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According to the Bell Magendie law

ventral roots carry motor information while dorsal roots carry sensory information

Which of the following is ture about laminae in the cerebral cortex?

The laminae vary in thickness in different areas

Research indicates that the behavioral effects of the cerebellum may be due to its role in

Focusing and shifting attention and organizing sensory inputs

The nuclei for most of the cranial nerves are located in the

pons and medulla

Someone who suddenly loses the ability to identify objects by feeling them has probably suffered damage to what area of the cerebral cortex?

Parietal lobe

One major problem with studies that use PET or RCBF is

Choosing an appropriate comparison condition

What is the primary area of the cerebral cortex for auditiory sensations?


When someone tickles you and the tickling sensation will be carried by neurons that are part of the nervous system


Which part of the nervous system prepares the body for "fight or flight" activities?


Suppose a virus damaged only the dorsal roots of the spinal cord, but not the ventral roots. what would happen to the sonsory and motor abilities of the affected area?

Loss of sensation, but preserved motor control

Secretions from which gland will also affect the secretion of hormones form the thyroid gland, adrenal galand and ovaries or testes?

Pituitary gland

Seeing a snake come out of the drain in the bathtub might increase your heart rate, dilate your pupils, cause you to sweat and raise the hair on your neck. These responses are due to the activity of the ____ nervous system.


Gray matter in the brain and spinal cord is mainly composed of what structures?

cell bodies and dendrites

Where would you find the dorsal root ganglia?

outside, but near, the spinal cord

What tyep of neurons in the substantia nigra deteriorate in parkinson's disease?


Erection of the hairs, know in humans as "goose bumps," is caused by activation of which branch of the nervous system?


The Raphe system

increases the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli

Visual hallucinations are often associated with tumors in which brain area?

Temporal lobe

The nucleus basalis sends information to the

cerebral cortex

Individuals with parietal lobe damage

Have difficulty binding the different aspects of perception

Brain studies of blind people suggest that they have greater attention to touch and auditory stimulation because

Their visual cortex is used for touch and verbal tasks

Keeping animals in a varied environment with stimulation increase the

branching of dendrites

To promote recovery stroke victims should be given

stimulant drugs a few days after the stroke

One limiting factor in the ability of damaged axons to regenerate in the brain and spinal cord is that

they regenerate only 1-2 millimeters

Which of the following aspects of brain and neural functioning can be most clearly altered by experience?

structure of dendrites and axons

Migration is the:

movement of primitive neurons and glia.

Denervation supersensitivity refers to an increase in:

responses to neurotransmitters.

After damage to the visual cortex, a rat no longer approaches the white card it has been trained to approach. What is the evidence that the rat has not completely forgotten the task?

It can relearn the task faster than it can learn to approach a black card.

For survival, developing neurons need:

neurotrophins and synaptic input.

Musicians who use the left hand to finger the violin strings have some alterations in one brain area, which is the:

right hemisphere postcentral gyrus.

The formation of a neuron's distinctive shape occurs during the ____ stage of neurogenesis.


Central nervous system axons regenerate much better in fish than in mammals because fish:

myelin does not secrete proteins that inhibit axon growth.

The fluid-filled cavity of the developing neural tube becomes the:

ventricular system.

Which of the following treatments would be most likely to help a patient starting several days after a stroke?

giving stimulant drugs combined with physical

What kind of cells proliferate after a stroke?

glial cells

People with a mutation in their per gene are more likely to:

wake up early.

In comparison to NREM dreams, REM dreams:

are more likely to include complicated plots.

Which of the following is TRUE concerning the duration of a self-generated sleep/activity cycle?

It is highly consistent in a given individual in a given environment

Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most characteristic of which sleep stage?

stage 2

Research suggests that ____ sleep is most important for strengthening memories of motor skills.


What happens if people are put in an environment that is constantly dark?

They complain that they have difficulty waking up.

Which of the following occurs as a normal night's sleep progresses?

stage 4 decreases, while REM increases

A free-running rhythm is a rhythm that:

occurs when no stimuli reset or alter it.

Which of the following structures is NOT a brain structure of arousal and attention?

basal forebrain.

Taking melatonin pills in the late evening:

has no noticeable effects.

The SCN produces circadian rhythms by altering:

production of proteins.

A key area of the hypothalamus, particularly important in the regulation of the biological clock, is the:

suprachiasmatic nucleus.

A recent hypothesis proposed that the role of REM is:

to shake the eyeballs back and forth in order to get sufficient oxygen to the corneas of the eyes.

Alpha waves are characteristic of what type of activity?


With regard to sleep and arousal, the locus coeruleus is:

almost completely inactive during sleep.

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