Psychology 101 Exam 1
Terms in this set (67)
Who is considered the founder of the science of psychology?
Structuralism is to functionalism as..
analysis of basic elements is to investigation of purpose
Of the six contemporary perspectives in psychology, which seems to be the most optimistic about human nature?
Both the psychoanalytical and behavioral perspectives share the belief that..
people do not have much control over things that affect their behavior
Imagine that another student says, "My professor said we should spend about 10 hours a week studying if we want to get a good grade. I don't know what is wrong with me, but I just cannot make myself study that much. What should I do?" If someone applies the behavioral perspective to this student, then what suggestion would be made?
Behavior is affected by our environments. What kind of environment do you create for yourself to study in? Does it help you to focus and concentrate, or is it full of distractions? Also, do you find ways to reward yourself for studying? If studying is rewarded, then you will study more.
Numerous studies have shown that people tend to see what they expect to see. This finding that our expectations affect our perception is most consistent with which theoretical perspective?
Studies of students' lecture notes have discovered that
the average student often writes down less than 40% of the crucial ideas in the lecture
The very last pages of each chapter will be a Critical Thinking Application. This section of chapter 1 introduces critical thinking concepts. In the process of critical thinking, the term critical means
being analytical and evaluating ideas
Marion is always late. Why is she always late? One person suggests that it is because she thinks it's better to arrive late and that she thinks arriving early or on time is not cool. This kind of explanation is consistent with which psychological perspective?
A friend recently got married and said that her new husband gets upset with her whenever she burps out loud. When I asked her why he gets upset, she said she thinks it's because he was raised in a very prim and proper household. His parents told him and his siblings that burping out loud was unacceptable and they were punished whenever they did it.
Which psychological perspective does this explanation fit?
Imagine that someone tells a long story about an unusual habit her father has. She asks why her father does that. Which of the following is most consistent with the way a psychologist is trained to think?
"It is not a simple answer, and we need to gather more information about your father before drawing any conclusions . . ."
Imagine that a cognitive psychologist wants to study visualization among athletes. She starts by stating the hypothesis: "Visualization will improve performance among pole vaulters." What is the dependent variable in this example?
performance among pole vaulters
To test her hypothesis, the cognitive psychologist will do an experiment. She randomly selects 20 pole vaulters from all active NCAA pole vaulters and then randomly assigns 10 of them to receive visualization training and 10 to not receive visualization training. The best label for the group of 10 pole vaulters who do not receive visualization training is
The 10 pole vaulters who receive visualization training meet one-on-one with a coach who talks to them about their goals and then teaches them how to create mental pictures of preparing for and completing a pole vault that is a personal best. The other 10 pole vaulters who do not get visualization training meet one-on-one with a coach who talks to them about their goals but does not teach them visualization. At each pole vaulter's next NCAA competition, the researcher records the height in inches of the pole vaulter's best vault. What is the independent variable in this example?
A middle school English teacher decides to use her students for an experiment to see if reading aloud affects how well her students understand poetry. In her first class period in the morning at 8:20 AM, she does not have students read aloud. In her next to last class period in the afternoon at 1:45 PM, she has students read aloud for half of the class. She does this each day for a week and then gives all of the students a new poem to analyze and grades their work on a 0 - 100 scale. In this example, the confounding variable is
In studying the relationship between sleep and physical illness, researchers have found that college students who get more sleep tend to get sick less often. This correlation proves that
the correlation allows us to say with certainty that there is a link between sleep and illness but it does not tell us why they are linked
The "I have a friend who" syndrome is another term for the tendency to
rely on anecdotal evidence
An acquaintance once told me about a time when she had a bad cold and she drank a lot of grapefruit juice. She recovered from that cold quickly, and she is now convinced that grapefruit juice cures colds. Why is it NOT correct to draw such a conclusion?
A. There are numerous uncontrolled extraneous variables that could explain what happened
There is no control group for comparison
The experience of just one person cannot be used to make general statements about major phenomena
In reading about different research methods, you learned that each method has advantages and disadvantages. What is the common thread that cuts across all methods used in psychological science?
they all involve systematic collection of information with the goal of improving our understanding of behavior
The drunken driving suspect was unable to hold his hand out to the side and bring his finger to a stop on his noise because one of the brain structures depressed first by alcohol is the
While studying late at night, Mindy hears a loud bang outside her door. Her heart starts to race, she feels her face flush, and her palms start to sweat. These reactions are part of the fight-or-flight response, and they are caused by activation of the
sympathetic nervous system
Janetta is having a problem with muscle spasms and her doctor gives her a pill to reduce them. She asks her doctor how the pill works, and he says it affects a neurotransmitter that controls muscles. Which neurotransmitter is the drug affecting?
When describing the brain, what does the term neuroplasticity refer to?
the flexibility and changeability of the brain's structure and organization
How does a signal travel from one neuron to the next?
one neuron releases neurotransmitters that travel across the synaptic cleft to bind with another neuron
Which part of the cortex monitors and directs thought processes and is therefore involved in complex cognitive activities, such as planning, paying attention, and getting organized?
Fiona puts her hands into a sinkful of lukewarm water. Luke puts his hands into a sinkful of ice-cold water. Based on what is known about neural transmission, you would predict that the action potentials will
be the same in both individuals due to the all-or-none principle
Ian has been in a coma since he was in a serious car accident. He is still on medical life support because he is unable to breathe and his heart will not beat without assistance. It is likely that the accident caused damage to Ian's
Elizabeth just caught sight of a red and green hummingbird flying in the arboretum. The neural impulses from her eye will eventually travel to her occipital lobe, but first they must pass through which structure to be directed to the correct location for visual processing?
Both sides of our brains are involved in all complex thought, emotion, and behavior. Therefore, it is wrong to describe a person or activity as right- or left-brained. Which structure enables the two sides of our brains to be in constant communication to collaborate and integrate their activities?
Caffeine is the main active ingredient in stimulating beverages such as coffee, green tea, colas, Mountain Dew, Red Bull, and many energy drinks. Caffeine reduces feelings of fatigue because it is a very effective blocker of which neurotransmitter?
You may have heard the myth that you use only 10% of your brain. This is INCORRECT because, at any given time, there is activity in most parts of your brain. In addition, 100% of the brain is used at some point throughout your daily activities.
How is the "use it or lose it" aspect of neuroplasticity helpful for understanding why this 10% claim is a myth?
If you used only 10% of your brain, then the other 90% that is not being used would shrink and die.
When you want to see a faint object in the dark, like a dim star in the night sky, you should not look directly at it. Instead, you should look slightly above or below it because
rods are most plentiful just outside the fovea
Cells in the visual cortex can be characterized as feature detectors because
each cell is highly specialized and responds only to very specific aspects of complex stimuli
Researchers have found that the eye has three different types of cones, each most sensitive to a particular color (red, green or blue). Which theory of color vision is supported by this finding
Feature analysis describes form perception as involving a progression from individual elements to the whole, such as from individual letters to whole words. This type of processing is known as
The concept of perceptual set fits which type of processing?
People often group elements to create a sense of wholeness. For example, if a drawing of a familiar form has some small gaps in it, the mind will automatically fill in the missing bits to perceive a whole form. The name of the Gestalt principle at work here is
In honor of a big win, Mike threw a party and put blue food coloring in all the food to make it look Carolina blue -- blue cookies, blue cake, blue ranch dip, etc. The food coloring had no odor or flavor itself. It just made everything blue. At the party, his friends were not eating very much so he asked one of them what was wrong, and the friend said, "All this blue food tastes funny. I can't eat it." What concept best explains why changing a food's color can change the perception of its flavor?
Joel entered a room with a strong, peculiar odor. At first, it was very pungent, but after about 30 minutes, Joel did not even smell it any more. His friend entered the room and said, "Dude, what stinks?" and Joel said, "Really, it smelled bad when I first got here but I thought it was gone." Why did Joel no longer smell the odor?
he experienced sensory adaptation
Which perceptual concept is most useful for understanding why someone who EXPECTS to see sex in advertisements will see some sort of sexual message in just about any ad?
The fact that people in the US would be reluctant to eat the Balinese delicacy of dragonflies boiled in coconut milk illustrates which of the unifying themes presented in chapter 1?
Behavior is shaped by our cultural heritage
Which of the following is an example of sensory adaptation?
A person who jumps into a cool swimming pool feels very cold at first and then gradually stops feeling cold.
The frequency theory best explains _____ sounds, while the place theory best explains _____ sounds.
Imagine that you are asked to stare at a bright red dot. After about 30 seconds, you are instructed to shift your gaze to a white sheet of paper. If you have normal color vision, then opponent process theory indicates that you will now see
a green dot
Some basic aspects of taste perception are inborn, such as whether you are a supertaster, a nontaster, or a medium taster. However, most of an individual's taste preferences are heavily influenced by
learning and exposure
In what way is the olfactory system different from the other senses?
Pathway of processing in the brain: It is the only one that does not go through the thalamus before reaching the cortex
Which of the following is an example of the persuasion technique known as the door-in-the-face technique?
The first time Brent sees Angie, he walks up to her and asks her to marry him. When Angie says no, Brent asks if she will get a cup of coffee with him.
Jessie completed her bachelor's degree at UNC Chapel Hill and went to another university for graduate school. After spending four years on the extremely beautiful campus of UNC, she perceives the other school's campus to be plain and unattractive. This experience shows how much perception is affected by
Prior to going outside to look at stars in the night sky, Ruben studied a star chart that outlined several constellations. By studying the star chart, he formed an idea of where stars would appear and how they would look placed together in the sky. For example, he formed a picture in his head of Orion focusing on a line-up of stars to create a belt in the midsection. When he stepped outside and looked up, he immediately recognized the Orion constellation. By having an idea already, Ruben's perception was facilitated by
Many cues enable us to perceive depth and distance accurately. What is true of the following cues: Linear perspective, texture gradient, interposition, relative size, and height in plane?
they are all monocular cues that can be seen with just one eye open
Pain messages are transmitted to the brain via two pathways that pass through different areas of the thalamus.
Consider those two pathways and complete the analogy: Fast is to slow as
sharp pain is to dull pain
William James is quoted at the beginning of the article by Chun et al. What do you know about William James from chapter 1 of our textbook?
He took a functionalist approach and emphasized studying the flow of consciousness to understand its function and purpose, not simply its component parts
Taxonomy is a key word in the title of the attention reading. What is a taxonomy?
a system for organizing and classifying related objects or ideas
Attention is finite. At any given time, there are a multitude of external stimuli (sights, sounds, smells, etc.) that we might possibly notice and an equally large number of internal stimuli (memories, feelings, thoughts, beliefs, etc.). Yet we can only pay attention to a tiny fraction of all of these. This basic characteristic of attention is known as
After we have chosen something to focus on, attention is used to concentrate cognitive processes on that target. For example, attention facilitates recognition, perception, and encoding the target into memory. This characteristic of attention is labeled
What is the term for the ability to sustain attention and focus over time, such as being able to concentrate on reading the Chun et al. article for an hour or more?
What does it mean to say that attention is not unitary?
Attention is not a single process or mechanism; instead, it comprises multiple processes and mechanisms that work together in complex ways
The main problem that our attention system must deal with is
there is too much information to process at once
Complete the analogy:
Stimulus-driven, bottom-up processing is to goal-directed, top-down processing as
external attention is to internal attention
Which of the following demonstrates mutlimodal attention?
When you are touched on the hand, your visual and auditory attention is directed toward the location of that touch
When you enter a situation, such as a classroom or a football stadium, one of the most important issues for visual attention is "where do I look?" This question involves what type of attention?
If we are directed to watch for a particular object when a series of images is flashed in front of us, we are very good at detecting it even when images appear at a rate as fast as 10 images per second. However, if we are directed to also watch for a second object, we will miss that second object if it appears less than a half of a second after the first one. Research shows that paying attention to the first object temporarily inhibits attention to a second target. This complex attention experience is called
the attentional blink
The Stroop Test involves naming the color that words are printed in. Here's an example:
However, when the words name a color that is different from the font color, we must stop ourselves from saying the word and just report the color of the font. This test demonstrates a general fact about attention. When we make a decision and initiate a response, we
must select one response while simultaneously inhibiting competing responses
Which of the following would be an example of the long-term memory aid known as refreshing?
Thinking about chapter 1 and reflecting on the details in it, including the photos, drawings and graphs
Working memory has such limited capacity that selection is absolutely necessary. However, when we select something to focus on in working memory we lose something else. For example, imagine you meet several new people in class. When students introduce themselves, you try rehearsing their names mentally to remember them. When you get to the fourth or fifth person, you realize that you cannot remember the first name.
Selecting something for your attention necessarily means that something else cannot be paid attention to. This aspect of attention is summarized in which statement?
Attention is a zero sum game.
Complete the analogy:
Psychological refractory period is to internal attention as
attentional blink is to external attention
The primary attention problem caused by alcohol is
alcohol causes attention to be even more severely limited than it already is