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140 terms

Earth Final Exam

final exam
STUDY
PLAY
what does not contribute to acid decomposition
ozone
what frequently exceeds EPA standards?
lead
what contributes to photochemical smog
Nox
Scrubbers
are installed in smoke stacks to reduce acid decomposition
Radon, asbestos, formaldehyde, chloroform, and mold spores are all ________.
indoor air pollutants
Furniture, foam insulation, pressed/laminated wood and carpets are all potential sources of ________.
formaldehyde
You want to maintain a healthy pond at your school site. Last year another pond became eutrophic; to avoid that, you want to ________.
avoid using fertilizers in the ponds watershed
In a municipal water treatment plant, the primary treatment step consists of ________.
removing large debris and allowing suspended solids to settle
Much of the "biosolid" material that is the end product of a water treatment plant is ________.`
used as fertilizer in the united states
The use of chlorine or UV radiation in wastewater treatment plants serves to ________.
kill pathogenic organisms
The "blue-baby" syndrome that suffocates infants is a consequence of excess ________ in the water supply.
nitrates
The majority of the oil polluting our oceans is from large spills.
false
Into the mid-20th century, it was common for U.S. coastal cities to dump trash into the ocean.
true
Emission trading programs have reduced sulfur dioxide levels in the U.S..
true
Current waste practices in the United States include the greatest proportion of trash being landfilled, with lesser amounts being incinerated, recycled, and composted.
true
People in developing nations presently generate more waste per capita than people in developed nations.
false
Since the late 1980s, the number of landfills in the United States has doubled.
true
To safeguard against groundwater contamination, sanitary landfills are ________.
lined with plastic and clay
The best solution to the solid waste problem is to ________.
reduce the amount of material that enters the waste stream
Which of the following represents a strategy of reuse?
bring your own coffee cup to cafes and work
Which of the following cannot be composted?
plastic
The average resident of the United States generates more than ________ pound(s) of trash per day.
4
Recycling aluminum cans saves ________% of the energy needed to make the same amount of aluminum from virgin bauxite.
95
In Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, waste management is ________.
A) efficiently composting, recycling, and reusing two-thirds of the waste stream
Which of the following represent criteria for classifying hazardous waste?
corrosive ignitable and toxic
________ represent(s) the largest source of unregulated hazardous waste.
households
Which of the following are sources of heavy metals in the environment?
paint, water pipes, batteries, e-wastes
________ are best defined as substances that cause birth defects.
teratogens
Carcinogens may be difficult to identify because ________.
there is a long lag time between exposure to the agent and disease
The book Our Stolen Future was important because it ________.
focused on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on humans
Bisphenol-A is ________.
an estrogen mimic that is used in plastic manufacturing
The goal of the Stockholm Convention is to ________.
end the use and release of POPs shown to be most dangerous
The Yaqui Valley, Mexico, study showed that ________.
developmental delays occurred in children exposed to pesticides
Synergistic effects of toxicants ________.
often have effects that are multiplicative
Radon, cigarette smoke, asbestos and lead all have in common that they are all ________.
radon pollutants
acute exposure
exposure to a toxicant occurring in high amounts for short periods of time
allergen
a toxicant that overactivates the immune system causing an immune response when one is not necessary
asbestos
any several types of mineral that form long, thin microscopic fibers- a structure that allows asbestos to insulate buldings for heat muffle sound and resist fire when inhaled and lodged in lung tissue asbestos scars the tissue and may eventually lead to lung cancer
asbestosis
a disorder resulting from lung tissue scarred by acid following prolonged inhalation of asbestos
bioaccumulation
the buildup of toxicants in the tissues of an animal
biological hazard
human health hazards that result from ecological interactions among organisms these parasitism by viruses bacteria or other pathogens
biomagnification
the magnification of the concentration of toxicants in an organism caused by consumption of other organisms in which toxicants have bioaccumulated
bisphenol-A
a chemical compound used in a great variety of plastic products shown to be an estrogen mimic this compound leaches into water and food and recent evidence ties it to birth defects in lab mice
breakdown products
compounds that result from the degradation of toxicants
carcinogen
a chemical or type of radiation that causes cancer
chemical hazard
chemicals that pose human health hazards these toxins produced naturally as well as many of the disinfectants pesticides and other synthetic chemicals that our society produces
chronic exposure
exposure for long periods of time toa toxicant occuring in low amounts
cultural hazard
human health hazards that result from the place we live our socioeconomic status our occupation or our behavioral choices these include choosing to smoke cigarettes or living or working with people who do
dose
the amount of toxicant a test animal receives in a dose response test
dose response curve
a curve that plots the response of test animals to different doses of toxicant the response is generally quantified by measuring the proportion of animals exhibiting negative effects
ED50
the amount of a toxicant it takes to affect 50% of a population of test animals
endocrine disruptor
a toxicant that interferes with the endocrine system
environmental health
environmental factors that influence human health and quality of life and the health of ecological systems essential to environmental quality and long term human well being
environmental toxicology
the study of toxicants taht come from or are discharged into the environmental including the study of health effects on human beings other animals and ecosystems
epidemiological study
a study that involves large scale comparisons among groups of people usually contrasting a group known to have been exposed to some toxicant and a group that has not
unfectious disease
a disease in which a pathogen attacks a host
LD50
the amount of a toxicant it takes to kill 50% of a population of test animals
lead poisoning
poisoning by ingestion or inhalation of the heavy metal lead causing an array of maladies uncluding damage to the brain liver kidney and stomach learning problems behavior abnormalities anemia hearing loss and even death
mutagen
a toxicant that causes mutations in the DNA of organisms
neurotoxin
a toxicant that assults the nervous system neurotoxins include heavy metals pesticides and some chemical weapons developed for use in war
peroxacyl nitrate
a chemical created by the reaction of no2 with hydrocarbons which can induce further reactions that damage living tissue in animals and plants
pesticide drift
airborne transport of pesticides
phthalates
hormone disrupting chemicals used to soften plastics and enhance fragrances in many childrens toys cosmetics perfumes and other consumer products
physical hazard
physical processes that occur naturally in our environment and pose human health hazards. these include discrete events such as earthquakes volcanic eruptions etc
PBDEs
synthetic compunds that provide fire retardant properties and are used in a diverse array of consumer products including computers tvs plastics and furniture
probability
a quantitative description of the liklihood of a certain outcome
radon
a highly toxic radioactive colorless gas that seeps up from the ground in areas with certain types of bedrock and can build up inside basements and homes with poor air circulation
reach
program of the european union that shifts the burden of proof for testing chemical safety from national governments to industry
reactive
chemically unstable and readily able to react with other compounds often explosively or producing noxious fumes.
response
the type or magnitude of negative effects an animal exhibits in response to a dose of toxicant in a dose response test
risk
the mathematical probability that some harmful outcome will result from a given action event or substance
risk assessment
the quantitative measurement of risk together with the comparison of risks involved in different activities or substances
risk management
the process of considering information from scientific risk assessment in light of economical social and political needs and values in order to make decisions and design to minimize ris
Stockholm Convention on Persistent organic pollutants
a 2001 treaty that seeks to regulate 12 toxic chemicals that persist in the environmental bioaccumulation in food chains and can travel long distances
synergistic effect
an interactive effect that is more than or different from the simple sum of their constituent effects
teratogen
a toxicant that causes harm to the unborn resulting in birth defects
threshold dose
the amount of a toxicant at which it begins to affect a human population of test animals
toxic
poisonous able to harm health of people or other organisms when a substance is inhaled ingested or touched
toxicant
a substance that acts as a poison to humans or wildlife
toxicity
the degree of harm a chemical substance can inflict
toxicology
the scientific field that examines the effects of poisonous chemicals and other agents on humans and other organisms
toxin
a toxic chemical stored or manufactured in the tissues of living organisms
vector
an organism that transfers a pathogen to its host
air pollutants
gases and particulate material added to the atmosphere that can affect climate or harm people or other organism
tropospheric ozone
ozone that occurs in the troposphere where it is a secondary pollutant created by the interaction of sunlight, heat, nitrogen, oxides, and volatile carbon containing chemicals a major component of smog it can injure living tissues and cause respiratory problems
ozone layer
a portion of the stratosphere roughlt 17-30km above sea level which contains most of the ozone in the atmosphere
particulate manner
solid or liquid particles small enough to be suspended in the atmosphere and able to damage respiratory tissues when inhaled includes primary pollutants such as dust and soot as well as secondary pollutants such as sulfates and nitrates
weather
specifies atmospheric conditions over short time periods typically hours and days and within relatively small geographic
climate
describes the pattern o atmospheric conditions found across large geographic regions over long periods of time
temperature inversion
the band of air in which temperature arises with altitude is called an inversion layer
hurricanes
form when winds rush into areas of low pressure where warm moisture laden air over tropical oceans is rising
tornadoes
form when a mass of warm air meets a mass of cold air and warm air rises quickly setting a powerful convective current in motion
air pollutants
gases and particular material added to the atmosphere that can affect climate or harm people or other organisms
air pollution
the release of air pollutants
primary pollutants
such as soot and carbon monoxide are pollutants emitted into the troposphere in a form that can be directly harmful or that can react to form harmful substances
secondary pollutants
harmful substances produced when primary pollutants interact or react with constituents of the atmosphere
clean air act
first enacted in 1963 and amended multiple times since particularly in 1970 and 1990 this body of legislation funds research into pollution control sets standards for air quality impses limits on emissions from new stationary
scrubbers
chemically convert or physically remove airborne pollutants before they are emitted from smokestacks have allowed factories power plants and refineries to decrease emissions of several pollutants
toxic air pollutants
chemicals known to cause serious health problems or environmental problems
industrial smog
or gray air smog when coal or oil is burned some portion is completely combusted forming co2
photochemical smog
or brown air smog is formed by light driven chemical reactions of primary pollutants and normal atmospheric compounds that produce a mix of over 100 different chemicals
CFCs
being mass produced by industry at a rate of of a million metric tons per year
acidic depositon
the deposition of acidic or acid forming pollutants from the atmosphere onto earths surface
atmospheric deposition
which refers more broadly to wet or dry deposition on land of a wide variety of pollutants including mercury nitrates organochlorines and others
global climate change
describes trends and variations in earths climate involving aspects such as temperature precipitation and storm frequency and intensity
global warming
an increase in earths average surface temperature
greenhouse effect
re emitted energy is lost to space but some travels back downward warming the atmosphere and the planets surface
radiative forcing
the change in energy that a given figure factor
milankovitch cycles
alter the way solar radiation is distributed over earths surface
thermohaline circulation
is a worldwide current system in which warmer fresher water moves along the surface in some areas.
ENSO
a systematic shift in atmospheric pressure sea surface temperature and ocean circulation in the tropical pacific ocean.
el nino
conditions are triggered when air pressure increases in the western pacific and decreases in the eastern pacific
la nina
events in the opposite of el nino events cod surface waters extend far westward in the equatorial pacific
proxy indicators
are types of indirect evidence that serve as proxies or substitutes for direct measurement and that shed light on past climate
climate models
are programs that combine what is known about atmospheric circulation ocean circulation atmosphere ocean interactions and feedback mechanisms to simulate cliate progress.
IPCC
the international panel consisting of many hundreds of scientists and government officials was established in 1988 by the UNEP and the world materological organization
Fourth assesment report
which represents the consensus of scientific climate research from around the world
mitigation
the aim is to mitigate or alleviate the problem
adaption
the goal is to adapt to change by finding ways to cushion oneself from its blows
kyoto protocol
mandates signatory nations by period 2008-2012 to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels below of 1990
waste
refers to any unwanted material or substance that results from a human activity or process
municipal solid waste
is non liquid waste that comes from homes institutions and small business
industrial solid waste
comes from production of consumer goods mining agriculture and petroleum extraction and refining
hazardous waste
refers to solid or liqud waste that is toxic chemically reactive flammable or corrosive
waste steam
the flow of waste as it moves from its sources toward disposal destinations
sanitary landfills
waste is buried in the ground or piled up in large carefully engineered mounds designed to prevent waste from contaminating the environment and threatening public health
leachate
liquid that results when substances from the trash dissolve in water as rainwater percolates downward
inceneration
or combustion is a controlled process in which mixed garbage is burned at very high temperatures
WTE
facilities that use heat produced by waste combustion to boil water creating steam that drives electricity generation or that fuels heating systems
source reduction
reducing the amount of material entering the waste stream avoids costs of disposal and recycling helps conserve resources minimizes pollution and can often save consumers and businesses money
composting
the conversion of organic waste into mulch or humus through natural biological processes of decomposition
recycling
consists of collecting materials that can be broken down and reprocessed to manufacture new items
materials recovery facilities
where workers and machines sort items using magnetic pulleys optical sensors waste currents and air classifiers that separate items by weight and size
industrial ecology
seeks to redesign industrial systems to reduce resource inputs and to maximize both physical and economic efficiency
life cycle analysis
from its origins in raw materials through its manufacturing to its use and finally its disposal
hazardous waste
ignitable corrosive reactive and toxic
electronic waste
computers vcrs cell phones and other electronic devices represent major new sources of potential heavy metal contamination
surface impoundments
liquid hazardous waste or waste in dissolved form
superfund
under epa auspices experts identify sites polluted with hazardous chemicals take into action to protect ground water near these sites
deep well injection
a well is drilled deep beneath the water table into pourous rock and wastes are injected into it