women seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election.
an electoral system where legislative seats are allocated on the basis of each party's percentage of the national vote.
a theory that seeks to explain political processes and outcomes as consequences of purposive behavior, where political actors are assumed to have goals and who pursue those goals rationally.
Responsible party model
an ideal model of party organization recommending that parties provide distinct programs, encourage candidates to be committed to the party platform, intend to implement their programs, and accept responsibility for the performance of government.
minor parties which either promote narrow ideological issues or are splinter groups from the major parties.
voting with one party for one office and another for other offices.
an electoral system where whoever gets the most votes wins the election.
CHAPTER NINE NOMINATIONS AND CAMPAIGNS
the way candidates use scarce resources to achieve the nomination or win office.
a meeting to determine which candidate delegates from a state party will support.
the use of targeted mailings to prospective supporters, usually compiled from lists of those who have contributed to candidates and parties in the past.
Federal Election Campaign Act
1974 legislation designed to regulate campaign contributions and limit campaign expenditures.
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
a bipartisan body charged with administering campaign finance laws.
states' decisions to move their presidential primaries and caucuses to earlier in the nomination season in order to capitalize on media attention.
money provided to qualifying presidential candidates from the
Presidential Election Campaign Fund, the amount of which is determined by the amount of contributions raised by the candidate.
a committee in the Democratic party charged with recommending changes in party rules to promote more representation of women and minorities in the delegate selection process.
National party convention
a meeting of the delegates from each state to determine the party's nominee for president.
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries systems who would replace these electoral methods with a nationwide primary held early in the election year.
a party's official endorsement of a candidate for office.
the party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years.
Political Action Committee (PAC)
a legal entity formed expressly for the purpose of contributing money to candidates and influencing electoral outcomes.
Presidential Election Campaign Fund
money from the $3 federal income tax check-off goes into this fund, which is then distributed to qualified candidates to subsidize their presidential campaigns.
a state-level election to determine which candidate the state's delegates will support.
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries to replace these electoral methods with a series of primaries held in each geographic region.
the act of paying the most attention to things that one already agrees with or has a predisposition towards.
money raised by political parties for voter registration drives and the distribution of campaign material at the grass roots level, now banned at the national level.
delegates to the Democratic Party's national convention who obtain their seats on the basis of their positions within the party structure.
independent groups that seek to influence the political process but are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly advocate the election of a particular candidate.
CHAPTER TEN ELECTIONS AND VOTING BEHAVIOR
a belief in the obligation to vote.
the institution designated in the Constitution whereby a body of electors selects the president and vice president.
direct democracy technique that allows proposed legislative items to be placed on a statewide ballot when enough signatures are obtained.
widely shared belief that a democratic government was elected fairly and freely.
Mandate theory of elections
the belief that the election winner has a mandate to implement policy promises.
Motor Voter Act
this legislation requires states to let people register to vote at the same time they apply for a driver's license.
occurs when people base their choices on how close a candidate's issues positions are to their own issue preferences.
the belief that ordinary people can influence government.
direct democracy technique that allows citizens to approve or disapprove some legislative act, bond, issue, or constitutional amendment proposed by a state legislature.
voting theory that suggests that individuals who feel that they are better off as a result of certain policies are likely to support candidates who pledge to continue those policies, and those who feel worse off are inclined to support opposition candidates.
the legal right to vote.
a requirement that citizens register to vote before the election is held.
CHAPTER ELEVEN INTEREST GROUPS
a group composed of those in the potential group who are members of the interest group.
Amicus curiae briefs
"friend of the court" briefs filed by interest groups to inform the court of their position and to state how their welfare would be affected by a ruling.
Class action lawsuits
a technique used by interest groups which allows groups of people with similar complaints to combine their grievances into a single suit.
something of value which cannot be withheld from individuals in the potential group.
helping sympathetic candidates get into office.
argues that because only a few groups have enough power to influence policy, power is concentrated into a few interlocking power centers.
a situation where individuals let others work to secure a collective good and then enjoy the benefit without contributing anything to the group effort.
argues that too many groups are getting what they want at the expense of the unrepresented and that this behavior leads to incoherent public policy.
organizations where people with similar policy goals enter the political process to achieve those goals.
a communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his or her own behalf, directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing his or her decision.
Olson's law of large groups
suggests that the larger the group, the more difficult it will be to secure enough of the collective good to encourage participation.
argues that interest group activities provide additional representation and compete against each other to influence political outcomes.
Political action committees
a legal means for groups to participate in elections by contributing money.
a group composed of all people who share some common interest.
Public interest lobbies
organizations that seek a collective good which does not only benefit their membership.
a state law that forbids the requirement of union membership as a condition of employment.
these benefits are goods that a group can restrict to those who are members.
groups which have very narrow interests, shun compromise, and single-mindedly pursue goals.
exclusive relationships composed of interest groups leaders, government agency personnel, and members of congressional committees who perform mutually beneficial services for each other at the public's expense.
a rule established to prevent free-riders by requiring new employees to join the union where one has been granted bargaining rights.
CHAPTER TWELVE CONGRESS
a legislature that is divided into two chambers.
a proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language.
helping constituents as individuals cut through bureaucratic red tape to receive their rightful benefits.
a grouping of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic.
the most important influences on the congressional agenda; they schedule hearings, hire staff, appoint subcommittees, and manage committee bills.
a special committee formed when each chamber passes a bill in different forms, composed of members of each chamber who were appointed by each chamber's leaders to work out a compromise bill.
is unlimited debate, is unique to the Senate, and can only be ended by a vote for cloture by 60 members.
House Rules Committee
a committee unique to the House, which is appointed by the
Speaker of the House, reviews most bills coming from a House committee for a floor vote, and which gives each bill a rule.
people who already hold office.
special committees composed of members from each chamber.
the process of monitoring the bureaucracy and its administration of policy.
the Speaker's principal partisan ally who is responsible for soliciting support for the party's position on legislation.
is the minority party's counterpart to the majority party's leadership.
list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions.
appointed for a specific purpose.
a system used until the 1970s where majority party members who had served on their committees the longest, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence, were automatically appointed chair of the committee.
Speaker of the House
as mandated by the Constitution, is next in line after the vice president to succeed a president who is unable to fulfill his/her term and who presides over the House.
committees formed in each chamber to handle bills in different policy areas.
The majority or minority leader's principle tool for securing support for legislation and who lobby partisans for support.
CHAPTER THIRTEEN THE PRESIDENCY
the group of presidential advisors who head the executive departments.
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
members advise the president on economic policy and prepare the Annual Report of the CEA.
a sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event.
the political equivalent of an indictment for removing a discredited president.
a clause which allows Congress to override the action of the executive.
National Security Council (NSC)
a committee that links the president's key foreign and military advisors.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
responsible for preparing the president's budget and assessing the budgetary implications of legislative proposals.
this occurs when Congress adjourns within 10 days after submitting a bill and the president takes no action to sign it or veto it.
where voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because those candidates support the president.
passed in 1967, permits the vice president to become acting president in the event that the president is temporarily disabled.
passed in 1951, limits presidents to two terms.
sending the legislation back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it.
War Powers Resolution
passed in 1973, requires presidents to consult with Congress prior to using military force and mandates the withdrawal of forces after sixty days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension.
a political scandal involving President Nixon's abuse of his powers.
CHAPTER FOURTEEN THE CONGRESS, THE PRESIDENT, AND THE BUDGET
THE POLITICS OF TAXING AND SPENDING
bill passed annually to fund an authorized program.
an act of Congress that establishes a discretionary government program or an entitlement, or that continues or changes such programs.
a policy document that allocates burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures).
a bill setting limits on expenditures based on revenue projections, agreed to by both houses of Congress in April each year.
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974
an act designed to reform the budgeting process by making Congress less dependent on the president's budget; established a fixed budget calendar and a budget committee in each house.
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
research agency of Congress, responsible to it for providing analyses of budget proposals, revenue forecasts, and related information.
laws that allow agencies to spend at the previous year's level.
occurs when government spends more money than it receives in taxes in the fiscal year.
expenditures for which the total amount spent is not by congressional appropriation, but rather by rules of eligibility established by Congress.
money spent by the government in any one year.
all of the money borrowed by the government over the years that is still outstanding.
House Ways and Means Committee
responsible for originating all revenue bills.
the portion of money individuals are required to pay to the government from the money they earned.
the best predictor of this year's budget is last year's budget plus a little bit more.
in 1965, this program was added to Social Security to provide hospital and physician coverage to the elderly.
revisions of program authorizations to make the final budget meet the limits of the budget resolution, usually occurring toward the end of the budgetary process.
money received by the government in any given year.
Senate Finance Committee
responsible for writing the tax code.
passed in 1913, permits Congress to levy an income tax.
Social Security Act
passed to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans.
revenue losses due to special exemptions, exclusions, and deductions.
result from policies that make some group automatically eligible for benefits.
CHAPTER FIFTEEN THE FEDERAL BUREAUCRACY
authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a given problem, especially when rules do not fit or more than one rule applies.
implementers of policy.
promotes hiring on the basis of merit and establishes a nonpartisan government service.
regulatory strategy where government sets a requirement and then enforces individual and corporate actions to be consistent with meeting the requirement.
the withdrawal of the use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.
regulations originating in the executive branch.
provide services that could be handled by the private sector but that generally charge cheaper rates than a private sector producer.
GS (General Service) rating
assigned to each job in federal agencies, this rating helps to determine the salary associated with the position.
passed in 1940, prohibits government workers from active participation in partisan politics.
regulatory strategy that rewards individuals or corporations for desired types of behavior, usually through the tax code.
Independent executive agencies
executive agencies that are not cabinet departments, not regulatory commissions, and not government corporations.
Independent regulatory commission
has responsibility for a sector of the economy to protect the public interest.
refers to the strong ties among government agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees and subcommittees.
using entrance exams and promotion ratings for hiring workers.
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
responsible for hiring for most agencies.
a hiring and promotion system based on knowing the right people.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
passed in 1883, it created the federal Civil Service.
the stage of policymaking between the establishment of a policy and the results of the policy for individuals.
the use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector.
Senior Executive Service
the very top level of the bureaucracy.
Standard operating procedures
detailed rules written to cover as many particular situations as officials can anticipate to help bureaucrats implement policies uniformly.
bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public.
CHAPTER SIXTEEN THE FEDERAL COURTS
Amicus curiae briefs
friend of the court briefs by nonlitigants who wish to influence the Court's decision by raising additional points of view and information not contained by briefs prepared by litigants' attorneys.
given to a court where cases are heard on appeal from a lower court.
Class action suits
cases which permit a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly affected.
Courts of appeal
courts which have the power to review all final decisions of district courts, except in instances requiring direct review by the Supreme Court.
the entry point for most federal litigation.
theory that judges should make bolder policy decisions to alleviate pressing needs, especially for those who are weak politically.
how and whether court decisions are translated into actual policy.
theory that judges should play minimal role in policymaking and leave policy decisions to the legislature.
the power of the courts to hold acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, in violation of the Constitution.
cases that can be settled by legal methods.
Marbury v. Madison
the 1803 Supreme Court case that originated the notion of judicial review.
a statement of the legal reasoning behind the decision.
the theory that judges should determine the intent of the framers and decide in line with their intent.
given to a court where a case is first heard.
conflicts between the president and Congress.
the way similar cases have been handled in the past is used as a guide to current decisions.
a tradition in which nominations for federal judicial positions are not confirmed when opposed by a senator of the president's party from the state in which the nominee is to serve or from the state of the nominee's residence.
a presidential appointee who is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government.
Standing to sue
litigants must have serious interest (sustained direct and substantial injury) from a party in a case.
an earlier decision should hold for the case being considered.
a procedure in which the legislature passes legislation that clarifies existing laws so that the clarification has the effect of overturning the court's decision.
resolves disputes between and among states, maintains the national supremacy of law, ensures uniformity in the interpretation of national laws.
United States v. Nixon
1974 Supreme Court decision that required President Nixon to turn White House tapes over to the Courts.
CHAPTER SEVENTEEN ECONOMIC POLICYMAKING
government regulation of business to ensure competition and prevent monopoly (control of a market by one company).
an economic system in which individuals and corporations own the principal means of production, through which they seek to reap profits.
the right of workers to have labor union representatives negotiate with management to determine working conditions.
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
a government statistic that measures the change in the cost of buying a fixed basket of goods and services.
Federal Reserve System
created by Congress in 1913 to regulate the lending practices of banks and thus the money supply.
the government's decisions to tax, spend, and borrow, as reflected in the federal budget.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
government agency with broad regulatory powers over the manufacturing, contents, marketing and labeling of food and drugs.
a government statistic that measures increases in the price of goods.
Keynesian economic theory
the theory emphasizing that government spending and deficits can help the economy weather its normal ups and downs. Proponents of this theory advocate using the power of government to stimulate the economy when it is lagging.
an organization of workers intended to engage in collective bargaining.
a belief that government should not intervene in the economy.
the legal minimum hourly wage for large employers.
a system in which the government, while not commanding the economy, is still deeply involved in economic decisions.
economic theory that suggests that the supply of money is key to the nation's economic health.
government decisions regarding the money supply, including the discount rates for bank borrowing, reserve requirements for banks, and trading of government securities.
businesses with vast holdings in many countries.
National Labor Relations Act
passed by Congress in 1935, guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining; also known as the Wagner Act.
the economic policy of shielding an economy from exports.
Securities and Exchange Commission
the federal agency created during the New Deal that regulates stock fraud.
economic philosophy that holds that the key task for government economic policy is to stimulate the supply of goods, not their demand.
a government statistic that measures how many workers are actively seeking work but unable to find jobs.
World Trade Organization
international organization that regulates international trade.
CHAPTER EIGHTEEN SOCIAL WELFARE POLICYMAKING
Earned Income Tax Credit
a "negative income tax" that provides income to very poor individuals in lieu of charging them federal income taxes.
government benefits that certain qualified individuals are entitled by law to receive, regardless of need.
Feminization of poverty
the increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children.
the movement of people to another country with the intention of remaining there.
the share of national income earned by various groups in the
the amount of money collected between any two points in time.
government programs available only to individuals below a poverty line.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act
the official name of the "welfare reform" law of 1996.
official statistic indicating what a family would need to spend to maintain an "austere" standard of living.
takes a higher percentage from the rich than from the poor.
takes the same percentage from rich and poor.
takes a higher percentage from the poor than from the rich.
the Reagan-era law which provided amnesty to many immigrants and toughened border controls.
Social Security Act of 1935
created both the Social Security program and a national assistance program for poor children.
Social Security Trust Fund
the "bank account" into which Social Security contributions are "deposited" and used to pay out eligible recipients.
Social welfare policies
attempt to provide assistance and support to specific groups in society.
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
once called "Aid to Families with
Dependent Children," this is the new name for public assistance to needy families.
benefits from government where money is transferred from the general treasury to those in need.
the amount already owned.
CHAPTER NINETEEN POLICYMAKING FOR HEALTH CARE AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Clean Air Act of 1970
landmark legislation that charged the Department of Transportation with the responsibility of reducing automobile emissions.
Endangered Species Act of 1973
legislation that required the government to actively protect each of hundreds of species listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regardless of the economic effect on the surrounding towns or region.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
created in 1970, the government agency that is charged with administering various environmental laws.
the slow rise in the atmospheric temperature of the earth.
Health maintenance organization (HMO)
a form of network health plan that limits the choice of doctors and treatments.
government program designed to provide health care for the poor.
government program designed to provide health care for the elderly.
National health insurance
a program—that has been proposed in a variety of ways over the last few generations—to provide the financing, policies, and regulations to guarantee all or almost all Americans' medical health insurance.
established by Congress in 1980, a fund devoted to cleaning up toxic waste supported by taxes on toxic waste.
Water Pollution Control Act of 1972
passed by Congress to control pollution in the nation's rivers and lakes.
CHAPTER TWENTY NATIONAL SECURITY POLICYMAKING
one side's weaponry motivates the other side to procure more weaponry.
Balance of trade
the ratio of what a country pays for imports to what it earns from exports.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
created after World War II to coordinate American information and data-gathering intelligence activities.
where the U.S. and the Soviet Union were often on the brink of war.
called for the U.S. to isolate the Soviet Union to contain its advances by peaceful or coercive means.
a slow transformation from conflict thinking to cooperative thinking in foreign policy strategy designed to ease tensions between the superpowers and guarantee mutual security.
European Union (EU)
a transnational government composed of most European countries, that coordinates monetary, trade, immigration, and labor policies for their mutual benefit.
involves making choices about relations with the rest of the world.
actions reverberate and affect other people's actions.
a policy that directs the U.S. to stay out of other nations' conflicts.
Joint Chiefs of Staff
composed of commanding officers of each of the services, plus a chair, are the president's military advisors.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
created in 1949 to combine military forces of the U.S., Canada, Western European nations, and Turkey.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
organization comprised of oil producing countries in the Middle East.
Secretary of defense
the president's main civilian defense advisor.
Secretary of state
a key advisor to the president on foreign policy.
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
also known as "Star Wars," this plan proposed creating a global umbrella in space to destroy invading missiles.
raises the price of an imported good to protect domestic business.
an international organization created in 1945 where members agree to renounce war and respect human and economic freedoms.
CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE THE NEW FACE OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT
official appointed by an elected city council and given the responsibility of implementing policy decisions.
Council of governments
association of officials from various localities that facilitates discussion of mutual problems and planning joint, cooperative activities.
initially enunciated by Judy John Dillon, states that local governments have only those powers that are explicitly given to them by the states.
a method of policymaking in the U.S. unique to subnational governments where voters participate directly in policymaking.
power of cities to write their own charters and to change them without permission from the state legislature.
direct democracy technique that allows proposed constitutional amendments to be placed on a statewide ballot when enough signatures are obtained.
an executive officer of state government, often elected by voters; typically presides over the state senate.
power of governors to veto only certain parts of a bill while allowing the rest to pass into law.
an organizational statement and grant of authority from the state to a local government.
judicial selection process whereby the governor appoints the state's judges from a list of persons recommended by the state bar or a committee of jurists and other officials.
direct democracy technique that allows voters to remove an official from office prior to completion of an elected term.
direct democracy technique that allows citizens to pass a bill originally proposed and approved in the state legislature.
state and local governments.
a form of direct democracy where all voting-age adults in a community gather annually to make public policy.
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