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Arts and Humanities
Terms in this set (51)
it is the most important feature of Egypt's geography and played a major role in the development of Egypt's civilization. It is the longest river in the world
Egypt has four geographic regions
The Nile and its Delta or mouth of the river, the Western Desert, the Eastern Desert, and the Sinai Peninsula
In ancient times, many people lived there
in ancient Egypt it was South of Lower Egypt next to the Nile River. (The Nile River starts in the south in Uganda and flows northward then it empties into the Mediterranean at its delta.)
rich soil deposited by the river, in this case, the Nile River from heavy tropical rains in Ethiopia.
is the southernmost portion of the Nile River starting in Uganda on the northern shore of Lake Victoria.
it starts in Sudan and joins the White Nile and both become together the Nile River.
in the spring, heavy tropical rains in Ethiopia flood the Nile in the north.
Nile River and its Delta
become very rich in nutrients from the hills in Ethiopia.
an important crop that grows along the Nile River used to make paper, rope, matting sandals, river rafts and eventually paper.
if one omits Antarctica the Sahara desert is the largest in the world. The Egyptians called their land Kemet, the Black Land, because of the silt left after the Nile spilled its banks.
wild rapids formed by boulders and narrow cliffs
Grasslands south of Egypt
What did the Egyptians grow?
Flax, wheat, barley, beans and lentils were easy to grow along the fertile Nile River. Papyrus, a reed plant, grew along the shores of the Nile.
were bowl-shaped holes in the earth to trap water.
were built to support the basin walls.
was an invention of a bucket and pole used to get water from the Nile River to the basins.
farmers built canals to carry water from the basins to the fields beyond the river.
were people who did not have to work on the farm. They worked with their hands making cloth, pottery, carved statues, or shaped copper into weapons and tools. The artisans made up Egypt's middle class, which included people who ran businesses or produced goods.
Social hierarchy highest to lowest
Highest: Pharaoh; following were Priest and Nobles; then Traders, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes; following them were farmers and herders; lastly unskilled workers. Slaves were slaves and had no status.
were the first rulers in ancient Egypt.
Strong village chiefs united groups of villages and formed kingdoms.
Two large kingdoms
By 4000 BCE Egypt had two main kingdoms. Lower Egypt, which was in the Nile Delta and Upper Egypt, which was located in the South along the Nile River.
Narmer or Nenes
Around 3100 BCE the two large kingdoms became one under the rule of the king Narmer also known as Menes. He had been king of Upper Egypt and moved his army north to Lower Egypt and took control. He ruled at the end of the pre-dynastic period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period.
was the capital city under the rule of Narmer. Memphis was built on the border of the two kingdoms.
Egyptian kings called themselves pharaoh. Pharaoh originally meant "great house". The word of the Pharaoh was law, and it had to be followed without question. His subjects thought their pharaoh was a god on earth who controlled Egypt's welfare.
god or gods and goddesses. Egyptians believed their pharaohs were descended from the god Re. Re was the sun god.
is a line of rulers from one family. The ruling power passed from father to son to grandson. Over time Egypt would be ruled by 31 dynasties, which lasted for about 2,800 years.
was the son god and the main Egyptian god, who was responsible for good harvests.
was the goddess who ruled the underworld with her husband Osiris, and was also seen as a loyal wife and mother.
son of Isis and Osiris was the god of vengeance, sky, protection and war.
was the goddess who ruled the Nile River.
was the god of mummification.
Three main time periods
Historians have grouped ancient Egypt's dynasties into three groups.
The Old Kingdom also called the Age of Pyramids:
Is the first of the dynastic groups
The Middle Kingdom also known as the Golden Age of peace, prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture:
Is the second dynastic group
The New Kingdom
is the third of the dynastic periods, which acquired new territory and reached the height of its power.
The Old Kingdom also called the Age of Pyramids information and rulers names to know:
Narmer or Menes, and King Khufu. This is the time period when the pyramids were being built.
The Middle Kingdom also known as the Golden Age: information and a ruler's name to know:
Mentuhotep II is regarded as the founder of the Middle Kingdom and ruled for _________
The New Kingdom information and names to know
Most important rulers to know who reigned during the New Kingdom:
Prince Ahmose, Queen Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Amenhotep IV or Akhenaton and his wife Queen Nefertiti, Tutankhamen or King Tut, and Ramses II
The Hyksos ruled Egypt for 150 years.
An Egyptian prince named ________ led an uprising that drove the Hyksos out of Egypt around 1550 BCE. This was the beginning of the New Kingdom. From c. 1550 BCE to 1080 BCE Egypt became even richer and more powerful. Most pharaohs during the New Kingdom made "empire building" a priority.
A queen named ________ came to power in Egypt around 1473 BCE. Her focus was trade to built up the Egyptian economy not conquest. Her reign was from 1473 BCE to 1458 BCE.
was Hatshepsut's stepson and took over the dynasty after her death. Under his rule Egypt controlled more territory than it ever had.
Amenhotep IV or Akhenaton with the help of his wife Nefertiti
came to the throne about 1370 BCE. He is most famous for changing the religion of the ancient Egyptians. The ancient Egyptians were polytheistic and Amenhotep introduced a new religion based on the belief there was only one god, called Aton. He even changed his name to Akhenaton, which means "spirit of Aton". He angered many Egyptians. When the priests refused to accept this new god he removed many from their jobs and took their lands, and closed temples. He focused so much on religion that he allowed the Hittites from present-day Turkey to control the lands Egypt had in Asia Minor.
became ruler after the death of Amenhotep IV as he was his son-in-law and next in line to rule. He brought back the old religion of many gods. He ruled for 9 years.
reigned over the New Kingdom for 66 years. He ruled from 1279 BCE to 1213 BCE. He regained the lands in western Asia lost to Amenhotep IV. He launched building projects constructing several new major temples. The most magnificent temple was built at Karnack at Thebes. This temple has a huge columned hall decorated with colorful paintings.
was in a region called Nubia. Nubia then changed its name to Kush. Kush was located south of Egypt in the present-day Sudan. Evidence suggests that cattle herders arrived there around 2000 BCE.
Savannas or grasslands
are where the cattle of Kush grazed.
By 850 BCE the independent kingdom of
Kush was established. The Kushite kings ruled from the city of Napata. The location of Kush was where trade caravans crossed the river. Kush became very wealthy due to trade.
took over Egypt by 728 BCE. They lost control of Egypt when the Assyrians had that secret of making iron weapons in the 600's BCE.
became the new capital of the Kushite Kingdom.
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