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capacity of the heart, blood vessels, lungs, and muscles to function at a high level of efficiency
range of motion ROM
total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements, ability to flex, extend, abduct or adduct etc
lean body mass
structural and functional elements in cells, body water, muscle, bones, and other body organs - basically EVERYTHING THAT ISN'T FAT
adipose tissue, primary role is to store energy for later use. Classified into essential body fat and storage body fat
adenosine triphosphate ATP
immediately usable for of chemical energy needed for all cellular function, including muscular contraction
adenosine Diphosphate ADP
a substance involved in energy metabolism formed by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate
creatine phosphate CP
a unique high energy molecule stored in muscles, is tapped to regenerate ATP while the metabolic pathways are adjusting to the suddenly higher demands for ATP
a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in lactic acid usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.
End product of fermentation in muscle cells, humans use lactic acid fermentation to generate ATP when oxygen is scarce
exercise training principle explaining that specific exercise demands made on the body produce specific responses by the body
sliding filament theory
muscular contraction occurs when the cross-bridges extending from the myosin myofilaments attach to the actin myofilaments and pull them past the myosin myofilaments
when the breath is held, the glottis in the back of the throat is closed. exerting force with the glottis closed results in an increase in pressure within the chest cavity (intrathoracic pressure). this increase in pressure squeezes down on the large veins in the chest cavity, impeding venous return. resulting in less flow of blood and oxygen to the brain, dizziness and fainting may occur
result of an increase in the size of individual muscle cells due to proliferation of actin and myosin myofilaments with in the myofibrils especially within the fast twitch muscle fibers
training adaptations will gradually decline if not reinforced by a maintenance program. strength training even once per week is sufficent to maintain strength gains and muscle size
delayed onset muscle soreness DOMS
occurs 24-48 hours after strenuous exercise may be caused by microscopic damage to muscle cell ultrastructure to to excessive mechanical force exerted by the muscle and connective tissue
A reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching of an attached tendon or of the muscle itself.
the sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle against to much stretch
golgi tendon organ
a sensory organ within a tendon that when stimulated causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against to much force
the term that describes the point at which the energy needs of the body during exercise are being met aerobically
anaerobic threshold AT
the point at which exercise intensity can no longer met the metabolic demands of the muscles aerobically and the muscles have to rely on anaerobic metabolism for ATP
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