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Chapter 7 Practice Quiz Questions
Terms in this set (45)
Continuous muscle contractions maintain body position and ________.
Describe skeletal muscles as organs, and indicate their relationship to the skeletal system.
they pull on tendons
Skeletal muscles encircle openings to provide voluntary control over __________.
(all the above)
What are the five primary functions of skeletal muscles?
1. move skeleton
2. posture/position maintenance
3. support soft tissue
4. guard entrances/exists
5. maintain body temperature
Muscle contractions require energy, some of which is converted to ________ when used in the body
The layers of skeletal muscle in the abdominal wall and the pelvic floor function in __________.
shielding internal tissues from injury
Each cell in skeletal muscle tissue is a single
Describe how a tendon's structure aids in its function in muscular contractions.
bands of collagen fibers attach skeletal muscle to bone
Which of the following structures controls individual muscle fibers?
axon (or nerve fiber)
Which of the following structures is composed of a layer of collagen fibers that separates a muscle from surrounding tissues and organs?
What important roles do blood vessels play in skeletal muscle contraction?
deliver the necessary oxygen nutrients as well as carry metabolic waste
A bundle of muscle fibers is called a(n)
A broad sheet formed by the collagen fibers of the connective tissues of skeletal muscle is called ___________.
The ________ is the smallest functional unit of the muscle fiber.
Describe the mechanism of the sliding filament theory
the contractile unit of a skeletal muscle fibre divided into bands of filaments made of actin or mysoin. A sarcomere is defined as the segment between 2 neighboring Z lines
Myosin molecules are found in which of the following structures?
Which of the following structures is composed of proteins that connect the central portions of each thick filament to its neighbors?
Explain the role of calcium in muscle contraction.
the key that unlocks active sites and begins contraction, ions bind to troponin which allows actin binding
Openings scattered across the surface of the sarcolemma lead into a network of narrow structures called the
Which of the following structures is a specialized form of smooth endoplasmic reticulum that forms a tubular network around each myofibril?
Which of the following phrases best describes the cyclical actions of a myosin cross-bridge during a muscle contraction?
"attach, pivot, detach, and return"
Describe the connective tissue layers associated with a skeletal muscle.
The epimysium is a dense layer of collagen fibers that surrounds the entire muscle; the perimysium divides the skeletal muscle into a series of compartments, each containing a bundle of muscle fibers called a fascicle; and the endomysium surrounds individual skeletal muscle cells (fibers
When does muscle contraction begin?
when stored calcium ions are released into the sarcoplasm through gated calcium channels
_________ is the "key" that "unlocks" the active sites and starts a contraction. When calcium ions bind to troponin, the protein changes shape, swinging the tropomyosin away from the active sites
The mechanism responsible for sliding filaments involves the binding of the myosin heads of _____________ to active sites on the _____________
thick filaments, thin filaments
Describe the basic structure of a sarcomere
the smallest contractile units of a skeletal muscle cell, are segments of myofibrils. Each sarcomere has dark A bands and light I bands. The A band contains the M line, H band, and the zone of overlap. Each I band contains thin filaments but not thick filaments. Z lines mark the boundaries between adjacent sarcomeres.
Describe the neuromuscular junction
a specialized intercellular connection between a motor neuron and a muscle cell—enables communication between the nervous system and a skeletal muscle fiber.
Which property of the sarcolemma is affected by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine?
The sudden rush of which ion into the cytosol produces an action potential in the sarcolemma
The ___________ is a narrow space that separates the synaptic terminal from the sarcolemma of the motor end plate.
In a(n) ___________ contraction, the muscle as a whole does not change length, and the tension produced never exceeds the resistance.
tension depends on
1. the muscle fibers resting length at stimulation
2. frequency of stimulation
the amount of tension produced in the skeletal muscle as a whole is determined by
1. the frequency of muscle fiber stimulation
2. number of muscle fibers activated
What factors are responsible for the amount of tension a skeletal muscle develops?
(1) frequency of muscle fiber stimulation (2) number of muscle fibers activated.
amount of tension produced in an individual muscle fiber depends on number of _____________ pivoting in a muscle fiber
what are the three phases of a muscle twitch?
1. latent period
2. period of contraction
3. period of relaxation
the size of a motor unit indicates the degree of _________
passive processes are a combination of:
elastic forces, movements of opposing muscles, gravity
T of F resting muscle fiber contains only enough energy reserves to maintain contraction until more ATP is generated.
excess ATP transfers energy to _________ forming ________ _________
creatine, creatine phosphate
____________ is the length of time muscle contractions can be supported by glycolysis and existing energy reserves of ATP and creatine phosphate
Which is of the following concepts is defined as the maximum amount of tension produced by a particular muscle or muscle group?
There are no slow fibers in muscles of the
hand and eye
Slow muscle fibers contain the red pigment _________, a globular protein that is structurally related to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying pigment found in blood.
Aerobic endurance is determined by the availability of substrates for aerobic metabolism from the breakdown of which of the following substances?
carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids
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