Terms in this set (26)
What might decrease the strength of rumen contractions?
excitement, pain, fever, toxemia, acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, peritonitis, rumen wall disorders, lesions along the vagus nerve, fermentation disorders, overfilling distension
Name 3 inhibitory inputs that will decrease rumen contractility
Define vagal indigestion
When the rumen doesn't move normally by a mechanical or functional obstruction
Define the 3 categories of vagal indigestion
1. free gas bloat or failure to eructate [Type I]
2. omasal transport failure [Type II]
3. pyloric outflow failure (abomasal impaction) [Type III]
What is the etiology of Type I?
inflammatory lesions in the vicinity of the vagus nerve, such as localized peritonitis, adhesions (usually after an episode of traumatic reticuloperitonitis), or chronic pneumonia with anterior mediastinitis
What is the etiology of Type II ?
result of any condition that prevents ingesta from passing through the omasal canal into the abomasum. Adhesions and abscesses (reticular or single liver abscesses) are the most common cause
What is the etiology of Type III?
Primary- feeding of dry, course roughage, such as straw, in a chopped or ground form with restricted access to water and usually during extremely cold temperatures
Secondary- most commonly after an episode of traumatic reticuloperitonitis or occasionally as a sequela to abomasal volvulus
How is Type I diagnosed on PE?
hearing a "boink" or "ping" in the tympanic area
What is usually the cause of Type I?
lesion in the mediastinum usually associated with pneumonia
Type I V.I. is truly from failure of the rumen's _________________.
Type I V.I. can be treated by...
passing stomach tube or long-term rumen fistula
Treat underlying problem which is usually pneumonia
What animals are usually affected by Type I V.I.?
Young calves and beeflot cattle
In Type II V.I., there is failure of omasal transport. Therefore, what will accumulate in the rumen?
enlarged fluid-filled rumen
Will there be electrolyte abnormalities in Type II? Explain
Yes but mild because the abomasum is not involved
A "papple-shaped" cow means what?
From the rear, her left side is apple-shaped, her right side in pear-shaped. Indicative of Type II or III V.I
Type III V.I. cows become acidotic or alkalotic? Explain
Alkalotic- accumulation of hydrogen and chloride ions in the rumen from omasal obstruction. Body becomes hypochloremic kidneys respond with metabolic alkalosis
Why do Type III V.I. cows become hypokalemic?
In an attempt to neutralise the acidic rumen, water and potassium diffuse from the cells into the rumen
What is the treatment of Type III V.I.?
1. IV saline, which is high in chloride or saline plus KCl
2. Antibiotics to treat peritonitis (see later question)
3. left flank exploratory laparotomy and rumentomy if indicated
In Type III, we treat with antibiotic for peritonitis. Why?
The most common cause of vagal indigestion is reticulo peritonitis
Paradoxic aciduria occurs when the cow is (1) , (2), and (3)
(1) alkalotic (2) hypochloremic (3) hypokalemic
Part of restoring GI motility is transfaunation. What is this?
Restoration of rumen contents- supplies microbes, nutrients
What is the prognosis of a Type III V.I. which has been treated and show signs of recovery?
milk production will gradually be recovered by money is lost over the lactation so treatment is warranted in an animal of high value
What is the difference between a rumen in grain overload acidosis and Type II vagal indigestion?
rumen acidosis- rumen empty
Type II V.I.- rumen distended with fluid
Type ______ V.I. is associated with electrolyte abnormalities because the __________ is involved.
A V.I. ping will be monotone. How does this compare to a LDA ping?
they are variable and pitch and move
In paradoxic aciduria in the cow, which ion is exchanged for sodium in the renal tubules?