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Bio Unit 3: Ecology
Terms in this set (151)
Biotic potential is not always reached due to what?
Colonizing new habitats and recovering
When does the exponential growth model occur?
Range, density, spacing pattern, and growth
What are the four key characteristics of population ecology?
Study of how organism interact with each other and their environment.
Study of population in relation to environment including environmental influences on density, distribution, age structure, size and growth of populations
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
Area throughout a population occurs
Range What are the four key characteristics of population ecology?
number of individuals in area
dispersion of individual in a geographic boundaries.
Changes in size over time.
Polar bears living in the artic is an example of
suitable habitat are patchily distributed and is separated by intervening stretches' of unsuitable habitat.
population increase and send out many dispersals. Small populations have few dispersers. Individual populations may become instinct. population bottleneck may occur.
Has behavioral interaction and resource competition.
Individuals do not interact strongly with one another. Not common in nature
Which dispersion is not common in nature ?z
Uneven distribution of resources. Common in nature.
Which dispersion is common in nature?
What does growth depend on?
Exponential growth model
Applies to populations with no growth limit
Exponential growth model
What applies to population with no growth limit?
What is the other name for the exponential growth model?
Density dependent limiting factors
Interspecific and intraspecific competition
Density independent limiting factors
climate, drought, freezes, forest fires pollution, etc.
A lion and a leopard hunting for the same food sources is an example of what?
Two male zebras competition for the same mate is an example of what
competition between members of different species
competition between members of same species
Maximum number of individuals that an environment can support
What is the maximum number a environment can support?
Organism interaction with environment(abiotic and biotic)
Maximizes the number of surviving offspring
Natural selection favors traits that...?
how long an individual lives and how many young it produces each year
What two factors affect the number of surviving offspring?
What type of species has long life span and delayed reproduction
Which type species has a short life span and early reproduction?
Cost of reproduction is high
When resources is limited...
Population is near carrying capacity
K selected species thrive when...?
Cost of reproduction is low
when resources are abundant...?
Population is below carrying capacity
R selected species survive when ?
Which type selected species would thrive when the population is near carrying capacity is and there is limited resources?
Quantitative study of populations
groups of individuals of the same age
Population growth can be influenced by what?
Number of females
Number of births are directly related to what?
Average interval between the birth of an individual and the birth of its offspring.
Probability individual will survive in any given year
Percent of original population that survives to a given age.
Plot log of surviving individuals against age/life span
What kind of survivorship has few young, high elderly mortality rate, reproduces later in life, and high parental investment?
What kind of survivorship has relatively constant death rate throughout life span?
Which type of survivorship has many young, high young mortality rate, early reproduction, and low parental investment?
Which survivorship type is r- selected species usually associated with?
Number alive (nx) life tables
Number of individuals alive at the start of a time period
Number dying (dx) life tables
Number of individuals that dies from one year to the next.
Survivorship(lx) life tables
Individuals surviving to a specific age.
number dying/number alive, dx/nx
What is the mortality rate equation?
What is the overall growth rate of the human population ?
Which part of the world is contributing to the most growth
What kind of graph is developing countries associated with?
Slow and decrease growth
What kind of graph is developed countries associated with?
What type of graph shows most of its population in the older population cohorts?
Is the human growth population exponential or logistic?
Average number of live births a women has during her lifetime
What is the total fertility rate?
What does the total fertility rate need to be to reach stability?
What is humanity total ecological footprint
USA, Australia, South Korea
Which countries have the highest ecological footprint?
India, Brazil, China
Which countries have the lowest ecological foot print?
A group of two or more populations that occupy the same area at the same time
The study of Interaction of the same and different species within a given habitat.
individuals interact directly with another by physical force or intimidation.
Individuals compete indirectly for limited resources
A pack of hyenas and a lion feeding on the same resource is an example of ..?
Interference competition and interspecific
A lion trying to intimated a hyena is an example of what?
A male hyena fighting with another hyena is an example of what?
A beetle and a caterpillar are competing to eat the same leaf but they do not interact with one another what is this an example of?
Is exploitative competition and resource competition the same thing?
The sum total of species' use of abiotic and biotic resources in their environment and total range of conditions under which an individual lives and reproduce
Do not compete
Natural selection favors those individuals/trait that...?
Over time competition can cause..?
What leads to competition within an environment?
Niche in a habitat
Two species cannot occupy the same what?
They are competing for all the same resources
Different species cannot coexist in a community if...?
When two species or organism cannot coexist in the same environment if they are competing for the same resources.
What is competitive exclusion?
entire set of optimal conditions under which organism unit can live and replace itself.
Actual set of conditions an organisms exists
fundamental vs realized niche
Fundamental is where an organism could live but may not to avoid competition. Realized niches is where the organism actually lives
Subdivision of niches to avoid direct competition
There are 11 different species of anole lizards found on an island of Puerto Rico . They eat at different elevations and have different amounts of sunlight and moisture available to them. What is this an example of ?
What species are affected by Niche/Resources partitioning ?
Organisms that live in the same geographical area
What is sympatric species?
Organisms that live in different geographical areas
What is a allopatric species?
Competition between the same species
What is intraspecific?
Competition between different species
What is interspecific species
Difference in morphology in sympatric species. Role in adaptive radiation
Does character displacement result in natural selection?
The lulu finch and the galago finch live in the same area. The lulu finch hunts for medium size seeds while the galago finch hunts for small seeds. If they were in different geographical areas they would hunt for the same seed, What is this an example of?
When a predator species kills a prey species and consumes all or most of it.
Is herbivory a type of predation?
The mutual evolutionary influence between two species
Bright coloration that advertise their poisonous nature
Color that blends in with their surroundings
Form of camoflouge that breaks up the outline of the animal.
What is an example of disruptive coloration?
Poison dart frog
What is an example of Aposematic coloration
What is an example of cryptic coloration
Harmless species imitate warning signals of harful species
What is Batesian mimicry?
Related/unrelated poisonous species that share a predator come to resemble each others warning signals
What is Müllerian mimicry
Batesian mimicry is with poisonous species and Müllerian mimicry is with harmless species
What is the difference between Müllerian mimicry and Batesian mimicry?
Intimidation, weaponry, and schooling
What are some type of prey defenses?
Two organism in direct contact within one another for a period of time. Potential for coevolution
mutalism, commensalism, parasitism
What is the three types of symbiosis?
Benefits both species
Benefits one, doesn't affect the other
benefits one and harms the other
Live in body of host
Lives on surface of host
deposits eggs on or in host
Ants & acacia trees Cleaner shrimp & fish Clown fish & anemone
What is an example of Mutalistm?
Sharks & remoras, Epiphytes
What are examples of commensalism?
Oxpeckers & large mammals, Ticks Zombie snails and worms
What are examples of parasitism ?
Competition leads to what?
Species occupying very similar or same niches
Competition exclusion applies to..?
Where niches overlap there is ?
Species relative abundance:
Biological communities are characterized by
The total number of different species
Number of individuals per species
Species relative abundance
How rare/common to others
The number and relative abundance of species in a biological community.
Amount of energy produced
Govern many ecological and evolutionary processes.
Interaction among memebers...?
The sum of evaporation and plant transpiration on land and ocean surfaces.
Community development over time
Most influential. Species whose effects on the composition of communities are greater than one might expect based on their abundance are
Example keystone species is?
Organism that is most commonly found
Allows other species inhabit an area by altering the environment
What is a foundation species?
Beavers are termed ___ species due to the environmental changes they create as they utilize trees and build dams. These changes provide for increased biodiversity in the area. This is an example of what?
What is an example of keystone species
Initial colonizers of area
What is pioneer community?
Most stable and diverse region
What is climax community?
Occurrs newly formed, lifeless bare areas. Organism move in and change its nature
Occurs in a area where a existent community has been disturbed. Ex. forest fire
Species alter the habitat
Succession happens because..?
Characterized by weedy r-selected species that can survive harsh conditions.
New weedy species are introduced that favors less weedy species and k-selected is favored over r-selected.
changes in the habitat caused by one species inhibits the growth of the original species
In a food chain killer whales were introduced and have been hunting otters as prey. The reduction of otters has increased the number of sea urchins and decreased the number of kelp. The otter is an example of what?
system of multiple communities along with chemical and physical environments. Includes all organism and abiotic factors.
Chemicals moving through ecosystems. Biotic and abiotic
What is major constituent in bodies of organisms
Aerobic cellular respiration
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