Policy used by British towards the colonists until the French and Indian War. Left them alone to govern themselves because thought that would benefit the colonies and stimulate commerce.
Proposed by Ben Franklin in 1754 to unite the colonies. Was rejected.
Louisiana and New Orleans
Areas French claimed for themselves. Showed growing interest in the region, which mad English suspicious.
Alliance of Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondoga, and Oneida tribes. Very powerful and had commercial relationship with French in interior and English and Dutch on seaboard. Therefore, held uneasy power around Great Lakes region.
French and Indian War
War between Britain and France for dominance esp of Ohio Valley. Iroquois with English and other Indians with French. Had three phases. Turning point in relationship between Britain and colonies.
first phase of FIW
British didn't do much. General Braddock was incompetent and eventually ambushed and killed. Colonists were busy defending from Indian raids. By late 1755, fled behind Allegheny Mtns to escape conflict. Iroquois didn't do much throughout war because were scared of French if British lost.
second phase of FIW
William Pitt from Britain impressed colonists, took supplies, and forced quartering of troops. Colonists not used to this control and protested. By 1758, tensions built until war effort almost stalled.
third phase of FIW
Pitt reimbursed colonists for supplies, handed recruitment over to state assemblies which increased recruitment, moved more troops into America. Wolfe and Amherst took Louisberg and Ft Duquesne. Wolfe took Quebec in dramatic battle and French surrendered in Sept 1760. Colonists began to react violently to Indians that were raiding and uprooting them and the Indians retaliated.
Area claimed by French that had Indian tribes already living there. The English were expanding into it and the Iroquois wanted to trade there. Cause of tension.
Fort Necessity and Fort Duquesne
George Washington led a poorly trained militia in 1754 to attack French. Washington made Ft. Necessity near Ft. Duquesne and tried to attack French, but the French trapped Washington and his men in Ft. Necessity, so Washington was forced to surrender.
Final Indian raids uprooted the Acadian in Nova Scotia who moved to Louisiana and were ancestors of Cajuns.
Peace of Paris, 1763
Treaty that ended the FIW. French gave land east of Mississippi, Canada, West Indies, and India to English. Gave New Orleans and land west of Mississippi to Spain.
Proclamation of 1763
Disallowed colonists to move beyond Appalachian Mtns to avoid conflicts with Indians and keep land for hunting. Indians were happy because of Stuart and Johnson, good officials. Colonists moved anyways and Stuart and Johnson kept trying to move line west, but colonists kept moving past it.
King of England. Was insane and immature. Not fit to rule England.
Prime minister appointed by King George III. Wanted revenue from the colonies and imposed system of control on the colonies.
Sugar Act of 1764
Tax on sugar imposed by Grenville. Designed to prevent illegal sugar trade to West Indies. Made own courts to try smugglers in.
Currency Act of 1764
Colonies couldn't issue currency and outlawed the kinds already in circulation.
Stamp Act of 1765
Tax imposed by Grenville on printed documents.
Were a source of internal tension within the colonies that, at first, prevented the colonists from reacting immediately to Grenville's programs. Had high taxes and felt underrepresented in colonial assemblies.
Group that was outlawed because attacked Indians without permission. Attacked Philadelphia and only stopped because made concessions for less taxes and more protection.
North Carolina Regulators
Farmers had high taxes and low representation, so rose up against government. Governor Tyson defeated them and tried 6 of them for treason.
Rule from home.
Stamp Act Crisis
Protests to the Stamp Act.
Patrick Henry; Virginia Resolves
Protested even against King, which many called treason. Resolves say can only be taxed by own representatives.
Stamp Act Congress
Called by James Otis. Petitioned for taxation only by local assemblies.
In response to Stamp Acts. Didn't buy British goods. Merchants in Britain felt the loss, so Marquis of Rockingham repealed Stamp Act.
Sons of Liberty
Group in Boston that terrorized stamp agents.
In 1766. Said Britian had complete control over all governments in the colonies. Was ignored, because passed it when repealed Stamp Act.
Mutiny Act of 1765
Forced quartering of troops by Townshend. Mass and NY didn't comply, so Townshend disbanded the NY assembly, which made all colonies mad.
Townshend Duties of 1767
Taxes on imports from England. Way of raising revenue. Thought it wasn't bad because it was only external taxation, but the colonists were still and about it. Lord North repelled all of these except for the tax on tea.
In 1770. Made dead colonists into martyrs. Used it as propaganda for denouncing Britain.
virtual and actual representation
Virtual representation was in Parliament where each representative was for the entire country. Actual representation was in assemblies where representative were from their area.
Colonists sank British ship Gaspee. Britain tried people in England.
Tea Act of 1773
The East India Tea Company was going bankrupt, so Parliament let them sell tea to the colonies without taxes. Made the colonists mad because merchants were being replaced and some were given franchises, which made others even madder. Excluding East India Tea Company made colonists angry. Boycotted tea.
Daughters of Liberty
Wrote dissident literature and rioted.
Boston Tea Party
Dumped tea into the sea because were mad about Tea Act.
Closed Mass ports, reduced self government, allowed officials to be tried in England, forced quartering of troops in barns. Made Massachusetts a martyr and others supported it.
Added tolerance for Catholicism. Colonies saw this as an attempt to force the Anglican Church upon them, because they thought the two were synonymous.
committee of correspondence
Intercolonial governing bodies. Virginia made first one. Called for a Continental Congress.
First Continental Congress
1. Rejected a plan for reconciliation. 2. Statements of grievances. 3. Approved start of military preparations. 4. Stop all trade with Britain. 5. Will meet again next spring.
Members of the militia that were training and that fought in Lexington and Concord.
Lexington and Concord
First battle. Gage took troops into Lexington to confiscate gunpowder stock. Powder had been removed and militia fired at the max they headed back.
Olive Branch Petition
An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll. Like his last chance.
Document written by Thomas Paine to persuade people to fright for independence.
Influenced ideology of Declaration of Independence in that the government protects people.
Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle where Patriots attacked Gage's army and british had most casualties.