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Ch 1-4 CSD 110
Terms in this set (87)
How many Americans have a communication disorder?
1 in 5; 65 million Americans
What do audiologists do?
measure hearing ability and identify, assess, manage, and prevent disorders of hearing and balance (need a doctoral degree)
What do speech-language pathologists do?
provide an assortment of services related to communicative disorders; identify, assess, treat, and prevent communication disorders in all modalities, both receptively and expressively.
What degree is required for SLPs to obtain national certification?
What do speech, language, hearing scientists do? Where do they work?
Speech: involved in basic research exploring anatomy, physiology, and physics of speech-sound production/ Language: investigate ways in which children learn their native tongue/ Hearing: investigate the nature of sound, noise, hearing/ Overall to extend our knowledge of human communication processes and disorders; work in universities, gov't agencies, industry, research centers
What are examples of prevention in speech-language pathology?
What are examples of prevention in audiology?
by recommending and fitting protective devices, by consulting with gov't and industry on the detrimental effects and management of environmental noise
Where do SLPs and AUDs work? With whom do they work?
hospitals, school, nursing facilities, etc.
Where do the majority of SLPs work? (percentages)
~50% SLPs are employed by school systems
What is the definition of communication?
an exchange of ideas between senders and receivers, involves message transmission and response or feedback
What are the 3 components of communication?
language, speech, hearing
What is the difference between nonverbal and verbal communication? (examples of each)
verbal includes spoken or written word; nonverbal includes naturalistic gestures, facial expressions, signs
Definition of language (generative and dynamic)
socially shared code that is used to represent concepts; uses arbitrary symbols that are combined in rule-governed ways (generative: can create new utterances/ dynamic: changes over time)
Definition of speech
physical production of spoken language: process of producing the acoustic representations or sounds of language; influenced by articulation, fluency, voice
Definition of hearing
the process of perceiving sound
What is acuity?
the ability to perceive sound
What is the difference between speech and language?
Language is the primary vehicle of communication; speech is the primary vehicle for language
Language can be...
oral, written, signed
Definitions for form, content, and use
Form: phonology, morphology, syntax/ Content: semantics/ Use: pragmatics
Semantics (def and ex)
Pragmatics (def and ex)
reason for speaking
Syntax (def and ex)
how words are arranged in a sentence and how the ways in which one words may affect another
Morphology (def and ex)
structure of words
Phonology (def and ex)
system of speech sounds
What is a communication disorder for which no physical cause can be found?
Communication disorders affect which of the following areas: speech, reading, writing, hearing, listening
What is an oral-facial exam?
Examine the structure and function of the speech mechanism
What do you do in an opening interview?
learn more about the individual, explain procedures of evaluation, answer any questions
Why "put the person first" in terminology regarding individuals with disabilities?
does not define the person solely on the disability
Are regional variations in a language disorders or differences?
What are some examples of dialect differences?
location, foreign language background, ethnicity
What is an assessment? Is it okay to just give one test and do nothing else for an assessment?
process of verifying and specifying communication strengths and weaknesses/ info gathered through various means, from various sources, and in different settings
What are the purposes of an assessment? What will the results of the assessment be used for?
1. Does a problem exist; 2. Diagnosis; 3. Areas of strength; 4. Areas of weakness; 5. Severity; 6. Etiology; 7. Treatment plan; 8. Prognosis; 9. Identify functional communication needs
What is the main goal of intervention/therapy?
Client to improve communication skills
Why set goals? How do you determine goals?
client/family needs and wants, generalization, ease of mastery, age appropriateness
What is included in a behavioral objective?
statement that specifies a GOAL in a OBSERVABLE and MEASURABLE way
What are therapy approaches based on?
-the research literature
-what we know about the disorder
-what works best for the individual client
-what works best for a particular family
-your beliefs and perspectives as a clinician
Is intervention always very structured? Does the degree of structure vary? Why would it vary?
may be highly structured, loosely structured, or somewhere in between (individual disorders require individual interventions)
Is intervention always about "fixing" the client? If not, what else can the SLP/AUD do to help the client?
providing a way to communicate more efficiently (AAU)
Is involving the family important? Who should be involved in setting goals?
Yes! SLP, family, client
What is important to examine when measuring effectiveness?
Did client meet his/her goals, have skills generalized to contexts outside of therapy, has client maintained skills learned?
Describe a typically developing infant's physical, social, and intellectual maturation (body proportions & movements, vision, hearing, coordination of the two, vision with reaching, how does each characteristic impact communication?)
Body: proportions of head = 1/4 total body length; movements like twitches and jerks are random and reflex; vision is nearsighted (prefer movement and light contrasts); able to distinguish loudness/intensity and duration, able to discriminate phonemes; learn to coordinate vision and hearing within first few weeks; learn to coordinate vision and reach within first few months
Infant's communication development: what is intentionality?
behavior is purposely meant to influence other
Infant's speech development: When can newborns discriminate between speech sounds?
Infants and Todders-Language: When do babies typically produce their first meaningful words?
Infants and Todders-Language: When do they typically attain ~50 words and begin to combine words?
Infants and Todders-Language: Describe syntax and phonology of a typical toddler's language.
syntax: early word combinations follow predictable word-order patterns; phonology: may simplify sound patterns of adult words
Preschoolers-Communication: What things have children generally mastered by the end of the preschool years?
Preschoolers-Speech: Do children develop speech sounds gradually or quickly?
Preschoolers-Speech: In what position do preschoolers learn many speech sounds?
Preschoolers-Speech: What are consonant clusters? When do preschoolers learn them?
two or more consonants next to each other; learn them later
School-age and adolescents: What are metalinguistic skills?
ability to think about, talk about, and analyze language
School-age and adolescents: Is development of the form of language emphasized at this stage? Why or why not?
no, content and use are because those are more refined aspects
School-age and adolescents: What happens to pragmatic skills during this time?
conversational skills continue to develop, narratives expand, adjust language use depending on partner
Adults: Are language skills refined throughout life for some people?
Adults: Which is more complex for adults: written or spoken language?
Adults: Do speech changes occur with age? If so, what may change?
yes, complex sentences may decline, word finding difficulties, talk more about psychological/social topics (emotional/personal/past)
*What 3 systems are involved in the anatomy and physiology of the speech mechanism?
respiratory, phonatory, articulatory/resonating systems
Respiratory system: locate diaphragm, trachea, lungs (and esophagus) on the diagram
*What is the most important muscle for breathing? What is it shaped like?
diaphragm, shaped like a dome
Phonatory system: What is phonation?
sounds produced by vocal fold vibration
Phonatory system: What is the larynx and what is its function?
sound producing mechanism for speech; primary function is to prevent objects from entering the trachea (airway)
Phonatory system: locate all parts of the larynx (hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, arytenoid cartilages, cricoid cartilage, epiglottis) on diagram
Phonatory system: Where does the cricoid cartilage sit?
sits above the first tracheal ring
Phonatory system: What are the arytenoids cartilages shaped like? Where do they sit? What very important structures are attached to them?
pyramid shaped, sit on top of the cricoid at the back, vocal folds are attached to them
Phonatory system: What structure prevents food from entering the larynx?
Phonatory system: What is the glottis?
space between vocal folds
Phonatory system: What is abduction? What is adduction?
abductors open folds, adductors bring folds together
Articulatory system: list the articulators. Why are they called articulators?
jaw, teeth, hard palate, soft palate, tongue, lips, pharynx, alveolar ridge; changing shapes result in different sounds and articulations
Locate alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate, pharynx, tongue, oral cavity, and nasal cavity on the diagram.
What is another name for the soft palate? What is the job of this structure? Can it move? What sounds is it elevated for? What sounds is it lowered for?
velum; opens and closes nasal cavity from oral cavity, can move,
What is the difference between a language disorder and a language delay?
delay: behind in development but catch up with same-age peers over time; disorder: a true impairment
Does someone with a language disorder always follow typical developmental patterns?
nope-but definitely behind in some areas of language
Do most language disorders look the same (are they a homogenous group?)
most are heterogenous
What areas of language may be affected for someone with a language disorder?
expressive, receptive, form, content, use
What is SLI?
A specific language impairment. Significant limitations in language functioning that cannot be attributed to deficits in hearing, oral structure/function, intelligence, or perception.
What areas of language can be affected for children who have SLI?
form, content, use, receptive, expressive (especially form)
Learning disabilities can affect areas? What is the male to female ratio? Is this typical of other childhood disorders?
usually all areas affected to some degree; 4:1 ratio; ASD boys 5x more likely
What is the difference between language comprehension and language expression? (ex of each)
comprehension is receptive, understanding; expression is production
What is a cognitive disability? What are the causes? Do we always know the cause? What is the role of early intervention?
limitations in intellectual capacity and adaptive behaviors; causes can be biological, socio-environmental, or unknown; early intervention is critical
What is the cause of autism?
unknown/biological: neurological differences/genetic: mutations, presence of disorder, high risk with family history
Which area of language is most affected with individuals who have autism?
What is a strength of most individuals with autism?
What areas of language may be affected with neglect and abuse? Which area tends to be most affected?
all areas may be affects, pragmatics most affected
When is the fetus particularly vulnerable with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
What is the leading cause of Brain Injury?
traumatic brain injury (TBI), typically from falls or auto-accidents
What difficulties do children with Brain Injury tend to have (or adults, for that matter)?
Use: difficulty regulating amount/manner of conversation, irrelevant conversational topics, utterances may be long and off-topic
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