Upgrade to remove ads
Unit 3 Myers Psychology Vocab
Terms in this set (81)
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
a period of inactivity after a neuron has fired
a neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
natural, opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, stimulates a response
a molecule that, by binding to a receptor site, inhibits or blocks a response
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body
sensory (afferent) neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
motor (efferent) neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
Sematic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles (skeletal nervous system)
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
technique that measures brain activity by detecting tiny magnetic fields generated by the brain
CT (computed tomography) scan
a series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the body. Also called CAT scan.
PET (positron emission tomography) scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; fMRI scans show brain function.
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.
A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion.
A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving area for auditory information
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
the formation of new neurons
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
a condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
the processing of one aspect of a problem at a time; used when we focus attention on new or complex tasks
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
molecular behavior genetics
the study of how the structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior
the study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
A change in a gene or chromosome.
a commonly understood pattern of interaction that serves as a model of behavior in familiar situations
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP Psychology: Module 9-15
AP Psychology - Unit 3 Biological Bases…
AP Psychology: Unit 3 Vocab
Myers' AP Psychology - Unit 3
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Air Force Ranks
Gas Law formulas
Architecture 5 Test 2 Vocab