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30 terms

Group Fitness instructor test Chapter 1

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physical fitness
capacity of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, and muscles to function at a high level of efficiency
range of motion ROM
total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements, ability to flex, extend, abduct or adduct etc
lean body mass
structural and functional elements in cells, body water, muscle, bones, and other body organs - basically EVERYTHING THAT ISN'T FAT
body fat
adipose tissue, primary role is to store energy for later use. Classified into essential body fat and storage body fat
adenosine triphosphate ATP
immediately usable for of chemical energy needed for all cellular function, including muscular contraction
adenosine Diphosphate ADP
a substance involved in energy metabolism formed by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate
creatine phosphate CP
a unique high energy molecule stored in muscles, is tapped to regenerate ATP while the metabolic pathways are adjusting to the suddenly higher demands for ATP
glycolysis
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
lactic acid
Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in lactic acid usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.
lactate
End product of fermentation in muscle cells, humans use lactic acid fermentation to generate ATP when oxygen is scarce
mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
exercise specificity
exercise training principle explaining that specific exercise demands made on the body produce specific responses by the body
central nervous system CNS
the brain and spinal cord
motor unit
conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery signaling muscles to contract or to relax
sliding filament theory
muscular contraction occurs when the cross-bridges extending from the myosin myofilaments attach to the actin myofilaments and pull them past the myosin myofilaments
valsalva maneuver
when the breath is held, the glottis in the back of the throat is closed. exerting force with the glottis closed results in an increase in pressure within the chest cavity (intrathoracic pressure). this increase in pressure squeezes down on the large veins in the chest cavity, impeding venous return. resulting in less flow of blood and oxygen to the brain, dizziness and fainting may occur
hypertrophy
result of an increase in the size of individual muscle cells due to proliferation of actin and myosin myofilaments with in the myofibrils especially within the fast twitch muscle fibers
reversibility principle
training adaptations will gradually decline if not reinforced by a maintenance program. strength training even once per week is sufficent to maintain strength gains and muscle size
atrophy
muscle wasting
delayed onset muscle soreness DOMS
occurs 24-48 hours after strenuous exercise may be caused by microscopic damage to muscle cell ultrastructure to to excessive mechanical force exerted by the muscle and connective tissue
stretch reflexes
A reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching of an attached tendon or of the muscle itself.
muscle spindle
the sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle against to much stretch
golgi tendon organ
a sensory organ within a tendon that when stimulated causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against to much force
hemoglobin
a protein molecule in red blood cells specifically adapted to carry oxygen molecules
heart rate
the number of heart beats per minute
stroke volume
the amount (quantity) of blood pumped per heart beat
cardiac output
the amount of blood pumped from the heart per minute
steady state
the term that describes the point at which the energy needs of the body during exercise are being met aerobically
anaerobic threshold AT
the point at which exercise intensity can no longer met the metabolic demands of the muscles aerobically and the muscles have to rely on anaerobic metabolism for ATP
overload
the principle that a physiological system subjected to above-normal stress will respond by increasing in strength or function accordingly