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US History and Geography - McGraw Hill - Chapter 2
Terms in this set (34)
French Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Fort Necessity (1754)
British fort hastily created during French Indian War. Was defended by George Washington but captured by the French in 1754. Washington was allowed to march away.
June 1754 delegates from 7 colonies met with 150 Iroquois leaders at Albany, New York. Iroquois would not join British but achieved neutrality between British and Iroquois. Colonies also agreed that Britain should appoint one supreme commander of all troops in colonies. Ben Franklin and others created Albany Plan of Union which proposed that colonies unite to form a federal government.
A British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded.
Treaty of Paris 1763
The Peace Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the French Indian War (aka the Seven Years War)
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury and did not follow common law. He did this to end smuggling.
A maritime tribunal presided over by a royally appointed judge, with no jury and no common law. Were designed to be used for property.
taxes on foreign imported goods
American Revenue Act of 1764
Also known as the Sugar Act. Added taxes to sugar, molasses, silk, wine, coffee, pimento, and indigo. Property of merchants caught smuggling was presumed illegal until proven otherwise. Officials could seize goods without due process in court.
A continuous rise in the price of goods and services.
Currency Act of 1764
Banned use of paper money in the colonies. Colonies wanted to repay debts to english using paper money instead of the coin they had borrowed.
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc. In order to publish a paper would need the author listed.
Virginia House of Burgesses (1619)
First representative assembly in the american colonies. Representatives immediately began to enact laws and to safeguard the individual rights. Setting precedent in the colonies for individual rights protected by law
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. Included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
Twenty-seven delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
A form of protest against British policies; colonial merchants refused to import British goods.
Stamp Act Repeal (1766)
Parliament repeals the Stamp Act (repealing was effected by boycotts and Stamp Act Congress, which voiced anger at taxes). But, it also set up the Declaratory Act.
1766 British law stating that parliament had an absolute right to tax the colonies and to make laws that would be enacted in the colonies
Townshend Acts (1767)
Imposed a tax - to be paid at American ports - on items produced in Britain & sold in the colonies, including paper, glass, lead, paint, & tea.
Suspended the New York Assembly for refusing to provide British troops with supplies.
Established an American Board of Customs & admiralty courts to hear cases of smuggling.
Led to a boycott of British goods, the Circular Letters, John Dickinson's "Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer," and unrest in Boston.
British Prime Minister. Influenced Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts.
Writs of Assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled. Part of Townshend acts.
Circular Letter (1768)
In February, Samuel Adams of Massachusetts writes a Circular Letter opposing taxation without representation and calling for the colonists to unite in their actions against the British government. The letter is sent to assemblies throughout the colonies and also instructs them on the methods the Massachusetts general court is using to oppose the Townshend Acts.
Virginia Resolves (1765)
May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry's speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resistance to the British policies, 5 of which were adopted by the Virginia legislature. 8 other colonies followed suit and had adopted similar resolves by the end of 1765.
incident in 1770 in which British troops fired on and killed American colonists
parliament taxed the colonists on tea; maintained that they had authority over all subjects; led to Boston Tea Party
Rhode Island colonists boarded the HMS Gaspee, a British ship, looted it, then burned and sank it in 1772.
Committees of Correspondence
Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
These acts were laws that punished the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. Called the Coercive Acts in England. The Americans called them Intolerable.
Coercive Acts (1774)
1. Closed Boston port until destroyed tea paid for.
2. stopped town meetings.
3. Appointed a military government for Massachusetts.
4. Trials of government officials will be in England.
The legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Colonists were forced to house and supply British soldiers 1775
A body of representatives from the British North American colonies who met to respond to England's Intolerable Acts. They declared independence in July 1776 and later drafted the Articles of Confederation.
Member of a militia during the American Revolution who could be ready to fight in sixty seconds
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