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Entomology Games Trivia- Ecology Emphasis
Terms in this set (500)
What is the specific term for pollination of flowers by bees?
What is the relationship between man and insect where the insect species has become so dependent on man, his activities, or his practices of husbandry and agriculture that should man perish so would the insect species?
Injury to leaves of some plants, notably tomato and potato, causes the rapid accumulation of PIIF. For what does PIIF stand?
Protease inhibitor inducing factor.
A plot in ln (lx) versus time for a cohort of insects is a straight line. What can be deduced concerning the mortality rate?
The Poisson series describes what type of distribution?
In what type of interaction is there a negative impact on both organisms involved?
In an ecological sense, plants are considered what type of organism?
In the web of an orb-weaver spider, some of the silk strands are sticky and some are not; which strands are not sticky?
The radiating strands
What is the condition of summer dormancy called?
When L. Tinbergen calculated the risk index for prey insect species what predator was involved in his studies?
Great tit, Parus majur, (bird).
In the equation dn/dt = rN, what does N represent?
The size of the population at any given point in time.
Sweeny and Vannote hypothesized that temperature is a limiting factor in the distribution of some aquatic insects because they exhibit lower fecundity in waters with increasingly warm or cold temperature cycles. What is name of this hypothesis?
Thermal equilibrium hypothesis.
When is a crepuscular insect active?
Only during twilight hours.
A vertical life table based on an artifical cohort estimating age structure for a population at one point in time is called what?
The use of a sudden exposure of "eye spots" or bright colors is known as what?
According to the theory of plant apparency and chemical defense, apparent plants use what type of defense?
What is the name of the process by which food energy is transferred from plants through a series of organisms which are eaten and reeaten?
Hamilton suggested that haplodiploid sex determination could lead to altruistic behavior which in turn could lead to socialityWhat group of eusocial insects goes against this hypothesis?
Chemical elements tend to circulate in the biosphere in characteristic paths from environment to organsims and back to environment. These more or less circular paths are known as what?
Biogeochemical (Europe) or Geochemical (U.S.) cycles.
In life table analysis, what does dx refer to?
Number dying in age interval x.
Insects with low fecundity, high survivorship, high competitive ability and generation time (T) << habitat stability (S) are said to be what kind of strategists?
What insect order was most significant in pollination to early Angiosperms?
The primary agents responsible for the metabolic decomposition of the forest floor litter include insects. True or false?
What type of parthenogenesis would be characterized by an unfertilized female wasp which produces only male offspring?
What are the three most common dispersion patterns found in invertebrate populations?
Random, clumped, and uniform.
With what ecological technique do you associate the names Varley and Gradwell?
Key-factor analysis (or k-factor analysis).
Aphrodisiac scents are known in insects in at least six orders. Name two of these.
Diptera, Trichoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Dictyoptera or Lepidoptera.
What is beta diversity?
Change of species along a defined gradient.
What is a regional ecosystem type?
That proportion of a hutchinsonian hypervolume actually occupied by a species would constitute what kind of niche?
What family of beetles reproduce, in part, by paedogenisis?
A change in the genetic makeup of a population in successive generations is called what?
What is the term for insects breeding once in a lifetime?
In reference to natural control, name four density-dependent factors?
Space, territoriality, natural enemies and crowding.
Compounds in fir trees are similar to what natural group of insect hormones?
What was the title of G. F. Gauss's book that set forth the ecological exclusion principle?
"The Struggle for Existence".
What is the term that refers to the number of species that can fit into a community, or a guild that utilizes the same resource?
What is meant by a stochastic model?
A model in which the outcome takes into account randomness and probabilities.
The Fisher-Ford and Jolly-Seber methods are used to estimate what?
Population density based on mark-recapture data.
Immature and adult female webspinners eat decaying plant material. What is the feeding habit of the male?
Communication patterns between sexes where males involved within the territory try to attract many females are defined as what?
Only three disaccharides seem to occur commonly as the sugar component of plant-defensive glycosides. Name one of them.
Rutinose, sophorose, and sambubiose.
When an animal feeds on only one food source, what is this termed?
What agent of evolution effects gene frequency due to unequal gamete production attributable solely to the mechanics of meiosis?
Volterra's principle was observed as one possible outcome of the Lotka-Volterra equation. To what occurrence in applied ecology does this principle pertain?
The resurgence of pest populations faster than beneficial populations following pesticide applications.
What tool is commonly used to measure the turbidity of surface water in a pond or lake?
In key factor analysis, what mathematical scale is used?
What does the Shannon-Weaver index measure?
Under what conditions will female Oriental fruit flies, Dacus dorsalis, respond to methyl eugenol?
When males are rare in the population.
Competitive displacement of a primary parasite in a host by another parasite is known as what?
What is a synantropic insect and give an example?
An insect closely related to man or depends upon man for its survival, house fly.
What would the term be for the molting hormone mimics produced by several plants such as those in the genus Polypodium and Pteridium?
Define species richness.
The number of species in a system.
Several sibling species in the genus Holomelina (tiger moths) use the hydrocarbon, -methylheptadecane, as a sex pheromone. How is reproductive isolation maintained in these species?
By differences in habitat preferences, temporal distribution, and diurnal cycles.
What term refers to the ability of an insect to survive at an expense to its host and may be either vertical or horizontal?
If a diagram was triangular in shape with a base of large numbers of producers and funneled to one top predator, what would this diagram represent?
Pyramid of numbers.
Name the brand of paper towels in which the 'paper factor' was first discovered.
In an age specific life table what is qx?
Percent mortality within a given age interval.
What is the specific term for pollination of flowers by beetles?
"Insect parasites" are referred to as parasitoids because only the immature forms are parasitic on other insects and the hose insect is killed by this action. What specific term is applied to parasitism when it is restricted to immature or juvenile hosts?
What defensive compounds are produced by members of the Cruciferae?
Glucosinolate, mustard oil glucoside, and sinigrin.
Under what experimental conditions does Tribolium confusum displace T. castaneum?
In cool, dry cultures.
What does biocoenosis mean?
It is a term frequently used in the European and Russian literature roughly equivalent to community.
A behavior in which a male has two or more mates at the some time is called what?
What is the process in which males physically remove sperm from females using their aedeagus?
The percentage of mortality compared to the population number at a certain stage or age is termed what?
What is Kelker's selective removal technique used for?
To estimate the size of a population.
Who was the author of a well known essay which stated that unchecked populations grow at a geometric rate?
What evolutionary theorist wrote "The Selfish Gene"?
Life tables are commonly used in entomology. For what animal were life tables first developed?
Man (calculate insurance rate schedules).
What is Buffon's Law?
Simply stated - different species in different places, even in places with the same ecology.
Insect defensive secretions that repel predators are called what?
That the seasonal development of insects is related to altitude, latitude, and longitude was stated as a biological law. In just three words, what was this law called?
Hopkin's bioclimatic law.
The fact that insect phenologies are delayed in the spring by four days for each degree of latitude northward is whose bioclimate law?
In a life table, what does dx. represent?
Number of individuals dying during age interval x (age-specific mortality).
Which equations describe predator and prey population growth where the birth rate of the predator is dependent on the number of prey present and the death rate of the prey is dependent on the size of the predator population?
If you were told that a certain insect had a Poisson distribution, what would you know about that insect?
The individuals are independently and randomly distributed among the samples.
Gause performed a classical experiment which lead him to put forth the Competitive Exclusion Principle. What organisms did he use?
Protozoans: Didinium nasutum.
Life tables that are but snapshots of the dynamics of populations and tell us little about functional relationships between prey numbers and natural enemy numbers are called what?
Age-specific life tables.
What is an insect called that feeds on other insects?
W. D. Hamilton in the book 'Theoretical Biology: the genetic evolution of social behavior' proposed a new type of selection process called what?
What kind of distribution would a territorial insect have?
What dispersion pattern is typically characterized by a variance to mean ratio greater than?
Contagious (or clumped).
In what type of sampling is the total number of samples to be taken unknown at the outset?
In addition to special adaptations such as insensitive target sites or special excretory and storage mechanisms, herbivorous insects have two major mechanisms by which they avoid adverse effects of defensive plant allelochemicals. What are these mechanisms?
Adaptations in host selection or utilization (behavioral adaptations); detoxification or metabolism (biochemical adaptations).
The physiological time required to complete development is usually expressed in what?
What is the literal meaning of the word 'termitophile'?
Certain assumptions are made when the Lincoln index is used to estimate population size. The most serious of these is that the released, marked individuals are thoroughly distributed in the population. List two other assumptions
No deaths, births, immigration, or emigration.
What dispersion pattern is typically characterized by a variance to mean ratio of less than?
Regular (or uniform).
What principle which has been inconclusively documented and is considered by some to be untenable, and suggests that in some insect species the adult develops a predilection to oviposit on those plants on which it fed during its larval life?
The "Hopkins host selection principle".
Wynne-Edwards promulgated the idea that individual animals deliberately and altruistically reduce their birth rates for the good of the group as a whole. This was called what?
The functional response model in which the number of prey attacked increases as a dose response function of prey density is termed what?
Type II or Holling model.
What type of life table is more applicable for insects with overlapping generations?
Time-specific life table.
What is the sum of heterotrophic growth, heterotrophic reproduction, heterotrophic elimination, and heterotrophic yield?
Net secondary production.
What term describes the phenomenon of mutual protection afforded to all members of a species when only some individuals are unpalatable?
Organisms which have two or more generations during a single year are called what?
Improved performance of aphids on galled or virus-infected plants has been demonstrated in several instances to be attributed to what factor?
Increased amino acid concentration in phloem sap.
To what does the term agamic refer?
Reproduction without mating, or parthenogenetic reproduction.
What are the units of a Q/K ratio?
What term describes an organism whose body temperature changes with fluctuations in the temperature of its environment?
What is the specific term for pollination of flowers by small moths?
The term 'ecosystem' was first used by what ecologist?
What is paedogenesis?
Reproduction in the larval stage.
Who is the author of the book entitled "Insect Ecology".
Peter W. Price.
To what does the term 'edaphic' refer?
Soil or soil conditions.
What term describes the mutual exchange of food between social insects?
Name two adaptations of male insects to prevent insemination of a mated female by other males?
Mating plugs, prolonged copulation, guarding the mated female.
The maintenance of a more of less fluctuating population density within certain definable upper and lower limits over a period of time by the combined actions of the whole environment is termed what?
Four species of Drosophila obtain a sterol from cacti in the Sonoran DesertFor what purpose do they use this sterol?
Synthesis of molting hormone.
What are the principle host tree species of Bombyx mori?
Morus nigra, the black mulberry, and Morus alba, the white mulberry.
There are two types of food chains. Name them.
Grazing and detrital.
A group of individuals with common characteristics.
Who were the principle proponents of environmental factors as the primary regulators of populations, and what was this school of thought called?
Andrewartha and Birch, density independence.
What function do mixed function oxidase (MFO) enzymes serve in insects?
Tolerance to plants with noxious phytochemicals (may also be a mechanism of pesticide resistance).
Who first used the word "niche"?
Limenitis archippus is a mimic of a famous insect. Give the common and scientific name of the model.
Danaus plexippus, the monarch butterfly.
What group of bees are the principal pollinators of orchids in Central and South America?
What does an N-dimensional hypervolume refer to in biological studies?
The niche, or the range of requirements of a species.
An ant species exhibiting dulosis has what behavior?
Who first tested the theory of island biogeography, and how?
Simberloff and Wilson by defaunating mangrove islands and monitoring the development of the insect communities over time.
Insects that feed on a few species of plants, often related to one another or having similar biochemical constituents are referred to as what?
What is the common name of the "dry extractor" that collects soil invertebrates by avoidance of desiccation?
Clark, Geier, Hughs, and Morris, in their book on the ecology of insect populations, refer to "that part of an ecosystem which determines the existence, abundance and evolution of a particular population" as what?
What is a group of species that exploits the same class of environmental resources in a similar manner?
The temperature range within which a species can complete its life cycle is known as what?
From what Greek word is the name Ecology derived?
Oikos, meaning house.
A chemical produced by an organism that induces a response, in an individual of another species, that is beneficial to the receiving organism is called what?
What term is used to represent the intrinsic rate of increase in a population?
What is the compound with juvenile hormone activity extracted from paper?
What term describes an ecosystem that is in a steady state?
What is phoretic copulation?
A behavior in which a flying male copulates and carries a nonflying (wingless) female to facilitate dispersal.
What is the sum of autotrophic respiration, net primary production, autotrophic excretion, and autotrophic work?
Gross primary production.
A paper by Ehrlich and Raven reviews what general ecological concept between butterflies and plants?
Hamilton proposed what model to show that optimal sex ratios could vary if the assumption of panmixis was relaxed?
Local Mate Competition of LMC Model.
Seed-sucking insects characteristically pierce seeds with their stylets, inject an enzyme-rich saliva, and suck out the liquefied seed contents. What term describes this mode of feeding?
Lacerate and flush.
Where, in the logistic curve of population growth, is the inflection point?
Where the rate of population growth is at a maximum, i.e., where the graph is the steepest.
What type of taxis is involved in the "sun compass reaction" in which an insect orients at an angle to a light source?
A social aggregation of individuals of a species with a more or less permanent location in the community is called what?
What was C. G. Johnson talking about when he stated; it is essentially a transferrence of adults of a new generation from one breeding habitat to another?
The symphyta are carnivores, herbivores or detritivores?
Name the major methods for studying trophic relationships.
Direct observation, gut analysis, radionucleotide tracer analysis, serological techniques.
With respect to population growth, what term in the logistic equation is not present in the exponential equation?
k, the carrying capacity.
To calculate day degrees, what must one know other than the temperatures that impinge on the insect during its development?
The threshold of development--i.e., the temperature below which development is presumed to cease.
What are the four phases of colonization?
Non-interactive, interactive, assortative and evolutionary.
How does the amino acid composition and concentration of plant sap compare to that of honeydew of aphids?
Amino acid compositions are similar but concentrations are higher in plant sap.
What is the principle which states "no more causes should be assumed than will account for the effect"?
Law of Parsimony.
Any moderately destructive factor on both predator and prey populations which causes the average prey density to increase while decreasing the average predator density demonstrates what?
Name orders of insects in which the males use spermatophores to inseminate the females?
Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera, Orthoptera, Collembola, Coleoptera and Thysanura.
The change in the abundance of each morph of Biston betularia (the salt and pepper moth) is a human-induced example of what process?
What is the term for a group of potentially interbreeding individuals at a given locality?
What is the name of the method proposed by Hynes to estimate secondary production for aquatic insects without synchronous development?
Who first reported the competitive exclusion principle?
Papilio polyxenes, Papilio troilus, Basilarchia astyanax, Speyeria diana and Papilio glaucus all have morphs which mimic what unpalatable species?
Battus philenor, the pipevine swallowtail.
What are insects other than ants that regularly inhabit an ant's nest?
What is the specific term for pollination of flowers by carrion and dung beetles?
In aphids, the perennial woody host plant on which eggs overwinter and the first wingless then winged forms appear is termed what?
What mechanical defensive reaction appears to be common to all lady beetles?
Howard and Fiske classified mortality agents that destroy a constant percent of a population as "catastrophic". In, H.S. Smith replaced "catastrophic" by what term?
What term is applied to competition when competing individuals receive an approximately equal share of a diminishing resource?
Name three parameters in a life table.
Birth rate, death rate, migration rate.
Nicholson described two modes of action for competition, what are they?
Scramble (contest) or exploitative (interference).
Name the law or principle stating that different species occupying identical ecological niches cannot coexist indefinitely in the same habitat.
When an animal feeds on many food sources, what is this termed?
What term describes a population in which mating is random with respect to specific genes?
What term is applied to animals that complete one generation every other year?
What type of mimicry is used by Photurus fireflies as they duplicate the flash signal of other lampyrids which they lure to their death?
A species which preys on a primary consumer is called what?
In insect population growth models K is a constant. What does it represent?
Equilibrium population density or carrying capacity.
Who was the inventor of the disk equation?
Feeding on dead animals.
The spatial relationship of individuals of a population in an area of habitat is known as what?
Dispersion pattern, dispersion, or spatial distribution pattern.
What is the specific term for pollination of flowers by hawk moths?
What insects have cephalic glands and what are their function?
Male bumblebees use the secretions as markers for flight paths.
What morphological trait is typified by the head and thorax of male and female Brentidae?
Another name for birth rate is what?
In temperate communities, six seasons seem to be more representative of community periodicities. Which term decribes 'early spring'?
What prevents insect population outbreaks from self-regulation by the mechanism of adrenopituitary shock?
Insects don't have adrenal or pituitary glands.
In what group of social insects are castes purportedly genetically determined?
Hymenoptera: Meliponidae (Apidae: Meliponinae).
Name the four stages in the organization of a community as postulated by Wilson
Non-interactive, interactive, assortative and evolutionary stages.
An adaptation which results in a lower average fitness but also reduces the probability of zero fitness is generically said to be an example of what strategy?
Maxi-min strategy or risk spreading strategy.
What biological system includes all the earth's living organisms interacting with the physical environment?
What name describes the phenomenon of reduced development in reproductive organs during migration?
Oogenesis flight syndrome.
Life tables that are like a cinema of the dynamic processes that shape the course of population change and are applicable to populations with either discrete or overlapping generations are termed what?
Time-varying life tables.
What term is used to describe the mating of a single female with several males?
Who first proposed that density dependent processes are the primary population regulating mechanism?
"Monotonic increase, damping oscillations, stable limit cycles, chaos". What class of population dynamical behavior do insects typically exhibit?
The vespid wasp Dolichovespula arenaria and the syrphid fly Spilomyia hamifera have very similar wingbeat frequencies. What type of mimicry is this?
Acoustic or auditory mimicry.
Why is Holling's original predator-prey equation known as the Disk Equation?
The original "prey" were sandpaper disks.
An insect that lives in or on a larger host insect, eventually killing that insect is what?
What is phoresy?
A type of interrelationship between organisms in which one is carried on or in the body of another.
What is the term used for any quality of an organism, population, or species that increases its chances of leaving viable progeny?
At what levels of the food chain do insects usually occur?
Second or third food level.
Before the introduction of the potato to the grasslands of western U.S., what was the host plant of the Colorado potato beetle?
Buffalo bur, Solanum rostratum.
What does the term thelytoky mean?
It refers to a type of parthenogenesis where only female offspring are produced.
Animals that feed on small bits of animal or vegetable (organic) debris are called?
The impression left on a predator by several chance encounters with potential prey which leads to recognition and an intensive search for the acceptable prey is termed what?
Specific search image.
What term describes insect populations that differ in host plant affinity but are morphologically indistinguishable?
What would one call coexisting interdependent populations?
What is the study of the environmental relationships of a group of the same or ecologically related species with emphasis on the dynamics of population change?
Population ecology or biodemography.
What is the original home of the cottony-cushion scale?
The rate of energy flow and/or productivity at successive trophic levels is called?
Pyramid of energy.
What plant genus contains the primary hosts of insects in the genus Heliconius?
Passiflora (passion flowers).
What is the name of the toxic compound produced by blister beetles?
Who developed the gene-for-gene concept?
H. H. Flor.
Who was the proponent of density-independence?
Andrewarthe and Birch.
What are the variables involved in the calculation of the net reproductive rate?
Age-specific female survivorship; age-specific fertility (females born per female).
What is the term for the expected total number of births produced by a female who lives through all age groups?
Gross reproductive potential.
Name four theories that explain how populations are regulated.
Density-dependent, Density-independent, Combination of each density dependent and density independent, and Genetic feedback.
A defensive behavior in which an insect "freezes" its posture usually with appendages retracted is called what?
What type of sociality is defined by: members of the same generation use the same nest, cooperative brood care, overlapping generations in nest, and offspring assist parents?
The tendency for a population to resist changes away from its current density is called what?
A species which requires only a single host species on which to successfully complete its annual life cycle is termed what?
What theory proposed by T. Jermy states that insects follow or track the evolution of plants without appreciably affecting the plants' fitness?
Theory of sequential evolution.
Who first used the terms "enviromental resistance" and "biotic potential"?
R. N. Chapman.
The ratio of number of prey found by a predator during its lifetime to the number of prey in the "areal range" of the predator is termed what?
The predator's "area of discovery".
When competition occurs among larval blow flies, it tends to be of what basic type?
Manitoba traps are useful in collecting what type of insect?
Who was the chief of the U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey who proposed the concept of life zones in
C. Hart Merriam.
What is the sum of autotrophic growth, autotrophic reproduction, autotrophic elimination, and autotrophic yield?
Net primary production.
Cactoblastis was introduced into Australia from which country?
Insects that occur in limited, spatially or temporally widely spaced habitats, often exhibit what type of competition?
Which of the following has the highest efficiency of conversion of that which is eaten into body tissues : shrew, cerambycid, or cicendellid?
The intraspecific interaction where some individuals obtain as much of the governing requisite as they need for survival and reproduction while others relinquish the requisite was termed by Nicholson as what?
Contest competition (interference).
In reference to natural control, name four density-independent factors
Temperature, humidity, quality of food and suitability of food.
A host that is regulated by its enemy, its enemy in turn limited by the number of hosts, has been termed to have what type of relationship?
Reciprocal density-dependent relationship.
What term is used to describe population growth patterns?
The increase in predator population density with increasing prey density is known as what?
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
In every energy transformation potential energy is lost as heat.
Eberhard presented convincing evidence that bolas spiders emit a volatile substance that mimics the female sex attractant of an insect. Name the insect.
Fall army worm.
What mammal has been introduced into Newfoundland for control of larch sawfly?
The female meloid beetle protects her eggs by covering them with cantharidin, yet only males produce cantharidin. From whence, and how, does the female meloid acquire cantharidin?
Cantharidin stored in the male accessory glands is injected into the female during copulation.
Heterotrophs have been placed into two categories by various authors. What are they?
Scavengers which feed on dead organisms are called what?
In Batesian mimicry, what factor is most important in the prey population aside from the mimicry itself?
Prey population densities must be well below that of the model.
Wingless adults of what species of insect were found in the depths of Lake Tahoe?
Why was Baker and Baker's research on nectar significant?
They found many flowers provide an array of amino acids to insects.
The Verhulst equation was modified to include the growth of two species occupying the same habitat. Who was responsible for the modification?
Distinguish between autecology and synecology
Autecology is the ecology of a single species of organisms in relation to its environment. Synecology is the ecology of groups of interacting species of organisms and their environment.
The first models that specifically dealt with a predator-prey interaction were developed independently by two scientists, who were they?
Lotka & Volterra.
The colonization of island habitats has been suggested to occur in phases. During which phase is competition most important?
What is the term applied to an organism that resides within the nest or abode of another organism?
Theoretically, there are three types of functional responses. What are they?
Type I (Nicholson), Type II (Holling), and Type III (Sigmoid).
Melezitose is a sugar not found in plant sap but produced by certain plant-feeding insects. Where would one be likely to find melezitose?
In the honeydew produced by some phloem-feeding insects.
In a deep lake, what is name for the warm surface waters above the thermocline?
Exponential growth is sometimes called what?
When a triangularly shaped diagram has a base representing the weight of living producers and its point being the weight of the consumer levels, what would it be called?
Pyramid of biomass.
Who originally proposed the theory of Island Biogeography?
McAuthur and Wilson.
Nectar provides sugars to insects. What other type of nutrients are obtained by insects from the nectars of some plants?
What term describes rapid death or abscission of leaves in response to invasion by a pathogen or insect?
According to Nicholson and Bailey, what limits parasite-host interactions?
Searching ability of the female.
Population density estimates using mark, release and recapture techniques may be made with the following formula #_of_individuals_released = #_of_individuals_recaptured population density total # in recapture sample What is the formula called?
Define pheromone and give four types.
Exocrine secretions of animals which cause a reaction in the receiving individual of the same species. Sex, alarm, trailmaking, and aggregation.
In reference to insects feeding on plants, what is a stenomerous insect?
An insect which is restricted to feeding only on one plant organ.
What type of survivorship curve describes animals that have very little early mortality?
According to Hairston, Smith and Slobodkin, food was the limiting factor for decomposers, producers, and predators in generalHowever, because the "world is still green", they suggested that herbivores were limited by what factor?
What is any organism that kills and consumes many organisms in its life?
Of what importance are symbiotic microorganisms located in the mycetome of blood feeding insects?
They increase fecundity of those insects by providing certain essential compounds affecting fertility.
What is the use of Malaise traps?
To collect flying insects such as biting flies or parasitic wasps.
What is the type of selection in which humans determine the fitness of various genotypes?
From what substance was bark beetle aggregation pheromone first isolated?
What is the literal meaning of the word 'myremecophile'?
What is the food source for the ant genus Pseudomyrex?
Bullhorn acacia - Beltian bodies and extrafloral nectaries.
What is the name of the law which states that in a large population in which random mating occurs, the frequency of the genes or alleles remains the same providing there is no mutation, selection, or differential mating?
What famous genetic principle is algebraically expressed as p^2+2pq + q^2?
What is the sum of heterotrophic respiration, net secondary production, heterotrophic excretion, and heterotrophic work?
Gross secondary production.
When two species are morphologically indistinguishable they are known as what?
List four ways which insects communicate.
Chemicals, visual displays, sounds, bioluminensce and touch.
What mating system is exhibited by Belostomatid species in which males brood eggs?
Both small or minor soldiers and major soldiers make up the soldier caste of the termite Ancistrotermes cavithorax. How does the behavior of the two soldier types differ spatially in defense of colony members?
Small soldiers usually accompany foraging parties while major soldiers stay in the nest.
In which plant family are cardiac glycosides found?
The Lincoln Index and other similar population estimates are dependent on what basic prerequisite?
A marking method that does not affect the longevity or behavior of the animals.
Name the two researchers that presented the first detailed example of a life table for natural populations of an insect.
R.F. Morris and C.Miller.
Bacterial symbionts are prominent in the biology of many aphids. What term refers to an aphid which has been "sterilized" of symbionts?
In reference to insects feeding on plants, what is an eurymerous insect?
One which may feed on various parts of the same host plant without apparent problems.
In an age specific life table, generation mortality which could not occur in the absence of a certain factor from the life system despite the action of subsequent factors is called what?
Thorpe and Jones found that Venturia canescens is attracted to the odor of oatmeal. What kind of allelochemic does this involve?
Who developed the concept of 'genetic feedback'?
The study of the relationship between the timing of a biological event and seasonal change is called what?
What most often induces diapause in temperate climate insects that have facultative diapause?
Short photoperiods (i.e. short days and long nights).
Insect growth and development are dependent upon temperature, therefore what kind of time is a better measure of growth than chronological time?
Who first defined the term food chain?
According to Thompson, what limits parasite-host interactions?
Egg production of the female.
The Lincoln Index is a ratio used to compute population density in conjunction with what sampling method?
The natural population of what insect was studied to present the first detailed example of a life table by Morris and Miller?
Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.
What is competition between individuals of different species termed?
At what level of organization is natural selection thought to act?
When a population increases by a constant rate per unit of time this is called what?
Geometric exponential growth.
A subpopulation or race of an organism adapted physiologically and behaviorally to survive under specific climatic conditions of some geographic region is called what?
What dispersion pattern is typically characterized by a variance to mean ratio equal to one?
What functional response model is observed for most insect predators and parasites?
Type II or Holling model.
The concept of the functional response model of Solomon was well illustrated by the sandpaper disc experiment of what researcher?
What term is applied to a species which exerts disproportionately large control on the structure of a community?
What term is used to describe an interaction where one organism suffers but there is no impact on the other?
The relationship between prey density and number of prey attacked is called what?
Name three orders of insects in which some species have sterile individuals that defend their first degree relatives (soldier castes).
Hymenoptera, Isoptera, and Homoptera (some aphids).
The name of life tables based on real cohorts followed through time is what?
Age-specific life tables.
Give two functions for the froth produced by spittlebugs.
Humidity control, temperature control, protection from enemies, or excretion of excess water obtained from xylem sap.
The rejection of an otherwise suitable host by a parasitoid because another female had previously walked on the host leaving an odor is termed what?
A female insect which has oviposited at least one time is referred to by what term?
The Type III functional response is sigmoidal in shape. What component, lacking in a Type II response, adequately describes the sigmoid response?
Learning by the predator.
A current theory in behavioral ecology which states that insects will act in ways that serve to maximize their benefit to cost ratio is called what?
When talking about life table data, what is the k-value?
Killing power, difference between logarithms of the population before and after mortality acts.
Peter Price has said that organisms with a high probability of death will produce more offspring than those with a low probability of death. What is this theory called?
Balanced mortality hypothesis.
Who was the well-known Australian proponent of density-dependence?
What was the "predator" used in Holling's original Disk Equation studies?
Humans (his secretary).
Who wrote the book 'The Geographical Distribution of Animals' which recognized thebiogeographic realms of existing animals still used today?
If a flower is characterized by evening bloom, heavy scent and highly visible pale or white color, what type of insect would be very likely to visit it?
Trophic webs are influenced strongly by chemical signals referred to as semiochemicals. What is another general term for these signals?
What is the term for the facultative deutalnymphal stage of acridids that is adapted for phoresy and is characterized by vestigial mouthparts and increased scleratization?
What protects cochineal insects from predation by ants?
What axiom states that body size within a species increases with latitude?
Name the two components of diversity.
Species richness and eveness.
What does one call the ability to leave viable progeny in relation to the ability of others?
What term was coined by Richard Root into describe a group of species that exploit the same environmental resource in a similar manner?
What type of mimicry is characterized by aggressive resemblance?
What is the specific term for pollination of flowers by butterflies?
Who developed the probability of encounter hypothesis?
Who first developed a discrete host parasite model in the's using difference equations?
Nicholson and Bailey.
The evolution of dark or melanic populations of insects in industrially polluted areas is termed what?
The selective advantage of the dark form of the peppered moth, Biston betularia, on sooty trees in England was first demonstrated by who?
Elton was one of the first ecologists to analyze trophic structures in terms of ecological pyramids. What trophic level always forms the base of these pyramids?
The production of living young immediately following the hatching of the eggs within the female is termed what?
Omnivorous scavengers eat what type of food?
Any organic matter.
Which term describes 'late summer'?
What law states that, under steady state conditions, the factor closest to a critical minimum will be a limiting factor.
Liebeig's law of the minimum.
What does the symbol, ex, represent as used in life tables?
Age-specific mean life expectance (i.e. the average number of age units that individuals in age class x can expect to live).
Emergence traps are used to measure which of the following: natality, mortality or dispersal?
What is the primary substance that attracts the ambrosia beetle, Trypodendron lineatum, to dying trees?
What is the term that refers to an aquatic or semiaquatic insect that is found in a container habitat such as a tree hole?
Name two families of flies that mimic bees.
Asilidae, Bombyliidae, Syrphidae, and Stratiomyidae.
Which ecologist proposed the "Law of Tolerance" which states that the abundance or distribution of an organism is controlled by factors that exceed the maximum or minimum levels or tolerance for that organism?
Gerydinae feed on aphidsTo what family of insect do Gerydinae belong?
A mortality factor whose effects on the host are most strongly correlated with changes in total or generation host density is termed what?
Diapause in the warm season of temperate latitudes is called aestival diapause. In the cold season, it is called what?
An aggregration of two or more individuals of the same species which cooperate in some way to obtain and maintain shelter and food, or to perpetuate the species is called?
If a flower is characterized by a horizontal landing surface, day blooms and sweet odor, what kind of insect would be likely to visit it?
What family of insects uses traumatic insemination as a form of mating?
A precisely defined sequence of rules, stating how to produce specific output information from given inputs in a finite number of steps is known as what?
What is the term for mortality factors which are most related to change of population through generations?
Where do Demodex folicularum mites defecate?
They don't defecate, but instead store wastes as crystals and pass pieces of these to their progeny.
How may certain ant species increase the population density of a host that possesses an effective natural enemy complex?
By tending the hosts, and therby protecting them from their natural enemies.
Some insects undergo a resting stage due to unfavorable conditions and resume activity when conditions become favorable again. What is the proper name for this state?
Insects that are adapted to feeding exclusively on living and dead fungi are called what?
Fungivorous or myceotophitic.
In a life table, what does qx. represent?
Death rate among individuals in age interval x (age-specific mortality rate).
A common symbiont in many aphids, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen in conditions of nitrogen scarcity, belongs to what genus?
What does entomophilic mean?
What are intermeshed-food chains?
What term is used for the general phenomenon of the chemical inhibition of competitors, herbivores, pathogens, or predators?
What statistical dispersal pattern are sequential sampling programs based on?
The organism must have a negative binomial distribution.
Milne said that many populations had imperfect density dependence because they exhibited a high degree of variance around their average population densities. D.R. Strong has resurrected this concept with a new name. What is his phrase to describe imperfect density dependence?
What term specifically refers to or describes gall-forming insects?
Andrewartha and Birch proposed that the factors most influential on insect populations are density independent factors. The insect they used to illustrate this was in what genus?
The mode of speciation whereby species are formed during geographical isolation is called what?
The pitcher of the insectivorous pitcher plant is a modification of what plant structure?
The term for the number of individuals per unit area is what?
What is pseudoparasitism?
Floral mimicry of parasitoid hosts for the purpose of attracting parasitoids as pollinators.
What is an insect called that feeds on living plants?
What are the three insect orders which have larval members which are known to be aquatic filter feeders?
Trichoptera, Diptera and Ephemeroptera.
Name the orders of insects that display some form of brood care or social life.
Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Dermaptera and Coleoptera.
The composition of the osmeterial secretion of some swallowtail caterpillars changes at the fourth ecdysis. These chemical changes are synchronous with what change in larval appearance?
Young larvae are cryptic while the last instar is aposematic.
The replacement of a female in a population by their daughters is known as what?
Net replacement rate (Ro).
What ecological term describes an interaction between two species in which one is benefited and the other is not affected?
What is the most commonly involved sugar moiety in plant-defensive glycosides?
The majority of phloem feeding insects belong to four superfamilies within the Homoptera. Name three of these superfamilies.
Psylloidea, Aleyroidea, Coccoidea and Aphidoide.
The Ekman dredge is used to sample insects living where?
In river or lake bottoms.
Products which are not essential to basic metabolism but which plants produce at great expense and are often toxic to other plants and insects are?
Secondary metabolic products or allelochemics.
Chemical defense has been secondarily lost in many termitids, perhaps because it is so costly. What factor bears primary responsibility for defense in these species?
Intricate nest structures from which the inhabitants are difficult to disentangle.
The number of animals captured per unit effort is an example of what type of population estimate.
Some moths possess the ability to detect the sound emissions of bats. Name another group of insects which also has this ability.
What term describes parasitism by one sex on the other sex of the same species?
What are the three principal properties of individual plants or their component parts that may serve as visual cues to foraging insects?
Spectral quality, dimensions (size), and pattern (shape).
The Leslie matrix was proposed as a deterministic model for predicting what aspect of a population of female animals?
Age structure of a population.
What is the term for the development of several individual organisms from a single egg?
Hydrogen cyanide occurs in the defensive secretion of the larvae of what Coleopteran family?
What is the Q/A ratio?
An equation describing the active space or fade time of a pheromone. Q=natural emission rate; K=behavioral threshold concentration.
Contest competition can also be called what?
The most common life stage in which diapause is spent is what for the Coleoptera?
The natural selection process between host and parasite wherein gene changes in the host result in gene changes in the parasite and vice versa is known as what?
Genetic feedback (coevolution).
In response to extreme cold conditions in many insects, the water concentration in cells is decreased and the relative concentration of what component is increased?
Many mosquitoes oviposit in pools of water of limited volume, resulting in intense competition among the developing larvae. How are larval populations of some mosquitoes such as Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus self-regulated?
Larvae release metabolites into the water which result in prolonged development and/or increased mortality of conspecifics as well as other species.
A bola spider, Mastophora cornigera, attracts its prey with what?
From what term did the word trophic originate?
Greek word 'trophikos' meaning food.
What are two of the three climatic parameters used in the Holdridge life zone system?
Transpiration, precipitation, evaporation.
Of the Tenuipalpidae, Phytoseiidae, Eriophyiidae, and Tetranychidae, which family is primarily predacious?
The grape leafhopper was considered the key pest of grapes in the San Joaquin Valley. To overcome the problem, growers planted borders around the vineyards which provided an alternate host for the mymarid parasite of the grape leafhopper. What plant was used in these borders?
Blackberry, Rubus spp.
What term describes the evolution of physical differences between coexisting species to reduce mutual competition?
DDT and Carbaryl have been known to cause mite outbreaks. What is the term for the hormonelike effect a small quantity of a stressor may have on an organism stimulating an increase in egg production?
When confronted with conflicting stimuli, what nonfunctional stereotyped behavioral category may occur?
When the population of one generation is expressed as a function of the population of the previous generation what is it called?
Ricker reproduction curve.
What is the major purpose of sequential sampling?
To classify a population rather than estimate density.
Diapause induction is most commonly triggered by what cue?
There are hundreds of know Cynipid galls but most occur on what two types of plants?
Oaks and roses.
What is the description and analysis of the natural optical environment in terms of the visual system of an animal?
What is the term used for groups of populations that actually or potentially interbreed with each other?
To which general trophic level would sawfly larvae belong?
According to Whittaker, Leven and Root an often misused term which should be used only for species utilization within a community is what?
Who defined guild?
When a plant is pollinated by many insects, what is it termed?
The D-vac, a high speed suction sampler, was named after what researcher?
Who developed the pyramid of energy?
Solomon recognized two categories of predator responses to changes in prey density. What were they?
Functional response and numerical response.
Rhyniella praecursor is the oldest known fossil insect. To what order does it belong and from what period of geological history is it known?
Collembola, Devonian Period.
Insects with high fecundity, low survivorship, low competitive ability and generation time (T) > habitat stability (S) are said to be what kind of strategists?
The percentage of mortality compared to the original population is termed what?
Who coined the term "null hypothesis"?
Juvabione is active on insects in what family?
From a trophic standpoint, an ecosystem has two components. What are they?
Auto- and Heterotrophic; Producers and Consumers.
Of lx, dx, and mx, which term refers to natality?
A factor influencing mortality or survival in a fashion which is independent of population density is called what?
Density independent factor.
What term describes the release of pollen in response to disturbance by an insect?
How does the larvae of the beetle Hemisphaerota sp. protect itself?
Makes a protective canopy from strands of its own feces.
What three orders of insects cause galls?
Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Homoptera.
Who coined the term "orgy of mutual benefaction"?
The soldiers of Globitermes sulphureus (Termitinae) release copious, sticky salivary secretions when disturbed. How is the release of these materials accomplished?
The soldiers burst open when molested.
What is a circadian rhythm?
24 hour cycles (repeating cycles of about a day).
What mathematical model was used by C. B. Williams to describe the relative abundance of moth species in light traps?
What is the branch of science which deals with the interrelationships between living things and the relationships between organisms and their environment?
U.S. newspapers and journals are highly active in 'paper factor', whereas European and Japanese papers are not. Why?
American paper is manufactured primarily from balsam fir, Abies balsame.
The Shannon-Weaver index of diversity is probably the most widely used diversity index among entomologists. However, this index has no biological derivation. From what general theory was this index developed?
Information or communication theory.
Who popularized the theory that genes were the selective units of evolution?
We have used the term parasitoid to define an organism which kills and consumes a single prey during its life. However, this distinction had been made in Who first made the distinction between parasites and parasitoids?
What is alpha diversity?
Diversity of species within a community.
Why are ants (genus Pseudomyrex) of benefit to the bullhorn acacia?
They fend off other insects.
Larvae of Heliothis virescens produce large quantities hydrocarbons which serve as kairomones for the braconid parasitoid, Cardiochiles nigriceps. Where are these kairomones produced?
In the mandibular glands and the frass.
Populations of widespread spp. tend to evolve adaptations to local environments. Such locally adapted populations are called what?
Some lady beetles are rather cryptic while others are aposematic. What defensive compounds of lady beetles occur only in aposematic species?
When an animal uses bright colors as a warning system, what is this called?
What term is applied to an insect which completes only one generation per year?
Which of the following factors is most likely to act upon an insect population as a density dependent factor: Hirsutella fungus, chloropyrifos, fire or freezing?
A group of adult orthopterans in a field environment would have what type of survivorship curve?
Hollow curve; Type III survivorship curve.
What is deuterotoky?
Parthenogenetic reproduction where progeny of unmated females may consist of both males and females.
What is the name of the ecological zone located beneath a stream bed?
What is the accumulation of chemicals in an animal's body up through the trophic structure?
What term describes the condition where juvenile characters persist in the adult?
For insects with high net multiplication factors a given level of change in either Ro or TG has a greater impact on intrinsic rate of increase?
Where would you expect to find rheophilic insect species?
In rapidly flowing rivers or streams.
Animals feeding on decaying vegetable matter are called what?
A mortality factor that causes a level of mortality directly but negatively related to host density is termed?
What type model has all parameters constant and no variability due to random chance?
What South African entomophagous hyaenid is specialized for feeding on the termite Trinervitermes bettonianus?
The earth wolf.
When two or more populations interact so closely that each acts as a strong selective force on the evolution of the other, the process is called what?
In a typical life table, the column labeled lx refers to what?
The number surviving to a specific age interval or the age specific survivorship.
Animals which are adapted to continuous life in caves are called what?
Troglobites (Cavernicolus=associated with caves).
From what part of the body are bark beetle pheromones released?
Hindgut (along with the feces).
What is unusual about the Christmas star orchid?
Corolla on flower is very long. Only one moth, Xanthopan morgani praedicta can pollinate it.
What is Mullerian mimicry?
Similarity in shape, form and color of distantly related unpalatable species.
What stage in a sere is indicated if the ratio of production to community respiration approaches one?
Who is the author of 'Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations'?
T. R. E. Southwood.
A local population in which there is a significant degree of interbreeding is termed a what?
Perhaps the best known example of industrial melanism in insects is that of Bison betularia, the peppered moth. Name another moth species which commonly exhibits this phenomenon.
Lymantria monarcha, the nun moth.
Allomones, kairomones, synomones, and apneumones are subdivisions of what major group of semiochemicals?
Allelochemicals or allelochemics.
What term describes a species that has two or more distinct phenotypes coexisting in a natural population?
Any chemical involved in the chemical interaction between organisms is called a what?
The survivorship curve that is characteristic of insects is called what?
In Odum's Biology layer cake, the vertical lines represent what discipline?
What habitat is not widely exploited by insects?
What mechanical defense of Epilachna varivestis against ants has been described in detail?
Varley and Gradwell's key factor analysis method allows the investigator to not only identify the key factors responsible for the population trends, but to examine what other property of the K's?
What is the term for insects breeding more than once in a lifetime?
A chemical produced by plants that inhibits other plants is called?
Allelopathic chemical (allelochemic).
Orchids which attract male insects by mimicking females with their floral parts achieve pollination by what method?
What is it called when two or more species have closely similar requirements and compete for resources that are in limited supply, and one species tends to displace the others?
The competitive exclusion principle (or Gaussian principle).
In order to minimize intraspecific competition, natural selection drives populations toward what?
What is the name describing two species that are morphologically alike but ecologically separable?
What functional response model predicts a constant percent mortality over all densities?
Nicholson model or Type I.
In an insect life table, what does 'lx' refer to?
Number of insects alive at beginning of the age interval.
In aquatic environments where would one expect to find the pneustine community?
Surface of the water.
The phenomenon of orientation of stream animals upstream is called what?
In what type of mimicry is the model relatively unpalatable and the mimic palatable?
What is parthenogenesis?
Reproduction without fertilization.
What is the function of the pygidial or anal glands in dolichoderine ants?
They produce a defensive secretion.
What is carrying capacity?
The maximum sustainable population given the resources in that area (K).
The factors which keep carrying capacity below the biotic potential are collectively known as what?
What dispersal method do spiderlings use?
Animals that feed on feces or dung are called what?
Scatophagous or coprophagous.
What is the name of the equation for dispersion from a single, continuously emitting point source?
In his book "Animal Ecology", the noted English ecologist Charles Elton used what term to describe those animals that feed on plants and are so abundant that many other animals use them as a source of food?
Key industry animals.
Ant-fed plants attract and house ants which in turn bring organic matter to fertilize the plant. Name a plant family in which such a relationship occurs.
Bromeliaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Nepenthaceae, Piperaceae, Polypodiaceae, and Rubiaceae.
A population capable of damaging and of surviving on plants previously known to be resistant to other populations of the same species is known as what?
What is the specific term for pollination of flowers by syrphid and bombyliid flies?
What is the name of the paradox which shows that fish in some aquatic habitats require many times more prey biomass than is available at one time?
The logistic growth model was developed independently by two men whose names are attached to a synonym for this equation. What is this other name for the logistic growth equation?
What is the term used to describe insects that require more than one year to complete their life cycle?
Pollinators which forage on a single species of plant are said to be what?
In Odum's Biology layer cake, the horizontal lines represent what disciplines?
Biological sciences other than taxonomy.
Growth efficiency is higher for reduviidae or chrysomelidae?
What is name for two populations or species that are geographically isolated?
Who developed the idea of pyramid of numbers?
A record of births and deaths occurring in a cohort of individuals is known as a what?
A factor which causes a proportionate increase in mortality or decrease in fecundity as population density increases is called what?
Density dependent factor
The first law of thermodynamics indicates that the first link in any food chain in the biosphere must be what?
Heat provided by the sun or deep sea vents.
What are tannins?
Chemicals used by plants in defense against Herbivores.
With respect to biological development what is effective temperature?
Degrees above the growth threshold.
The reference level of density about which a population varies was referred to by Nicholson as the "steady state", H.S. Smith termed this as what?
What is a viviparous insect?
One that gives birth to living young, nourished for some period within the body of the female and released in a more advanced state of development than in ovoviviparity.
Which is generally more representative when sampling a plot: a random or a systematic sample?
What is the correct ecological term to describe a mixed species group all on the same trophic level, which occurs in a given area?
What's the main difference between a kairomone and an allomone?
Kairomone is adaptive to the recipient (and often to the emitter), whereas, with an allomone the benefit falls on the emitter.
To predict the age structure of a population of female animals what three things must be known about a population?
Age structure at some point in time, age-specific survival rate, and fecundity rates.
What ovarian structure in Anopheles mosquitoes is examined to determine the number of ovarian cycles?
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