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reproducing or increasing the number of plants

sexual reproduction

reproducing plants from seed

asexual reproduction

using vegetative parts of a parent plant to start new plants


contains sperm cells


immature plant

plant breeder

develops new varieties of plants


form in ovaries of flowers; contain all material needed for growth of new plant


two cotyledons


one cotyledon

complete flowers

contain all flower parts

incomplete flowers

missing one or more flower parts

perfect flowers

contain both stamens and pistils

incomplete flowers

lack either stamens or pistils


outer parts of flowers that protect buds while they are developing


showy, colorful part of flowers which attract pollinating organisms


consists of the anther and filament


consists of the stigma, style, and ovary


matured ovary

dry fruit

develops in a pod or hull

fleshy fruit

large, fibrous structures surround the seeds

percent germination

percentage of seed that sprouts


ability of a seed to sprout and grow


seed sprouting and beginning growth of a new plant

root stock

underground portion of a grafted plant


above ground portion of a grafted plant


starting new plant vegetatively while the stem is still attached to the parent plant


short section of a plant stem used for propagation of a new plant


placing a section of stem onto the root system of another similar plant

tissue culture

growing new plants from a single cell or group of cells

quality seed

pure and free from weed seed, trash, disease

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