, (1954), is a landmark United States Supreme Court case which deals with civil rights, specifically, segregation in the District of Columbia's public schools. Originally argued on December 10-11, 1952, a year before Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was reargued on December 8 and 9, 1953, and was unanimously decided on May 17, 1954, the same day as Brown. The decision was supplemented in 1955 with the second Brown opinion, which ordered desegregation "with all deliberate speed." did not address school desegregation in the context of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause, which applies only to the states, but held that school segregation was unconstitutional under the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In *, the Court observed that the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution lacked an Equal Protection Clause, as in the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The Court held, however, that the concepts of Equal Protection and Due Process are not mutually exclusive.