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50 terms

Psychobiology Test 2

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According to the Bell Magendie law
ventral roots carry motor information while dorsal roots carry sensory information
Which of the following is ture about laminae in the cerebral cortex?
The laminae vary in thickness in different areas
Research indicates that the behavioral effects of the cerebellum may be due to its role in
Focusing and shifting attention and organizing sensory inputs
The nuclei for most of the cranial nerves are located in the
pons and medulla
Someone who suddenly loses the ability to identify objects by feeling them has probably suffered damage to what area of the cerebral cortex?
Parietal lobe
One major problem with studies that use PET or RCBF is
Choosing an appropriate comparison condition
What is the primary area of the cerebral cortex for auditiory sensations?
Temporal
When someone tickles you and the tickling sensation will be carried by neurons that are part of the nervous system
Somatic
Which part of the nervous system prepares the body for "fight or flight" activities?
Sympathetic
Suppose a virus damaged only the dorsal roots of the spinal cord, but not the ventral roots. what would happen to the sonsory and motor abilities of the affected area?
Loss of sensation, but preserved motor control
Secretions from which gland will also affect the secretion of hormones form the thyroid gland, adrenal galand and ovaries or testes?
Pituitary gland
Seeing a snake come out of the drain in the bathtub might increase your heart rate, dilate your pupils, cause you to sweat and raise the hair on your neck. These responses are due to the activity of the ____ nervous system.
Sympathetic
Gray matter in the brain and spinal cord is mainly composed of what structures?
cell bodies and dendrites
Where would you find the dorsal root ganglia?
outside, but near, the spinal cord
What tyep of neurons in the substantia nigra deteriorate in parkinson's disease?
dopamine
Erection of the hairs, know in humans as "goose bumps," is caused by activation of which branch of the nervous system?
Sympathetic
The Raphe system
increases the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli
Visual hallucinations are often associated with tumors in which brain area?
Temporal lobe
The nucleus basalis sends information to the
cerebral cortex
Individuals with parietal lobe damage
Have difficulty binding the different aspects of perception
Brain studies of blind people suggest that they have greater attention to touch and auditory stimulation because
Their visual cortex is used for touch and verbal tasks
Keeping animals in a varied environment with stimulation increase the
branching of dendrites
To promote recovery stroke victims should be given
stimulant drugs a few days after the stroke
One limiting factor in the ability of damaged axons to regenerate in the brain and spinal cord is that
they regenerate only 1-2 millimeters
Which of the following aspects of brain and neural functioning can be most clearly altered by experience?
structure of dendrites and axons
Migration is the:
movement of primitive neurons and glia.
Denervation supersensitivity refers to an increase in:
responses to neurotransmitters.
After damage to the visual cortex, a rat no longer approaches the white card it has been trained to approach. What is the evidence that the rat has not completely forgotten the task?
It can relearn the task faster than it can learn to approach a black card.
For survival, developing neurons need:
neurotrophins and synaptic input.
Musicians who use the left hand to finger the violin strings have some alterations in one brain area, which is the:
right hemisphere postcentral gyrus.
The formation of a neuron's distinctive shape occurs during the ____ stage of neurogenesis.
differentiation
Central nervous system axons regenerate much better in fish than in mammals because fish:
myelin does not secrete proteins that inhibit axon growth.
The fluid-filled cavity of the developing neural tube becomes the:
ventricular system.
Which of the following treatments would be most likely to help a patient starting several days after a stroke?
giving stimulant drugs combined with physical
What kind of cells proliferate after a stroke?
glial cells
People with a mutation in their per gene are more likely to:
wake up early.
In comparison to NREM dreams, REM dreams:
are more likely to include complicated plots.
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the duration of a self-generated sleep/activity cycle?
It is highly consistent in a given individual in a given environment
Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most characteristic of which sleep stage?
stage 2
Research suggests that ____ sleep is most important for strengthening memories of motor skills.
REM
What happens if people are put in an environment that is constantly dark?
They complain that they have difficulty waking up.
Which of the following occurs as a normal night's sleep progresses?
stage 4 decreases, while REM increases
A free-running rhythm is a rhythm that:
occurs when no stimuli reset or alter it.
Which of the following structures is NOT a brain structure of arousal and attention?
basal forebrain.
Taking melatonin pills in the late evening:
has no noticeable effects.
The SCN produces circadian rhythms by altering:
production of proteins.
A key area of the hypothalamus, particularly important in the regulation of the biological clock, is the:
suprachiasmatic nucleus.
A recent hypothesis proposed that the role of REM is:
to shake the eyeballs back and forth in order to get sufficient oxygen to the corneas of the eyes.
Alpha waves are characteristic of what type of activity?
relaxed
With regard to sleep and arousal, the locus coeruleus is:
almost completely inactive during sleep.