27 terms

Psychology 106-132

longitudinal method
measures a single individual or group of individuals over an extended period of time
cross-sectional method
compares individuals of various ages at one point in time
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
the process of absorbing new information into an existing schema
the process of adjusting old schemas or developing new ones to incorporate new information
object permanence
an infant's understanding that objects or people continue to exist even when they cannot be directly seen, heard, or touched
the child's inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations
understanding that certain physical characteristics (such as volume) remain unchanged, even when their outward appearance changes
permissive style of parenting
parents set few rules, make minimal demands, and allow their children to reach their own conclusions
authoritative style of parenting
parents set firms rules, make reasonable demands, and listen to their child's viewpoint while still insisting on responsible behavior
authoritarian style of parenting
parents set rigid rules, enforce strict punishments, and rarely listen to their child's point of view
psychosocial stages
Erik Erikson's theory that individuals pass through eight developmental stages, each involving a crisis that must be successfully resolved
the id
consists of innate sexual and aggressive instincts and drives. The id is compulsive, irrational, and immature. It operates on a pleasure principle, seeking to achieve immediate gratification and avoid discomfort (completely unconscious)
the superego
consists of internalized parental and societal standards. It operates on a morality principle, seeking to enforce ethical conduct (partly conscious)
the ego
resides in the conscious and preconscious levels of awareness. ego is rational and practical. operates on a reality principle
defense mechanisms
the ego's protective method of reducing anxiety and distorting reality
Freud's first and most basic defense mechanism that prevents unacceptable impulses from coming into conscious awareness
the feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt that people bring to a specific situation
locus of control
individuals who accept personal responsibility for their life experiences have an internal locus of control
five-factor model
trait theory of personality that includes openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
g factor
the notion, proposed by Charles Spearman, of a general intelligence factor that is responsible for a person's overall performance on tests of mental ability
fluid intelligence
aspects of innate intelligence, including reasoning abilities, memory, and speed of information processing, that are relatively independent of education and tend to decline as people age
crystallized intelligence
knowledge and skills gained through experience and education that tend to increase over the life span
establishment of norms and uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
measure of consistency and reproducibility of test scores during repeated administrations of a test
the ability of a test to meausre what it is designed to measure
self-fulfilling prophecy
observations or behaviors that result primarily from expectation