Terms in this set (97)
a mix of bodily arousal; expressive behavior and conscious experience
o What comes first? Emotion or thinking (cognition)
The body's response to a situation prompts our emotional state
The body's response and emotional state occur separately and simultaneously.
Schachter and Singer Two Factor Theory
Emotions come from physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
Having an emotional state enhance or influence the emotional response of another experience
High Road Emotional Response
Complex emotions like Love or hate will take paths from the Thalamus, around the cortex to the amygdala
Low Road Emotional Response
Simple emotions like fear can go straight from stimulus to thalamus, to the amygdala to help facilitate a quick reaction, possibly for danger.
Autonomic Nervous System
controls the bodies arousal and calming functions
Sympathetic Nervous System
(arousing): prepares the body to use energy in stressful events
Parasympathetic Nervous System
(calming): brings the body down from stressful events
Facial Feedback Effect
: tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger or happiness
Feel good, do good phenomenon
People's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
tendency to judge something relative to a neutral level defined by our own prior experience
the perception that one is worse off than those one compares oneself to
gestures that emphasize verbal communication
gestures that have specific culturally-defined meanings.
ability to send nonverbal communication to others
ability to interpret nonverbal communication of others.
detecting when people are lying
we often imagine "what if"
a person's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting
dynamic interaction between the conscious and unconscious mind, including associated motives and conflicts.
vocalizing thoughts as they come to mind without discrimination
a separate portion of one's personality with separate thoughts, wishes and feelings.
the conscious mind, makes peace between the id and superego
delaying gratification for long term satisfaction
unconscious mind that strives to satisfy basic drives to survive, reproduce and aggress.
striving for immediate gratification
conscience that forces the ego to strive for the ideal or how things ought to be
id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body called Erogenous Zones.
• Oral (0-18 months): sucking, biting, chewing
• Anal (18 months - 36 months): coping with demands for control
• Phallic (3-6 years): coping with incestuous sexual feelings
• Latency (6 - puberty): phase of dormant sexual feelings
• Genital (Puberty on): Maturation of sexual interest
incorporation of parents values into the superego
: lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage
tactics that reduce or redirect stress or anxiety
retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage (child sucking thumb on the first day of school)
switching unacceptable impulses into their opposite (showing exaggerated friendliness when angry)
giving others the attributes that you possess (the thief thinks everyone's a thief)
giving reasonable explanation for more threatening reasons (Alcoholic saying she only drinks with friends)
shifting strong emotion to a less threatening object or person ( child kicking dog when punished)
refusing to acknowledge realities (partner denying evidence of infidelity)
believe in the basic principles of freud but focus on social tension instead of sexual tension on childhood
theory developed by Carl Jung that expressed the possibility that we have universal images and archetypes
ambiguous stimuli that help project the inner dynamics of the test taker
Rorscharch Inkblot Test
inkblots designed to be interpreted and those interpretations can be evidence of some of someone's personality
a defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness.
Terror Management Theory
explores a person's emotional response to their impending death
how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
: explaining someone's behavior by their situation or disposition
Fundamental Attribution error
the tendency to overestimate someone's disposition and underestimate their situation when describing who we believe they are
: feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to react to situations or people in a certain way
Peripheral Route Persuasion
causing someone to associate two things as a way of giving something the same attributes as the other.
Central Route Persuasion
using evidence or arguments that will guide our views to a favorable condition
using small request to open the door for larger, more counterintuitive requests to be executed
set of expectations (norms)
Cognitive dissonance Theory
: we tend to ease discomfort when our actions and attitudes are not in harmony by changing or convincing ourselves that the attitude that coincides with the action is better.
the contagiousness of behavior
our tendency to copy the behavior of those around us.
o Helps us to empathize with others.
sharing up and down moods
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Normative Social Influence
influence that stems from a person's desire for approval or not wanting disapproval
Informational Social Influence
Influence that comes from our willingness to believe others.
stronger responses on simple, learned tasks in the presence of others
the tendency to not try as hard when in a group setting and the result assessed collectively
the process of losing self-awareness or restraint in a group setting because one feels anonymous.
amplification of a belief in group of like-minded individuals
the harmonious belief in an idea because of a lack of vocalization
unjustifiable (negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Typically involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a particular group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
Implicit Racial Association
demonstrates the associates we have with race.
unknowingly favoring or giving favor to someone of a different race
expectations of a race can influence our perception of them
Reflexive Bodily Responses
physical responses to particular races
tendency to believe that the world is just and that people get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Us- people with whom share a common identity
Them- those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
the tendency to favor our own group
prejudices offer us a way of releases anger by providing us someone to blame
tendency to recall faces of one's own race more than others
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration can lead to anger which can lead to aggression
Mere Exposure Effect
tendency to find someone more attractive the more you see them
culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
deep affection for those whose lives are intertwined in our own
condition in which people in a relationship get what they give
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Social Exchange Theory
social behavior is an exchange process to maximize benefits and minimize costs
expectation that people will help and not harm those who have helped them
Social responsibility norm
expectation that people will help those dependent on them
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Mirror Image Perceptions
mutual views often held by opposing sides
shared goals that override any conflict
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