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29 terms

Fluid & Electrolyte

Fluid & Electrolyte
Most fluid in the body is in the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment. T or F
Water in the body occupies two main fluid compartments. Most fluid is in the intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment. ICF is fluid found inside of cells. The rest of our body water is in the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment. The ECF consists of plasma and interstitial fluid (IF), the fluid in the spaces between tissue cells.
Which of the following is not an electrolyte?

Electrolytes are inorganic substances that dissociate into ions in water. Examples of electrolytes include salts [for example, sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2)] and ions [for example, potassium (K+)].

Nonelectrolytes have bonds (usually covalent bonds) that prevent them from dissociating in water. Most nonelectrolytes are organic molecules. For example, glucose, lipids, urea, creatinine, and cholesterol are nonelectrolytes.
The most abundant cation in extracellular fluid is potassium. T or F
The most abundant cation (or positively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid (ECF) is sodium (Na+). The most abundant anion (or negatively charged ion) in the ECF is chloride (Cl-).

The most abundant cation in the intracellular fluid (ICF) is potassium (K+). The most abundant anion in the ICF is hydrogen phosphate (HPO4-).
Most water is excreted via the:

Water output occurs by several routes. Water that vaporizes out of the lungs in expired air or diffuses directly through the skin is called insensible water loss. Some water is also lost in perspiration and feces. The rest, about 60% of the total water output, is excreted by the kidneys in urine.
ADH acts on the ____________ to ___________ water excretion.

kidneys; decrease
kidneys; increase
intestines; increase
intestines; decrease
kidneys; decrease
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) acts on the kidneys to decrease water excretion. When ADH levels are high, most or all of the filtered water is reabsorbed and a small amount of concentrated urine is excreted. When ADH levels are low, less water is reabsorbed and dilute urine is excreted.
Which of the following is characterized by a swelling of cells?

Hypotonic hydration
Hypotonic hydration
Hypotonic hydration causes hyponatremia (low concentration of Na+ in the extracellular fluid), leading to cell swelling.
,br>Edema (tissue swelling) is an atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space, leading to tissue (not cell) swelling. Edema can be caused by any event that increases fluid loss from the blood to the tissues, or that prevents effective return of fluid from the interstitial space to the bloodstream.
Which of the following would increase sodium excretion?

Reabsorption of sodium does not exhibit a transport maximum. In healthy individuals, nearly all sodium in the renal filtrate is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys.

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and progesterone increase Na+ excretion. Aldosterone is the key regulator of sodium reabsorption in the kidney. It encourages Na+ reabsorption. Estrogens, like aldosterone, also encourage Na reabsorption.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases Ca2+ deposition in the bones. T or F
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released in response to low Ca2+ levels. PTH causes the release of Ca2+ from the bones, increases absorption of Ca2+ by the small intestine, and increases calcium reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidneys.
Most of the hydrogen ions in the body come from acidic substances in the foods we ingest. T or F
Small amounts of acids enter the body via ingested foods. However, most H+ ions originate as metabolic by-products or end products. For example, the breakdown of phosphorus-containing proteins, the anaerobic breakdown of glucose, fat metabolism, and the loading and transport of CO2 in the blood all serve as sources of hydrogen ions in the body.
The most important factor that influences K+ secretion is:

water balance in the body.
the level of aldosterone in the plasma.
the concentration of K+ in blood plasma.
the concentration of Na+ in blood plasma.
the concentration of K+ in blood plasma
The single most important factor that influences K+ secretion is the concentration of K+ in blood plasma.
Which of the following has the least influence over the pH of blood plasma?

The protein buffer system
Respiratory rate
The bicarbonate buffer system
The phosphate buffer system
The phosphate buffer system
The bicarbonate buffer system is the primary buffer system for the ECF. Recall that blood plasma is considered a part of the ECF.

The phosphate buffer system does not have a role in regulating ECF pH, but it is a very effective buffer system in urine and the intracellular fluid (ICF).

The protein buffer system is an abundant and powerful means of regulating pH inside cells, and has a limited role in buffering the blood plasma.

Physiological regulators of blood pH include the respiratory and renal systems. The rate and depth of respiration are affected by changes in CO2 levels.
Hyperventilation can lead to:

metabolic alkalosis.
metabolic acidosis.
respiratory acidosis.
respiratory alkalosis.
respiratory alkalosis.
Decreased CO2 levels will increase blood pH. If one hyperventilates, the levels of CO2 drop to below normal levels and can cause respiratory alkalosis.

Increased CO2 will lower blood pH. In response to high CO2 levels, the rate of and depth of breathing will increase in an effort to vent off excess CO2. If one is unable to breathe, CO2 levels increase, leading to respiratory acidosis.
One way the kidneys maintain HCO3- balance is by:

generating new HCO3-.
reabsorbing H+.
generating Na+ ions.
reabsorbing CO2.
generating new HCO3-
The most important renal mechanism for regulating acid-base balance of the blood involves controlling blood bicarbonate (HCO3-) levels. This is achieved by conserving or generating HCO3- and excreting HCO3-.
Someone who is suffocating would develop:

metabolic acidosis.
respiratory acidosis.
respiratory alkalosis.
metabolic alkalosis.
respiratory acidosis.
The most common cause of acid-base imbalance is respiratory acidosis, a result of elevated blood levels of CO2 due to shallow breathing, suffocation, or lung diseases that impede O2 and CO2 exchange.
Which of the following puts infants at increased risk for dehydration?

Their high rate of fluid intake.
Their inefficient kidneys.
Their high metabolic rate.
Their low residual lung volume.
Their inefficient kidneys
At birth, the kidneys are inefficient; these infant kidneys do not concentrate urine or conserve water efficiently, putting infants at risk for dehydration. Vomiting, diarrhea, and a high rate of insensible water loss also increase the risk for dehydration.
Aldosterone directly causes facultative K+ reabsorption at the kidney.
It is the lack of aldosterone that encourages K+ conservation.
Chloride balance is directly tied to sodium balance.
Chloride passively follows sodium.
Edema is caused by increased movement of fluid from the plasma into the interstitial fluids.
Edema may be caused by high blood pressure, which intensifies filtration.
Hyperventilation causes the pH to elevate.
Hyperventilation causes respiratory alkalosis.
Insensible water loss occurs through urination, among other routes.
Insensible water loss occurs via water vaporizing out of the lungs in expired air and via direct diffusion through the skin
Vomiting and excessive aldosterone secretion would cause metabolic alkalosis.
Metabolic acidosis may be caused by vomiting and excessive aldosterone secretion.
Vomiting and excessive aldosterone secretion would cause metabolic alkalosis.
Proteins are the most abundant buffers in the body.
At least 3/4 of the body's buffering capacity is via intracellular proteins.
The alkaline reserve represents the available proteins for buffering.
The alkaline reserve refers to the available bicarbonate buffering capacity.
Water accounts for about half of your body's weight.
Water represents roughly 50-60% of the body's weight.
A blood pH < 7.35 indicates acidosis, but it does NOT tell you the cause.
The cause could be either abnormally high CO2 levels or other metabolic factors.
Abnormally high levels of CO2 in the blood would result in respiratory alkalosis.
The hormone aldosterone "has the most to say" about renal regulation of sodium ion concentrations in the ECF. Aldosterone usually promotes both sodium and water retention.
The most important source of acids in the body is ingestion of acidic foods such as oranges, lemons, and other citrus fruits.
Only a small amount of acidic substances enter the body via ingested foods. Most hydrogen ions originate as byproducts or end products of metabolism.
Hemoglobin is an important protein buffer that absorbs hydrogen ions released from carbonic acid as oxygen is unloaded in tissue capillaries.
As tissue cells release CO2, carbonic acid forms in RBCs and dissociates into bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions. As oxygen is unloaded to tissue cells, the negatively charged Hb attracts the free hydrogen ions, keeping them from causing a major pH change.
When water intake equals water output, water balance is achieved.
Equilibrium is achieved when there is no net change.