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Terms in this set (116)
D: cellular disorganization
D: changes in cell size, shape and organization
D: abnormal mass of tissue that serves no purpose and may be harmful to host
what form of new growth is commonly found during a pap smear?
D: abnormal increase in number of cells
is the nucleus in a cancer cell larger or smaller than normal
how many daughter cells from from a normal cell?
what mechanism do cancer cells lack that normal cells have on the P53 gene?
Under what circumstances are normal cells not able to grow that cancer cells can?
T or F: 75% of our exposure to radiation is from UV?
False, its 80%
What percentage of the amount of radiation were exposed to comes from xray?
What medical procedure exposes the most radiation?
What viruses contain carcinogens?
HPV-cirvical and oral
HEP B and C- liver
Heliobacter pylori- gastric
What supplements hormones put people at increased risk of neoplasia?
estrogen and testosterone
What is a form of primary cancer prevention?
intervention before pathologic change
What is a form of secondary cancer prevention?
how long before colonoscopys if there is no issue?
What is the ideal outcome of secondary prevention?
detect precancerous lesions
What is the goal of tertiary prevention?
when is tertiary prevention detected?
A support group is an example of what form of prevention?
A colonoscopy is an example of what form of prevetion?
A healthy diet is an example of what form of prevention?
What is the resting phase of the cell cycle/
what is the stage of the cell cycle where RNA and protein is synthesized?
What is the stage of the cell cycle where DNA is synthesized as well as proteins?
At what stage of the cell cycle is it preparing for division?
What is the actualcell devision stage?
What is the process of creating 2 daughter cells called?
What type of cell completes the cell cycle quicker?
What phase are cancer cells least likely to enter?
what cancer is associated with melanocytes?
What type of cancer is ewings sarcoma
bone marrow (endothelial)
what tissue is lelomyosarcoma?
smooth muscle tissue
what tissue is rhabdomyosarcoma?
striated muscle tissue
how do you categorize tumors?
according to extent of disease and organs involved
How is degree of malignancy characterized?
how is extent of malignancy or spread characterized?
How long until cancer is staged?
right after diagnosis
What is another name for stage 0 cancer?
When does metasis first begin in staging?
when are nodes completly involved in staging?
when are other organs involved in staging?
What does the T mean in TNM?
what does the N mean in TNM?
what does the M mean in TNM?
what does the grade of tumor use as comparison?
cancer and normal cells
A pt get the diagnosis of cancer, upon discussion with her doctor he tells her that her grade is 2 and that her cells are well differentiated and deviated minimally from normal cells. Your pt is in tears and know that differentiated means that the cells are no longer similar to normal cells. Is she correct?
the pt misundersttod the doctor, what this means is that the components are easily identifiable which is a good thing.
A grade of poorly differentiated cells would be what number?
3 or 4
when would you use palliation?
when cancer is beyond treatment
What are the 3 main treatment modalities for cancer?
surgery, radiation and chemo
what does raidation damage?
RNA and DNA causing cell death
T or F: radiation is the only form of cancer treatment that can not be used palliatively?
False it can be
what is the type of radiation that is used outside of body?
what is the issue with external beam radiation?
it affects all tissue in its path
what is the unsealed source of internal radiation?
what form of internal radiation is lifelong?
how long are brachtherapys used?
T or F: because a pt with seeds is lifelong, they have many precaitions to follow?
what form of internal radiation causes the pt to be radioactice?
what is the form of systemic radiation tx?
what cancer pt must be on isolation?
what body system is affected by external beam?
bone marrow suppressed
T or F: chemo is the only cancer treatment that causes N/V?
false, radiation does
what is the trademark symptom of radiation pt?
what reactions will a pt with external beam hae?
rash at entry and exit site
why dont pt going through radiation wanna eat?
damage to salivary glands
how long must you wait after surgery to begin radiation tx?
how does radiologist know where to enter for radiation every time?
marked with a tattoo
T or F: pts on radiation tx can not use ointment, powder, soaps and deodorants but since perfume is not directly applied to the skin, there is no problem?
when would you use chemotherapy as tx?
if cancer is widespread
If every tx option has been used and none work, what is the last hope?
how was chemo discovered?
through the use of some antibiotics, hromones and toxic plants
what process does chemo alter?
what is the tx regimen for chemo?
repeated doses or cycles
what should be done before chemo?
functional assessment and clearance tests
A 85 year old pt suffering from copd and chronic bronchitis entered the hospital sob. The doctor determined she has cancer and she is diagnosed with stage 3 thyroid cancer that has metastized to additional areas such as the lugns. The thyroid has been removed and radiation started but no success yet. What is the next step?
normally it would be chemo, but she is not healthy enoguh
palliative care would be suggested
what is the major benefit to combo chemo?
produces less side effects because of decrased doses
T or F: one benfit to combo chemo is that the doctors have developed a combination that works on the majority of pts that it is used on?
false, it is specifc to pt
The site and type of cancer has a major influence on chemo, why?
it is how drug choise is made
Why does site of cancer matter when choosing drug for chemo?
not all drugs can reach areas. BBB
How is dose of chemo determined?
body surface area
schedule of dose/action
A pt receiving chemo through iv is at risk for what?
when would a pt be on topical chemo?
what method of chemo delivery is used for hepatic caner?
what method of chemo delivery is used for pleural and bladder cancer?
When would you administer chemo intrathecal?
can chemo be given im or sq?
what effects does chemo have on CBC?
what is the major fear of pt going through chemo?
where do pt get sore when on chemo?
mouth, rectal, vaginal, nose, GI
T or F: teach every chemo pt that they will be experiencing hair loss?
false, not all drugs cause it
what chemo drug can only be given once because of adverse cardio effect?
what chemo medication may need to be stopped during schedule? why?
hematopoietic because counts may drop too low
treat with epogen
what chemo med is toxic to the liver?
Cytoxan and Ciplatin require what interventions?
mg replacement and prehydration
what chemo drug cancause neuropathies?
What is necessary before handling chemo drugs?
what does a lower dose of chemo treat?
what type of cancer may interleukins treat?
what drug used to be a morning sickness drug but is now used to cut off blood supply?
when should you talk to the pt about blood transfusion?
before any tx is determined because that may cause a change
cancer treatment may cause what electrolyte to increase?
what endocrine disorder is caused from cancer tx?
what oncology emergency causes the pt to bleed to death because platelets get consumed?
if a cancer pt is complaining of new pain or weakness what oncology emergency may occur?
cspinal cord compression/paralysis
what oncology emergency makes it so the ventricles can not fill?
if bone marrow is suppressed, how can you tell a pt has an infection?
fever of 37.5
when should you put a cancer pt in protective isoaltion?
if anc is less than 500
a pt with bone marrow suppression can not have what in their room?
fresh flowers, fruits, vegetables or yogurt
What medication may need to be given to bone marrow suppressed pt?
When should a cancer pt wear a mask?
bone marrow suppressed
only when they leave their room
AP has been diagnosed with bone marrow suppression. Upon assessment you notice she has brusing. You also notice her IV is out and there is blood stains on the bed. She tells you that she fell earlier and thats how these occured. She has an order for IM, do you give it?
No, pt may have thrombocytopenia
What medication can not be given to thrombocytopenia?
James has thrombocytopenia. Upon preforming his neuro assessment he tells you that he has a headache that lasted for 2 days and wants some pain meds. You see he has an order for aspirin because of his hx of MI. He also has an order for acetaminophen as a pain medication for surgery. What intervention should you take?
acetaminophen and call dr to remove aspirin from the list
T or F: hep A is the only hep that doesnt cause cancer?
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