IBLCE Exam Review © 2016 Lactation Education Resources

IBLCE Vocabulary Exam Review © sponsored by Lactation Education Resources. Visit us at http://www.lactationtraining.com/our-courses/online-courses/iblce-exam-review
STUDY
PLAY
% of breastmilk that is carbohydrates
Approximately 7%
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_milk.
% of breastmilk that is fat
Approximately 4%
Hale and Hartman, 2007. Textbook of Human Lactation, page 50.
% of breastmilk that is protein
Approximately .8 - 1 %
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 272.
% of calories in breastmilk from carbohydrates
Approximately 40%
Hale and Hartman, 2007. Textbook of Human Lactation, page 69.
% of calories in breastmilk from fat
Approximately 50%
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 124.
% of calories in breastmilk from protein
Approximately 10%
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 272.
Acinus
Any of the small sacs or alveoli that terminate the ducts and are lined with secretory cells.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. Available online: http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/acinus?show=0&t=1296699192
Acrocyanosis
Bluish discoloration of the hands and feet in the newborn; peripheral cyanosis. Should not persist beyond 24 hours after birth.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Active immunity
Immunity conferred by the production of antibodies by one's own immune system.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Active transport
Passage of drug into breastmilk assisted by components in breastmilk.
Hale & Hartman, 2007. Textbook of Human Lactation, page 470.
Acyclovir/Zovirax
Antiviral used to treat herpes infections, L2.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 177.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 84.
Aerobic bacteria
Bacteria requiring air for metabolic processes. The breast is colonized with this type of bacteria.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
AGA
Appropriate for Gestational Age. Having a birth weight between the 10th and 90th percentile on intrauterine growth charts.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 671.
Alcohol and breastfeeding
Alcohol can decrease milk supply. Breastfeeding must be interrupted for 1 hour per drink, or until mother is sober.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 171 & 188.
Aldomet/Methyldopa
Antihypertensive, L2. Frequently used to treat hypertension during pregnancy. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 667.
Allergen
A substance that causes an allergic response, such as foods, drugs, inhalants. Cow's milk is common source for infants.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Αlphalactalbumin
A major protein found in human milk whey. Assists in processing lactose.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Alveolar ridge
The ridges on the upper and lower jaw where infant's teeth will grow.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Alveolus, alveoli
Secrete and store milk for let down. Surrounded by myoepithelial cells, contractile cells and connective tissue.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 80.
Amenorrhea
A natural phase of infertility that takes place when a mother is exclusively breastfeeding. Menstruation has not returned.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 707 &865.
Amoxicillin
Antibiotic, L1. Observe for change in intestinal flora, compatible.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 177.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 65.
Ampicillin
Antibiotic, L1. Observe for change in intestinal flora, compatible.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 177.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 68.
Anaphylaxis
Hypersensitivity (as to foreign proteins or drugs) resulting from sensitization following prior contact with the causative agent.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/anaphylaxis.
Anchor scar
Surgical technique for breast reduction, slang.
Ankyglossia
A tongue tie. Characterized by a thick, short, or tight frenulum under the tongue. Can cause breastfeeding issues, such as a painful latch or inefficient milk transfer.
Anterior pituitary
This gland releases prolactin into the blood effecting milk production and ejection. It is susceptible to stress.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 91.
Anthrax
Infectious disease caused by a spore-forming bacterium (Bacillus anthrax), characterized by external ulcerating nodules or by lesions in the lungs.
Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/anthrax.
Antibody
Immunoglobulin formed in response to an antigen, including bacteria and viruses. Antibodies attack those bacteria or viruses helping the body resist infection.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Antigen
Substance that stimulates antibody production. May be dust, food, or bacteria.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Apgar score
Index to evaluate the condition of a newborn infant based on a rating of 0, 1, or 2 for color, heart rate, reflex response, muscle tone, and respiration with 10 being a perfect score.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/apgar%20score.
Apocrine gland
Sweat glands located on the areola that secrete a scent.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 197-198.
Apoptosis
Programmed normal cell death.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Applied research
Research that focuses on solving or finding an answer to a clinical or practical problem.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Areola
The darker pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple. Contains sebaceous glands (Montgomery Glands)
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Aspirin
Salicylate analgesic, L3. Use associated with Reye's Syndrome in infants.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 87.
Atopic eczema
Inherited allergic tendency to skin rashes or inflammation. Exclusively breastfed infants are less likely to develop as cow's milk protein is a common allergen.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863.
Autocrine control
The point in lactation when milk supply is controlled by milk removal. Local control in the breast.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 92.
Autonomy
The capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomy#Medicine.
Average
The middle value of a data set. Add all the numbers and divided by the amount of numbers in the set.
Wikipedia. Available online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average.
Axilla
Underarm. Breast tissue (the axillary tail) can sometimes extend into axilla.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 863-864.
B Cell
Lymphocyte produced in bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissue; found in breastmilk. Attacks antigens.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
β lactaglobin
Major protein in bovine milk.
Hale & Hartman, 2007. Textbook of Human Lactation, page 40.
Back to sleep
A campaign that significantly reduced SIDS. Babies are less prone to SIDS when sleeping on their back.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 632.
Bactericidal
Destroys bacteria.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/bactericidal.
Bacteriostatic
Prevents the growth of bacteria.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Bactrim/Septra
Sulfonamide antibiotic, L3. The mixture of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. No concerns reported via breastmilk in term healthy infants. Use with caution in preterm or jaundiced infants.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 249.
BALT/GALT/MALT
Bronchus/gut/mammary-associated immunocompetent lymphoid tissue. Intermammary pathway. IgA antibodies are transferred through breastmilk to the infant.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Basic research
Research that generates knowledge for the sake of knowledge.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Bed-sharing
Sharing adult bed with baby. Questioned safety in reduction of SIDS. Safe bed sharing has been shown to extend the duration of breastfeeding.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 282-283.
Bellagio Consensus Conference
Meeting to develop protocol for the Lactational Amenorrhea Method of birth control. 1988.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 714-715.
Beneficence
The duty to do good.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 31.
BFHI Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative
Initiative by UNICEF and WHO (1991) to support breastfeeding in hospitals and maternity centers. "The 10 Steps".
Unicef. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Available online: http://www.unicef.org/programme/breastfeeding/baby.htm.
Bioavailable
The amount of a nutrient that is actually absorbed by the body. Nutrients found in breastmilk are easily absorbed by the infant's body.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Bisphenol A
(BPA) organic compound found in plastics. Linked to disease in infants. Now banned.
(BPA) organic compound found in plastics. Linked to disease in infants. Now banned.
Bivariate
Statistics derived from the analysis of the relationship between two variables.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Blessed thistle
An herbal galactagogue. L3.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 592.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 123.
Bolus
A quantity of medication given by IV, or a quantity of fluid (milk) given orally.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/bolus.
Bradycardia
Relatively slow heart rate. Opposite of tachycardia.
Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/bradycardia.
Breastfeeding dyad
A breastfeeding mother and baby.
Buccal pads
Fat pads on the masseter muscles in an infant's cheeks giving them a plump cheeked appearance. Provide stability for the tongue during suckling.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Calories in breastmilk
Mature milk has approximately 20 cal/oz.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 227.
Candidiasis
Fungal infection caused by Candida albicans; also called "thrush."
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Caput succedaneum
Diffuse swelling or collection of serum under the scalp of the newborn from birth trauma. Differentiated from cephalhematoma by unrestriction by the sutures of the skull.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Casein
A protein found in breastmilk. Becomes a curd when digested in the infant stomach when digested.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 127. Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 26.
Central pedicle technique
Breast reduction surgical technique. Intended to keep ducts intact.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 654.
Cephalexin/Keflex
Antibiotic, L1. Observe for change in intestinal flora; compatible.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 178.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 195.
Cephalhematoma
Collection of blood beneath the periosteum due to birth trauma; contrasted with caput succedaneum, where the effusion overlies the periosteum and consists of serum.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Chamomile
A herb, L3. Used for anti-inflammatory, calminative, antispasmodic, milk sedative, and antiseptic properties. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 202.
Chicken pox
A virus infection, mothers can continue to breastfeed. Antibodies from her breastmilk provides immunity for the baby.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 202-203.
Chi-square
Statistical procedure that uses nominal level data and determines significant differences between observed frequencies in relation to data and expected frequencies.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864.
Choanal atresia
A rare congenital anomaly, blocked posterior nostrils on one or both sides. Feedings by mouth are either difficult or impossible. Surgery opens the airways.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 644.
Chylothorax
Congenital anomaly, obstruction of the lymphatic system. Chyle (lymphatic fluid) collects in the chest cavity and is drained via chest tubes. Managed by diet and medication. Fat free breastmilk has been used successfully.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 648-649.
Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
Antibiotic, L3. Recently approved by AAP.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 178. Hale, 2010, Medications in Mothers' Milk. p. 224.
Claritin/Loratadine
Long-acting antihistamine, L1. Observe for sedation, dry mouth, and tachycardia.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 617.
CMV Cytomegalovirus
Type of herpes virus found in human milk, genital tract, urine, and pharynx. Transmitted by close contact. Avoid pumping or breastfeeding in premature infants if mom has acute infection.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 204.
Colic
Syndrome in early infancy characterized by episodic loud crying, apparent abdominal pain (legs drawn up and rigid abdomen) and irritability.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 864-865.
Colostrum
First milk created during late pregnancy and early postpartum period. Has higher concentrations of immunoglobins, fat soluble vitamins and some minerals.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Comfrey
An herbal poultice, L5. Is not considered safe due to alkaloids found in breastmilk after use.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 259.
Conceptual framework
Structure of interrelated concepts that may be generated inductively by qualitative research to provide a base for quantitative study.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Congenital infection
Infection existing at birth that was acquired via placenta. Includes HIV and TORCH organisms.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Conjunctivitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the eyelid. Sometimes treated with fresh breastmilk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Construct
Higher order theoretical or empirical idea or phenomenon that has abstract meaning and requires multiple concepts to represent it more concretely.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Contraception
Preventing conception. Hormonal pill, barrier methods, intrauterine device. Breastfeeding can provide contraceptive protection.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Cooper's ligaments
Also know as the "suspensory ligaments." Attaches the skin of the breast to the chest wall.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 82.
Cord blood
Blood remaining in the umbilical cord after birth. May be saved for later stem cell transplantation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Correlation coefficient
Statistic that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables. The range in value is +1.00 to -1.00; 0.0 indicates no relationship, +1.00 is a perfect positive relationship, and -1.00 is a perfect inverse relationship.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Creamotcrit
The amount of cream in a milk sample. The amount of cream (fat) varies from mother to mother, feeding to feeding, and throughout the course of lactation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Cross-nursing
Informal, short term wet nursing. Typically seen in the context of child care.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Cultural competency
Ability to understand, communicate, and interact effectively with people from different cultures. Four components: Awareness of one's own cultural worldview; attitude towards cultural differences; knowledge of different cultural practices and worldviews; cross-cultural skills.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_Competency.
Cultural relativism
Acknowledging the variation in beliefs and actions given to the behaviors of different cultures.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Culture
The values, beliefs, norms, and practices shared by a group of people that guide the thoughts and behaviors of that group.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Cyanotic/Cyanosis
Bluish coloring due to low oxygen levels.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 296-296.
Cytoprotective
Protection from inflammation and death for cells.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 854.
De-
Latin word meaning "of" or "from."
Wikipedia. Available online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De.
Deductive reasoning
Process of reasoning from a general premise to the concrete and specific.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
Deontology
Approach to ethics that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to rules. Described as duty or obligation, because rules 'binds you to your duty'.
Wikipedia. Available online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deontology.
Dependent variable
Variable the investigator measures in response to the independent or treatment variable; the outcome variable that is affected by the independent variable.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 865.
DHA & ARA
Docosahexanoic acid and Arachidonic acid. Essential fatty acids known for improving visual acuity and cognitive ability.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 125-126.
Diffusion
Process by which the molecules of one substance (e.g., a drug) are spread uniformly throughout blood or plasma.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Dioxin
Chemical contaminant in the environment. As dioxin levels increase, the EPA has still determined it safe for mothers to breastfeed in the United States.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 369.
Disaccharide
Complex sugar consisting of two monosaccharides. Forms the principle sugar in breastmilk, known as lactose.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Distal
Remote from the point of attachment or origin. Opposite of proximal.
Wikitionary. Available online: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/distal.
Dong quai
Herb contraindicated in lactation. Used to quell uterine cramps.
Humphrey, 2003. The Nursing Mother's Herbal, page 239.
Donor milk
Human milk voluntarily given to a milk bank. Donor is screened, milk is pasteurized.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Dopamine
A prolactin inhibiting factor. Decrease releases prolactin and milk production begins.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 88.
Down Syndrome
Duplication of the 21st chromosome. Characterized by epicanthal folds, a flat nasal bridge, broad hands and short fingers, a single crease in the upper palm (simian crease), a flattened forehead, small mouth, large tongue (macroglossia), and hypotonia. Some have congenital heart disease.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 636.
DRGs
Diagnostic Related Groups, used by insurance companies for reimbursement.
Diagnostic Related Groups, used by insurance companies for reimbursement.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diagnosis-related_group.
Drip milk
Milk that leaks from the opposite breast during a feeding. This milk is low in fat.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Ductules
The small ducts in the mammary gland that transfer the milk from the alveoli to the lactiferous ducts.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Echinacea
Herbal immunostimulant, L3. Known for stimulating immune system and wound healing. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 348.
Eczema
A skin inflammation or rash.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Eminences of the pars villosa
"Tiny swellings on the inner surfaces of the infant's lips that help the infant to retain a grasp on the breast during suckling."
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
EMM/EBM
Expressed Mother's Milk/Expressed Breastmilk.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 163.
Endocrine control
The point in lactation when milk supply is hormone driven. Milk will come in whether or not a mother is breastfeeding.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 92.
Enteromammary system
Antigens enter maternal gut, pass to the lymph system where IgA specific antibodies are produced, then enter breastmilk.
Hale and Hartman, 2007. Textbook of Human Lactation, page 200, 206
Enveloped virus
Virus that cannot infect other cells without a coat (envelope). If the envelope is destroyed (e.g., by heat or soap and water) it is unable to produce infection. Ex. Cytomegalovirus and the human immunodeficiency virus.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Epidemiology
Study of the frequency and distribution of disease and the factors causing that frequency and distribution.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Epidural
Analgesia for childbirth. Anesthesia is placed in the epidural space just outside of the dura mater.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 217.
Epiglottis
Cartilaginous structure of the larynx, just below the soft palate. When the infant swallows it closes the larynx maintaining passage of milk to the esophagus.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Estrogen
This hormone dramatically drops after birth allowing milk production to begin.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 88.
Ethical altruism
Ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have a moral obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary at the sacrifice of self interest.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethical_altruism.
Ethical egoism
Ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethical_egoism.
Ethnocentrism
Assessing other cultures based on how one's own culture defines appropriate behavior.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Ethnography
A research method that attempts to understand the beliefs, practices, and behaviors of the culture of study from the perspective of those living within the culture.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Exclusive Breastfeeding
Feeding with only breastmilk, no supplements of water, glucose water, artificial breastmilk, or foods.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 296-297.
Exercise and breastfeeding
Moderate exercise is fine. Exercise to exhaustion can increase lactic acid levels in milk and baby may refuse to breastfeed.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 501.
Exocytosis
A cell releases secretory vesicles as in production of protein and lactose in the alveoli.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/exocytosis.
Exogenous
Derived from outside the body - such as iron supplements.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 866.
Expected daily weight gain in the first 3 months
15-30 grams or 1/2 to 1 ounce a day.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 284.
Expected daily weight gain in the first 3 months
15-30 grams or 1/2 to 1 ounce a day.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 284.
Extension
Unbending movement around a joint in a limb that increases the angle between the bones. Opposite of Flexion.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/extension.
External validity
Extent to which study findings can be generalized to samples and settings different from those studied.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Extraneous variable
Variables that can affect the relationship of the independent and dependent variables (i.e., interfere with the effect of treatment.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Fat soluble vitamins
Vitamins including A, D, E, K. These vitamins are not affected by recent maternal diet, as they can be stored in the body.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 128.
Fentanyl/Sublimaze
Opiate analgesic, L2. A narcotic analgesic used during labor and delivery. Controversy about effect on breastfeeding.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 405.
Fenugreek
Most commonly used herb to stimulate milk production, L3.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 175.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 407.
Fibroadenoma
Glandular structure (such as breast) with a large amount of fibrous tissue (benign tissue).
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/fibroadenoma and http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/adenoma.
Finger feeding
An alternative feeding method that involves a feeding tube running along side the finger during a feed. It is believed to help coordinate suck, swallow, and breath and allows baby to pace themselves.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 232-233.
Flange
Hard plastic shields used to collect milk while pumping. Sometimes a soft plastic or silicone. The nipple opening is often available in a variety of diameter sizes to accommodate differing nipple sizes.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 396 & 398.
Flash heating
Quick, high temperature pasteurization.
You Tube. www.youtube.com/watch?v=NNw1odieIoI
Flat nipple
A nipple that does not protrude out or retract in (it is neither everted or inverted). It may or may not have slight movement inward or outward when stimulated or compressed.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 205.
Flexion
Bending movement around a joint in a limb that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint. Opposite of extension.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/flexion?show=0&t=1296702486.
Flow rate
Refers to the milk flow during milk ejection. Can also refer to the flow of a bottle nipple. When the milk flow is high the baby sucks slower and when the milk flow is low the baby sucks faster.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 445 & 450. Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 523.
Fluconazole/Diflucan
Antifungal, L2. Safe; no untoward effects have been reported.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 179.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 414.
Foods containing B6
Meat, fish, poultry, beans, and many fruits and vegetables, such as bananas and spinach.
National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplement. //ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/.
Foods containing calcium
Milk, milk products, broccoli, kale, and most grains.
National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplement. //ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Calcium-Consumer/.
Foods containing folic acid
Leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, dried beans and peas.
National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplement. //ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional/.
Foods containing iron
Meat, fish, poultry, lentils, and beans.
National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplement. //ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iron-HealthProfessional/.
Foods containing Vit B12
Animal products, such as fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk and milk products. For vegetarians, fortified cereals or nutritional yeast.
National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplement. //ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitaminb12/.
Foods containing Vit C
Citrus fruits, peppers, broccoli, and strawberries.
National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplement. //ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-Consumer/.
Foods containing Vit E
Nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, and green leafy vegetables.
National Institutes of Health. Office of Dietary Supplement. //ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/vitamine/.
Foremilk
The milk at the beginning of a breastfeeding. This milk has low fat content.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Fortification of breastmilk
The process of adding extra nutrients to breastmilk for premature infants. These nutrients can be derived from human milk or cow's milk base.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 46-47.
Fourth intercostal nerve
Essential for inervation of the nipple. Enters the areola at 5 o'clock position on the left breast and the 7 o'clock position on the right breast.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 56.
Frenotomy
Release of tongue tie by clipping the lingual frenulum. Often preformed without anesthesia with few complications.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 389.
Frenulectomy/frenuloplasty
Surgical procedure to release a tongue tie. Used for more extensive tongue tie.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 389.
Frenulum
Membrane on the underside of the tongue that anchors it to the floor of the mouth. If short or tight it may restrict tongue extension and cause breastfeeding problems.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Gag reflex
Reflex that protects the airway by causing a contraction in the back of the throat.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 229 & 585.
Galactocele
A milk filled lacteal cyst. Most frequent lump found in a lactating breast.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page311.
Galactogogue
A food, herb or drug that is thought to increase milk supply in lactating women.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Galactopoiesis
Maintaining lactation once lactogenesis has been established.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Galactorrhea
Secretion of breastmilk in non-lactation women. Common among women who have previously been pregnant or breastfed.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 93.
Galactose
A monosaccharide derived from lactose. Helps with central nervous system development.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Galactosemia
Disorder of the metabolism of galactose, a milk sugar. Baby must be on galactose-free formula.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 650 & 652.
Gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the stomach and intestines resulting from bacterial or viral invasion.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Gastroschisis
Congenital malformation characterized by herniation of abdominal contents through a fusion defect.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Gentian violet
Purple dye with antifungal properties used to treat candida, L3.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 303-304.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 467.
Gestational age
Infant's age since conception, usually specified in weeks and partial weeks. Counted from the first day of the last normal menstrual period.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Gigantomastia
Massive enlargement of breasts during pregnancy can result in tissue necrosis, ulceration, and infection.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 307.
Goat's Rue
An herbal galactagogue. Chemically similar to metformin.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 592.
Golgi apparatus
Cytoplasmic organelle that is active in production and transport of breastmilk proteins—called also Golgi complex.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/golgi%20apparatus.
Group B Strep
Common streptococcus bacteria in lower intestines. Harmless in adults, serious infection in neonates.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 526.
H1N1
Commonly called the Swine Flu. Mother may breastfeed. Antibodies are passed through breastmilk. http://www.usbreastfeeding.org/NewsInformation/NewsRoom/200905BreastfeedingandSwineFlu/tabid/144/Default.aspx
Half-life
Length of time for half of a drug dosage to be eliminated. Five half-lives from time of original dosage usually clears the drug.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Hand expression
The manual removal of milk. Mothers push hands back towards chest wall and then roll fingers towards the nipple.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 241.
Harlequin sign
Harmless color change in a newborn in which the dependent side of the body is a deep color while the other side is pale.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
HBIG
Hepatitis B specific immunoglobulin. Infants who are born to mothers with hepatitis B should receive this immunization at birth.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 698.
HBV
Hepatitis B Virus.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 205.
HELLP syndrome
H (intravascular hemolysis), EL (elevated liver enzymes; LP (low platelets). Develops as a result of pre-eclampsia in about 0.1% of women.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 610-611.
Hematemesis
Vomiting of blood. The bleeding may be from the infant's upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract or a crack in the mother's nipple.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Hepatitis A
Acute viral infection of the liver usually transmitted through food and water-borne routes. Theoretically the newborn can be infected by vertical transmission from the mother. All babies receive hepatitis vaccine. If the mother is infected, the baby should be given gamma globulin. Breastfeeding can proceed as normal.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 697.
Hepatitis B
Acute viral infection of the liver. It is safe for baby to breastfeed from infected mother, if baby receives a hepatitis vaccine with 12 hours after birth.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 205.
Hepatitis C
Chronic viral infection of the liver. Breastfeeding is allowed if mother's titers are not high.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 205-206.
Hepatitis D
Viral infection of the liver, usually a co-infection with Hepatitis B. Once immunization has begun breastfeeding can begin.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 698.
Hepatitis E
Viral infection of the liver that is self-limited and is not chronic. It is typically association with water contamination. Breastfeeding is considered safe.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 698.
Hepatitis G
Viral infection of the liver is associated with blood transfusions and has not been proven to transmit through breastmilk.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 698.
Heroine
Narcotic analgesic, L5. Not recommended for breastfeeding. Infant should be observed for sedation, tremors, vomiting, restlessness, and poor feeding.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 500.
HSV Herpes Simplex Virus
Sexually transmitted disease. Type 1 is infection of the lips and mouth area. Type 2 occurs in the genitalia. However, lesions can occur on any place of the body including the breasts. Infants should not come in contact with active lesions. Good hand washing should be encouraged.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 201-202.
High Temperature Short Time Pasteurization
Method of pasteurization of breastmilk to preserve nutrients.
www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/265421/high-temperature-short-time-method
Hind-milk
The milk at the end of a breastfeeding. This milk has a higher fat content.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome HIV/AIDS
Sexually transmitted disease. Antiretroviral drugs are helpful in prevention of it's spread to infant during pregnancy. In the U.S. it is recommended that women do not breastfeed. In developing countries exclusive breastfeeding is recommended.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 198-199.
Holder pasteurization
A pasteurization process in which the milk is heated to 62.5o Celsius for 30 minutes, and then rapidly cooled in ice water.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 482.
Horizontal axis
The "X" axis in a graph running left and right
www.gradeamathhelp.com/x-axis-and-y-axis.html
Horizontal transmission
Transmission of pathogens through direct contact.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 867.
Hospital grade breast pump
Bilateral electric breast pump. Used in hospitals, available for rent in community. Achieves more effective suction levels and frequency.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 526.
HTLV 1
Human Lymphotropic Virus. Causes T-cell leukemia and lymphoma. Breastfeeding is not recommended.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 206.
Human Growth Hormone
Found in human milk, it provides growth promoting and protective effects on cells.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 147.
Human milk bank
Organization that collects, screens, processes and distributes donor milk. The milk is dispensed on prescription for infants and adults in need.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Human milk fortifiers
Nutrients derived from human milk or cow's milk and added to human milk to enhance the growth of very low birth weight infants.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Hyper-
Meaning "excessive."
Wiktionary. en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hyper-.
Hyperadenia
Mammary tissue without a nipple present (sometimes seen in axilla).
Creasy, Resnik, Iams, 2004. Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice (5th ed.), page 139.
Hyperalimentation
Intravenous feeding of an infant, commonly a very premature infant, with a solution of amino acids, glucose, electrolytes, and vitamins.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Hyperbilirubinemia
A condition characterized by elevated levels of bilirubin and decreased elimination of bilirubin.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 367 & 370.
Hyperprolactinemia
Higher-than-normal prolactin levels, which may result in spontaneous breastmilk production and amenorrhea. Causes include pituitary tumors and some pharmaceuticals.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Hyperthelia
Having supernumerary nipples (extra nipples).
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/hyperthelia.
Hypo-
Meaning "deficient."
Wiktionary. en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hypo-.
Hypoglycemia
Low blood glucose levels. Breastfed infants tend to have lower glucose levels than formula fed infants.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 233.
Hypothalamus
Links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Secrets the prolactin-inhibiting factor (dopamine).
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 225. Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 88.
Hypoxia
Low blood oxygen causing tachycardia, hypertension, peripheral, vasoconstriction, dizziness, and mental confusion.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
IDM
Infant of Diabetic Mother
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 227-241.
IgE mediated allergy
Allergic reaction to food causing immediate, systemic reaction; can sometimes be severe.
Wikipedia. Available online: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_allergy.
Immunoglobulin
Proteins produced by plasma cells to respond to a immunogen. The 5 different types include: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, and IgD.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 142.
Incidence
the relative frequency of occurrence of something
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Incubation period
Period between exposure to infectious pathogens and the first signs of illness.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Independent variable
Experimental (treatment) variable that is manipulated by the investigator to influence the dependent (outcome) variable.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Induced lactation
The process of stimulating milk production in a woman who has not been pregnant for the current child.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Inductive reasoning
Process of reasoning from specific observations or abstractions to a general premise.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Inferior pedicle technique
Breast reduction surgical technique.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 654.
Informed consent
A patient has been given full information and offered appropriate options.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informed_consent.
Inframammary incision
Technique used in breast augmentation where the incision is made in the fold under the breast and the implant is placed under the breast tissue.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 309.
Insulin/humulin
Hormone that regulates carbohydrate and fats. L1, no concerns reported breastmilk. Insulin is too large a molecule to be secreted into breastmilk.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 537.
Internal validity
Extent to which manipulation of the independent variable makes a significant difference on the dependent variable, or the extent to which the independent variable, rather than extraneous variables, has caused the change in the dependent variables.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Intracellular
Occurring within cells. For example, viruses live within cells as part of their reproductive period.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Intrauterine
Within the uterus; in utero.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Intrauterine growth rate
Normal rate of weight gain of a fetus. It is considered by many to be the ideal growth rate for premature infants.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Inverted nipple
Nipple below the skin line. Umbilicated nipple can be pulled out or everted, while an invaginated nipple cannot be everted. Occurs in 3 percent of women.
Involution
When breasts return to a non-lactating state.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Isoniazid
Anti-tuberculosis agent, L3. No concerns reported via milk but infant should be monitored for toxicity.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 551.
IUD Intrauterine device
A birth control device inserted into the uterus. Non-hormonal types have been shown to have no effect on lactation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 725-726.
IUGR
Intrauterine Growth Restriction. An infant with slower than expected intrauterine growth.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 671.
Jaundice
The yellow discoloration of skin, caused by high bilirubin levels. Physiologic jaundice usually resolves within the first weeks of life. Breastmilk jaundice is prolonged physiologic jaundice.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 375-376.
Kernicterus
Bilirubin encephalopathy, a form of brain damage resulting from unconjugated bilirubin entering the brain. Characterized by lethargy, poor feeding, vomiting, irregular respiration, perhaps death.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 370.
Key milestones 1 month
Watches faces intently, follows objects, reacts to noise.
WebMD. Is Your Baby on Track? www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/is-your-baby-on-track.
Key milestones 2 months
Smiles at sound of voices. Lifts head and chest while on stomach.
WebMD. Is Your Baby on Track? www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/is-your-baby-on-track.
Key milestones 3 months
Raises head and chest while on stomach, holds head up for periods of time, grasps objects, smiles at people, makes vowel noises.
WebMD. Is Your Baby on Track? www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/is-your-baby-on-track; Wikipedia. //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development_stages.
Key milestones 4 months
Babbles, laughs, imitates sounds. Rolls over, sits with support, holds rattle.
WebMD. Is Your Baby on Track? www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/is-your-baby-on-track.
Key milestones 5 months
Holds head steady, reaches for objects and gets them, places objects in mouth.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development_stages.
Key milestones 6 months
Rolls over, moves objects from hand to hand, pulls self up to sit, makes double syllable sounds like "dada".
WebMD. Is Your Baby on Track? www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/is-your-baby-on-track; Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development_stages.
Key milestones 9 months
Responds to name, finds partially hidden objects, sits without support, crawls, picks up objects with pincer grasp.
WebMD. Is Your Baby on Track? www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/is-your-baby-on-track; Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_development_stages.
Key milestones 12 months
Walks with or without support, beginning to say words, imitates people.
WebMD. Is Your Baby on Track? www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/is-your-baby-on-track.
Key milestones 18 months
Walks independently, drinks from a cup, says at least 15 words.
WebMD. Is Your Baby on Track? www.webmd.com/parenting/guide/is-your-baby-on-track?
L 1
Drugs that have been taken by a large number of breastfeeding mothers with no observed adverse effects in infants. Controlled studies have not shown any risk or harm to infant or the drug is not orally bioavailable in the infant. These drugs are considered "safest" to use when breastfeeding.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 15.
L 2
Drugs that have not been widely studied in breastfeeding women, but have not been shown to have an adverse effect on the infant or the risk of adverse effect is unlikely. These drugs are considered "safe" for breastfeeding moms to use.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 15.
L 3
Drugs that have no controlled studies on breastfeeding women or the adverse effect shown by controlled studies is only minimal. These drugs should only be given if the benefit justifies the potential risk to the infant. These drugs are considered "moderately safe" for breastfeeding moms to use.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 15.
L 4
Drugs with positive evidence of risk to breastfeed infant or to breastmilk production. However, the benefits for the breastfeeding mother may justify the risk to the infant. These types of drugs are considered "possibly hazardous" for breastfeeding women to use.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 15.
L 5
These drugs are considered "contraindicated" for breastfeeding mothers to use. Studies or human experience have shown that there is a significant risk to infant. The risk of using these drugs in breastfeeding women clearly outweighs the benefit of breastfeeding.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 15.
Lactase
Enzyme needed by the infant to breakdown lactose in breastmilk to simple sugars.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Lactiferous ducts
The 15-24 milk ducts that collect milk from ductules and carry it to the nipple. If the alveoli are the "grapes" these structures would be the "stems".
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Lactobacillus bifidus
Main bacteria in the intestine of a breastfed infant. Called the bifidus factor, promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 144.
Lactocyte
An epithelial cell that lines the alveoli. Secretory cell.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 165.
Lactoengineering
The process of adding nutrients to human milk that are derived from human milk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Lactoferrin
An iron binding protein that prevents gastrointestinal diseases. Found only in human milk, not bovine milk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 144.
Lactogenesis
The onset of milk production.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869.
Lactogenesis I
Beginning milk production; mid-pregnancy to day 2 postpartum.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 85 & 86.
Lactogenesis II
Rapid increase in volume increases due to rapid drop in progesterone. Milk production switches from endocrine to autocrine control. Day 3 and 8 postpartum.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 86.
Lactogenesis III
Maintenance stage of milk production. Controlled by the autocrine system (supply and demand).
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 86.
Lactose
A disaccharide that is the primary carbohydrate found in human milk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 869-870.
Lactose deficiency/intolerance
Inability of the intestines to digest lactose; the principal carbohydrate in human milk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Laryngomalacia
Unusual flaccidity of laryngeal structures, a benign congenital condition that accounts for 70 percent of persistent stridor in infants.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Larynx
Upper end of the trachea (windpipe) through which the voice is produced. In the infant, the larynx lies close to the base of the tongue; during swallowing, it rises and is closed off by the epiglottis.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Late preterm infant (weeks of gestation)
An infant born between 34 0/7 and 36 6/7 weeks gestation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Lateral and medial pterygoid
The muscle that controls certain movements of the jaw (medial) and acts as an antagonist of other facial muscles (lateral). It works in conjunction with the masseter and temporalis muscles.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/pterygoid+muscle.
Lauric and capric acid
A crystalline fatty acid found in fats and oils, also called dodecanoic acid. Active against viruses, bacteria and protozoa.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/lauric+acid?show=0&t=1296699750 and http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/capric%20acid.
Right brained thinking
The side of the brain characterized by vision and hearing, art, pleasure, feeling, subjectivity.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateralization_of_brain_function
Leptin
A hormone found in breastmilk that regulates appetite, metabolism, and food intake. Not present in formula.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 146.
Lesion
Area of injured or diseased tissue.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Let-down reflex Milk Ejection Reflex
Oxytocin causes the myoepithelial cells surrounding the alveoli to contract and remove milk from the breast. Stimulated by the suckling infant and causes the suckling pattern to change from non-nutritive sucking to nutritive sucking as the milk flow increases.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 91. Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 296-237.
Leukocytes
Living cells found in breastmilk that fight infection. Includes macrophages and lymphocytes.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
LGA
Large for Gestational Age. Having a birth weight greater than the 90th percentile on intrauterine growth charts. There is a concern for hypoglycemia.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 671-672.
Liability
Professional responsibility for an occurrence or omission. Being the cause.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liability.
Ligand
Small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule (e.g., the binding of an antigen to an antibody, or of a hormone to a receptor).
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Likert scale
Scale that primarily measures attitudes by asking respondents their degree of agreement or disagreement to a number of statements.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Lipase
Enzyme that digests the fat in breastmilk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870 & 146.
Lobe
Clusters of several alveoli with their ducts. Each breast contains 15-20 of these structures. Included in each one is 10-100 alveoli.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 80.
Lobule
A structure composed of branching ductules that end in alveolar clusters.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 54.
Low birth weight infant
A birth weight of less than 2500 grams.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 671.
Low-dose birth control pills
A type of hormonal birth control that includes both estrogen and progestin in lower doses. May reduce milk supply but less likely than estrogen based pills.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 728.
Lymphocyte
A developed leukocyte that is bactericidal.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Lyophilization
A process preformed to obtain human milk nutrients used to fortify human milk. The milk is rapidly frozen and dried in a high vacuum.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Lysozyme
Found in the whey component of breastmilk, this enzyme creates a bactericidal and anti-inflammatory response.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 146.
Macrophage
Type of white blood cells, dominant type of phagocytes. They engulf and absorb pathogens, and also produce lactoferrin and lysozyme.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 141.
Macrophage
Type of white blood cell that ingests foreign material. Destroys bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells; in addition to stimulating cells in the immune system.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Malpractice
Professional negligence by act or omission. Deviation from accepted standards of practice that causes injury or death to the patient, with most cases involving medical error.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medical_malpractice.
Mammary bud
A cluster of embryonic epithelial cells that mark the beginning of milk ducts. Forms approximately 49 days after conception.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 870.
Mammogenesis
The development of mammary glands and related breast structures.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Mandible
The lower jaw, which causes the compressions during breastfeeding helping to milk the breast.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Manual breast pump
Hand operated pump, generally used for short term or occasional pumping.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 524.
Marshmallow root
An herbal galactagogue. Safety rating A.
Humphrey, 2003. The Nursing Mother's Herbal, page 294.
Matrescence
Becoming a mother.
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3783/is_200101/ai_n8945635/
Mature milk
The breastmilk after colostrum and transitional milk, typically beginning 2 weeks postpartum.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Median
Middle number in a series of numbers; the number on either side of which exist an equal amount of numbers.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Metformin/Glucophage
Oral hypoglycemic agent for diabetes, L1. Can also be used to treat Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. No side effects reported.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 662.
Metronidazole/Flagyl
Antibiotic, L2. Milk levels moderately high, but significantly less than pediatric therapeutic dose (15 mg/kg/d).
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 179.
Micrognathia
Underdevelopment of the jaw, especially the mandible.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Mastitis
Breast infection usually caused by S aureus. Localized breast tenderness and flu-like symptoms, hot, reddened spot on the breast. Stress, cracked nipples, plugged ducts, large milk supply, and engorgement/milk statis are risk factors. Treated with dicloxacillin, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid, cephalexin, erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin or nafcillin.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 294-295.
Milk stasis
Breastmilk retention causing uncomfortable breast fullness. Results in slower milk production.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page264.
Milk-plasma ratio
Quantity of a drug in human milk in relation to maternal plasma. If the M/P ratio > 1.00, the drug is found in greater quantities in milk than in plasma. M/P ratio < 1.00, the drug is found in lesser quantities in milk than plasma.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871. Hale, Medicaitons in Mother's Milk 2010, p 18.
Mitosis
Cell division in which each daughter cell contains the same DNA as the parent cell.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Mode
The value that occurs most frequently in a data set. For example, if the data set is 1, 3, 3, 3, 5, 7, 8, 8, the mode is 3.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(statistics).
Molecular weight
The chemical size of a molecule of a drug. The smaller the molecular weight of the medication (9300 Daltons or lower) the greater the diffusion across cell membranes.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 167.
Mongolian spots
A bluish-black pigmented area on the newborn's buttocks or back. Seen in newborns with dark skin and typically fade over time. Can easily be confused for bruising.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 686.
Morbidity
Number of ill persons or instances of disease in a specific population.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Mortality
Number of deaths in a specific population.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Mucous membranes
Membranes that line body passages or cavities that communicate directly or indirectly with the exterior (such as respiratory tract).
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/mucous%20membrane.
Multiparous
Having carried two or more pregnancies to viability.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Myelination
Protective fatty sheath around nerve fibers. Long-chain polyunsaturated fats that are important to myelination are abundant in human milk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Myoepithelial cells
Contractile cells that surround the milk secreting alveoli creating the milk letdown.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Necrotizing enterocolitis
Inflammation of the intestinal tract that may cause tissue to die. Premature infants not receiving human milk are at markedly greater risk for this serious complication.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Neonatal period
Birth through the first 26 days of life.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Newborn normal heart rate (birth to one year)
Newborn 70-190 beats per minute.Infants (1-11 months) 80-120 beats per minute
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003399.htm
Newborn normal respiratory rate (birth to one year)
30-60 breaths per minute.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_rate.
NGO
Nongovernmental organization. Organizations that operate independently of any government.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-governmental_organization.
Nicotine
Chemical in cigarette smoke, L2.
Hale, 2010. Medications in Mother's Milk, page 745.
NICU
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Noncasein protein
A protein found in the whey component of milk. Includes alphalactalbumin, serum albumin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, and lysozyme.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 871.
Nonmaleficence
The duty to do no harm.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 31.
Non-nutritive sucking
Sucking not on the breast, such as a pacifier, or sucking at the breast with brief sucks and long rest periods with minimal milk flow.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Nonparametric statistics
Statistical procedures used when required assumptions for using parametric procedures are not met, especially assumptions regarding a normal probability distribution.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Nonprotein nitrogen
Approximately 1/4 of nitrogen found in breastmilk. Contains essential amino acids for infant.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Nosocomial
Infections resulting from hospital treatment. Can be prevented by hand washing, hand sanitizer gels, disposable gloves, and disinfection of baby equipment.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nosocomial_infection. Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 527.
Nucleotides
A compound that has a nitrogen base. Essential for energy metabolism, enzyme reactions, gastrointestinal tract development, and immune function.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 128.
Nutritive sucking
Rhythmic sucking at the breast with milk flow.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Obesity affect on breastfeeding
Maternal obesity is linked to hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and a greater risk of birth interventions. Delays lactogenesis, lower milk supply and earlier weaning.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 255. Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 107.
Oligosaccharide
A carbohydrate consisting of monosaccharides found in breastmilk. Antibacterial properties. Promotes the growth of Lactobacillus bifidus.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Operational definition
Explicit description of a concept or variable of interest in measurable terms.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Orbicularis oris
Muscle made up of several layers of fibers passing in different directions that encircles the mouth and controls most movements of the lips (as compressing, closing, or pursing movements).
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/orbicularis+oris.
Osteoporosis
A condition of bone loss. Breastfeeding for 6 months or longer is the best protection against bone loss. Although calcium is lost during breastfeeding, more calcium is deposited after weaning.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 510.
Oxytocin
Hormone responsible for the milk-ejection-reflex. Causes contraction of uterus after delivery and creates a sense of calmness and relaxation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 91.
Paced bottle feeding
Style of bottle feeding that helps avoid overly fast flow, especially in less mature infants. This technique includes: positioning infant upright in the caregiver's arms, positioning bottle horizontally with just enough angel to keep milk in the tip of the nipple, and pacing the feeding to approximately the same time as a breastfeeding would take.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 243. Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 559.
Paget's disease
Type of breast cancer, 1-3% of all breast cancers. Occurs unilateral with demarcated, red, scaly plaque on the nipple and/or areola. Blood tinged discharge, pain, crusting, itching, burning, skin thickening, redness, ulceration, or nipple retraction.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 652.
Palate, hard
The hard portion of the roof of the mouth. During breastfeeding the infant compresses the breast tissue against this area with his tongue.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Palate, soft
The soft portion of the roof of the mouth, located between the hard palate and the throat. This area rises when the infant swallows to close the nasal passages.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Pancreas
A large gland that secretes digestive enzymes which pass through the intestine and break-down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. It also secretes insulin.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/pancreas.
Parametric statistics
Statistical procedures used when a sample is randomly selected, represents a normal distribution of the target population, and is considered sufficiently large in size, and interval level data are collected.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Parenchyma
Essential and distinctive tissue of an organ as distinguished from its supportive framework.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/parenchyma.
Parenteral
Introduction of fluids, nutrients, or drugs into the body by an avenue other than the digestive tract (intravenous, intramuscular).
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Passive immunity
Immunity passed to infant by antibodies manufactured passed to the infant transplacentally or in breastmilk. Passive immunity is temporary.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 868.
Passive transport
Passage of drug into breastmilk by diffusion, molecular weight and relative amount of drug circulating in maternal serum.
Hale & Hartman, 2007. Textbook of Human Lactation, page 467.
Pasteurization
Heating milk to destroy pathogens.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Pathogen
Substance or organism capable of producing illness.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
PDA
Patent ductus arteriosis. Abnormal blood flow between the aorta and pulmonary artery.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 24.
Pepcid/Famotidine
Reduces gastric acid secretion, L1. No concerns reported via breastmilk.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 398.
Periareolar incision
A technique used in breast augmentation where the incision is made around the areola. It is associated with loss of nipple sensation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 360.
Peristalsis
Involuntary, rhythmic, wavelike action. To strip milk from the breast, and infant's tongue uses a peristaltic motion that begins at the tip of the tongue and progresses toward the back of the mouth.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Personal use breast pump
Bilateral electric breast pump. Used primarily by working mothers. Achieves good suction and frequency.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 524.
Pharynx
Muscular tube at the rear of the mouth, through which air travels to the larynx and food from the mouth travels to the esophagus.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Phasic bite
A reflex that is characterized by a rhythmic opening and closing of the jaw when the gums are stimulated. Appears around 28 weeks gestation.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 142.
Philtrum
The region between the nose and lips. The midline area should be grooved and defined. In fetal alcohol syndrome the area is flat.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 872.
Phototherapy
A treatment for jaundice involving blue spectrum light. The light is absorbed by bilirubin and changes the structure, allowing it to be excreted from the body more easily.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 374.
Physiologic engorgement vs. Pathologic engorgement
Physiologic engorgement is normal increase in milk production of lactogenesis II. Pathologic engorgement is excessive fullness due to restrictive feeding practices or ineffective milk removal.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 637-638.
Pierre Robin Syndrome
Syndrome of oral facial abnormalities, micrognathia (a small jaw) and glossoptosis (tongue often blocks airway). Cleft palates are common. Difficulty maintaining the airway frequently causes feeding problems.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 643-644..
PIH Pregnancy Induced Hypertension
Preeclampsia or toxemia. Characterized by increased blood pressure during pregnancy, after 20 weeks gestation. Treatment often includes preterm delivery. Can progress to HELLP syndrome.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 470 & 610.
Pinch test
Compressing the areola to see wither the nipple protrudes or retracts.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 63.
pKa
Ph of a drug when equally ionic and nonionic. Drugs with pKa higher than 7.2 may be sequestered in breastmilk.
Hale, 2010. Medications in Mother's Milk, p. 19.
Placenta
Intrauterine organ that transfers nutrients from the mother to the fetus. After the delivery the drop in estrogen and progesterone levels allows milk secretion to begin.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Polycystic ovarian (ovary) syndrome
A endocrine-metabolic disorder where multiple cysts interfere with ovarian function. Common symptoms are unusual breast development, amenorrhea, male pattern hair growth, obesity. Can effect milk supply.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 523.
Polymastia
Having more than 2 breasts. Additional breasts occur along the milk line and typically have little glandular tissue.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Population
Total set of individuals that meet the study criteria from which the sample is drawn and about whom findings can be generalized.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Port wine stain
Nevus flammeus. Reddish or flat pink lesion that does not blanch with pressure, caused by dilated capillaries below the epidermal skin. This lesion usually remains constant in size and does not fade with time.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 686.
Post-
After, later than.
Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/post-.
Posterior pituitary
This gland releases oxytocin into the blood effecting milk ejection. It is susceptible to stress.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 91.
Power
Probability that a statistical test will reject a null hypothesis when it should be rejected, or, in other words, detect a significant difference that does not exist.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
PPD Postpartum Depression
3 types of disorders: Postpartum blues is a temporary depression lasting a few days. Postpartum depression is a mild to moderate depression lasting at least 2 weeks. Postpartum psychosis is the most severe form, beginning at 2-4 weeks postpartum. Mothers may have insomnia, irrational ideas, feelings of failure, depression, hallucinations, and self-accusatory thoughts.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 539.
Pre-
Prior to, before, earlier than.
Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/pre-.
Prednisone
Steroid, L2. No concerns reported via breastmilk. Safe for short term use. Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 848.
Preeclampsia
Characterized by increased blood pressure during pregnancy, after 20 weeks gestation. Treatment often includes preterm delivery.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 610.
Premature infant
Born at less 37 weeks gestation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 671.
Preterm infant (weeks of gestation)
Under 37 weeks gestation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 671.
Primary infection
First incidence of the illness after exposure to a pathogen.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Primiparous
First pregnancy. Having carried one pregnancy to viability.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Pro-
Latin word meaning "for."
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PRO.
Progesterone
A hormone high during pregnancy delaying lactogenesis II. Dramatically decreases after birth.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 88.
Progestin only birth control pills
Hormonal birth control that does not contain estrogen. Called the "mini-pill." Not likely to decrease milk production.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 728.
Prolactin
Hormone essential for initiating and maintaining milk production.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 88.
Prolactin inhibiting factor
Stimulates dopamine releases and thus inhibits prolactin. Nipple stimulation and milk removal suppresses PIF and dopamine, causing prolactin levels to rise and the breast to produce milk. From the hypothalamus.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 90.
Prolactin receptor sites
Binding sites on the walls of the lactocytes that receive prolactin. Frequent breastfeeding early in lactation creates more receptor sites resulting in increased milk production.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 89.
Prone
Lying facing down.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Protein binding
Percentage of a drug bound to maternal plasma. High PB means less in breastmilk.
Hale, 2010. Medications in Mother's Milk, p. 18.
Proximal
Closer to the point of attachment. Opposite of distal.
Wiktionary. en.wiktionary.org/wiki/proximal.
Pseudoephedrine/Sudafed
Decongestant, L3. Usually compatible with breastfeeding, but can effect maternal milk supply.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 867.
Raynaud's phenomena
Temporary vascular condition; intense pain and pallor of the skin (usually of the fingers or toes, but in breastfeeding woman the nipples), cause by vasospasm. Can include white, red and blue phases.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Reliability
Degree to which collected data are accurate, consistent, precise, and stable over time.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Reverse pressure softening
Technique to allow feeding on an engorged breast: apply steady pressure with fingers around the areola, pressing back towards chest wall. Moves edema towards lymphatic drainage system, triggers milk ejection reflex by stimulating nerves near the areola.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page241.
Rickets
Abnormal calcification of the bones and changes in growth plates that lead to soft or weak bones due to lack of Vitamin D. AAP advises that full-term breastfed infants receive vitamin D supplement beginning at 2 months of age."
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Left brained thinking
The side of the brain characterized by logic, order, analysis, sequential.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateralization_of_brain_function
Rooting reflex
Infant turns his head towards touch and opens mouth. Appears at 28 weeks gestation and disappears around 4 months.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 698.
Rotavirus
Viral illness causing severe diarrhea.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
RSV
Respiratory syncytial virus. Viral respiratory illness; can be severe in infants.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Rugae
The ridges behind the gum line on the hard palate. This structure helps the infant to maintain grasp of the breast during suckling.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Sample
Subset of the population selected for study.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Sampling
Procedure of selecting the sample from the population of interest.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Secretory IgA
Immunoglobulin that forms antibodies in body and is critical in mucosal immunity. The most common immunoglobulin in breastmilk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 142.
Separation Anxiety
Three stages: Protest stage a child attempts to recover the mother/caregiver by crying, kicking, screaming for a few hours to days. Despair stage a child grieves or mourns as they accept their new environment. May show regressive behavior, such as sucking the thumb. Denial or detachment a child begins to interact and approach others.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 595.
Sepsis
Presence of bacteria in fluid or tissue.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873.
Seroconvert
Serum shows the presence of a factor that previously was absent. Ex., when cytomegalovirus antibodies become present in blood due to CMV disease the person is said to have seroconverted.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 873-874.
Seropositive/Seronegative
Serum that demonstrates (positive) or does not demonstrate (negative) the presence of a factor.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Serum
Clear fluid portion of blood that remains after coagulation.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Serum albumin
Protein in serum (blood).
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
SGA Small for Gestational Age
Having a birth weight that is below the 10th percentile on intrauterine growth charts. There is a concern for malnutrition and hypoglycemia.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 671-672.
Shatavari
A herbal galactagogue. Safety rating B.
Humphrey, 2003. The Nursing Mother's Herbal, page 301.
SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Diagnosis when all other possible causes of death were ruled out. Major risk factors are maternal smoking, prone position, and formula feeding.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 282 & 874.
Smooth muscle
Involuntary muscle fiber that responds to hormones. Ex., muscle around alveoli contracts in response to oxytocin.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 54.
Spontaneous lactation
Unusual milk production in a non-breastfeeding woman. Also known as galactorrhea.
Merck manuals Online Medical Library. www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec12/ch151/ch151g.html.
Spoon feeding
Alternative feeding method. Feed infant via small spoon.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 226-227.
SSRIs Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Class of antidepressants (as fluoxetine or sertraline) that inhibit the inactivation of serotonin by blocking its reuptake by nerve cell endings.
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/ssri.
St John's Wort
Antidepressant, L2. No concerns reported via breastmilk, probably safe for breastfeeding.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 950.
Stem cells
Stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized cells types. Have been found in breastmilk.
Cregan, Fan, Appelbee, Brown, et al. (2007). Identification of nestin-positive putative mammary stem cells in human breastmilk. Cell and Tissue Research, 329(1), 129-136. Available online: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k28h687mg3n433mj/
Stroma
The supporting tissues of an organ, ie, the breast.
MedicineNet. com www.medterms.com/ script/main/art.asp?articlekey=12709
STS
Skin to skin or Kangaroo Care.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Suck, suckle
The action of baby milking the breast. Related more to tongue movement than suction.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Supine
Lying on one's back.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Supplementing at breast
System for supplementing the baby while feeding at the breast. Reservoir holding milk with a tube attached that is secured to the breast.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 414.
Switch nursing
Baby is switched back and forth between the two breasts during a feeding to help stimulate multiple letdowns and increase milk intake.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Symbiosis
Intimate association of two different kinds of organisms. An example is the breastfeeding dyad.
T cells
Any of several kinds of thymic lymphoid cells or lymphocytes that help to regulate cellular immune response.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Tachycardia
Relatively rapid heart rate whether physiological (as after exercise) or pathological. Opposite of bradycardia.
Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. www.merriam-webster.com/medical/tachycardia.
Tachypnea
Abnormally rapid rate of breathing.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Tanner stages
Five stages of sexual development in adolescence evaluating pubic hair, genitals and breast development
Merck manuals Online Medical Library. www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec18/ch243/ch243a.html?qt=tanner stages&alt=sh.
Target population
Population that is of interest to the investigator and about which generalizations of study results are intended.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
TB Tuberculosis
Contagious bacterial infection usually involves lungs. Mothers may breastfeed after treatment is begun.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 525.
TE Fistula Tracheoesophageal fistula
A fistula (passage way) between the trachea and esophagus. Oral feedings are withheld until the fistula is surgically repaired due to the risk of aspiration.
Merck manuals Online Medical Library. www.merckmanuals.com/professional/sec19/ch289/ch289b.html?qt=tracheoesophageal fistula&alt=sh.
Teleology
The belief that all events are directed toward some ultimate purpose.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Ten Steps
Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative uses the Ten Steps as outlined by UNICEF/WHO.
Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative USA. www.babyfriendlyusa.org/eng/10steps.html.
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Promotes mammary growth and lactation through a permissive rather than a regulatory role.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 90.
TORCH diseases
Acronym for organisms that can damage the fetus: toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 204 & 875.
Torticollis
Condition of the neck in which the cervical muscles are contracted, producing twisting of the neck and an unnatural position of the head.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Tracheomalacia
Malformation of the trachea cartilage causing collapse and wheezing sound during respiration.
Mannel, et al. Core Curriculum, 2008, p. 633.
Transcutaneous bilimeter
Device that estimates bilirubin concentrations in the blood by measuring the intensity of yellowish skin coloration.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 874.
Transitional milk
Breastmilk produced between colostrum and mature milk, during the first 4-10 days postpartum.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Transplacental
Transferred from mother to fetus through the placenta.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Trigeminal nerve
Cranial nerve V.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 92.
Type I Diabetes
High blood sugar levels due to lack of insulin prodution in he pancreas. An insulin dependent disease. Can delay lactogenesis II.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 652-653. Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 267 & 681.
Type II Diabetes
High blood sugar levels due to lack of insulin production in the pancreas. A noninsulin dependent disease known as adult onset diabetes.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 681.
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
Branch of the United Nations that advocates for children's rights. Developed the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in conjunction with the WHO.
UNICEF. www.unicef.org/.
Univariate
Statistics derived from the analysis of a single variable (e.g., frequencies).
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Universal precautions
Guidelines for infection control, based on the assumption that every person receiving health care carries an infection that can be transmitted by blood, body fluids, or genital secretions.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Utilitarianism
The idea that the moral worth of an action is determined solely by its usefulness in maximizing utility and minimizing negative utility.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utilitarianism.
Validity
Degree to which collected data are true and represent reality; the extent to which a measuring instrument reflects what it is intended to measure.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Variable
Attributes, properties, and/or characteristics of persons, events, or objects that are examined in a study.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Vasospasm
The nipple blanches sometimes turning blue or red temporarily due to vasoconstriction. Also occurs in other extremities, such as fingers and toes.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 306.
Velum
The soft palate.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 95.
Vertical axis
The "Y" axis in a graph
www.gradeamathhelp.com/x-axis-and-y-axis.html
Vertical transmission
Transmission of infection from mother to child transplacentally or through breastmilk.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Very low birth weight infant
A birth weight of less than 1500 grams.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 671.
Virtue ethics
Approach to ethics that emphasizes the character of the moral agent, rather than rules or consequences, as the key element of ethical thinking.
Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtue_ethics.
Vitamin D
A fat soluble vitamin that prevent rickets. Produced in the skin from exposure to sunlight. Found in fatty fish, eggs and meat.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 128.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 1052.
Vitamin K
Fat soluble vitamin necessary for blood clotting. Insufficient amounts of this vitamin can cause hemorrhagic disease. Injections of this vitamin are routinely given postpartum to infants.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 129.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 824.
WABA World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action
Formed in 1991, this global organization's goal is to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.
World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action. www.waba.org.my/aboutus.htm.
Water soluble vitamin
Dissolve in water and not stored in the body. Vitamin C, nicotinic acid, B12, riboflavin, and B6. B12 can be deficient in women who eat a vegan diet.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 129.
Weaning milk
Breastmilk during the end of lactation (whether intentional or unintentional). This milk is higher in sodium and immunoglobins.
Mannel, Martens & Walker, 2008. Core Curriculum for Lactation Consultant Practice (2nd ed.), page 676.
West Nile Virus
Viral disease spread by mosquitos. Breastfeeding is permitted.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 206.
Wet nurses
A woman who breastfeeds a infant that is not her own.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Whey
The liquid portion of milk that is left after curds separate. Primarily consists of proteins alphalactalbumin and lactoferrin.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Whey:Casein ratio
Ratio changes throughout lactation. Early milk the ratio is 90:10, mature milk is 60:40, weaning milk is 50:50. The ratio in formula is 20:80.
Walker, 2009. Breastfeeding Management for the Clinician: Using the Evidence (2nd ed.), page 26.
WHO Code International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk substitutes
The code protects and promotes breastfeeding by ensuring the proper use of breastmilk substitutes. The code applies to the marketing of formula, milk products, beverages, complimentary foods used for the replacement of breastmilk. The code covers the marketing of feeding bottles and nipples (teats).
World Health Organization, 1981. International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, page 8. www.who.int/nutrition/publications/code_english.pdf.
Witch's milk
Colostrum, formed under the influence of maternal hormones, which may be temporarily present in newborn's breasts.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 875.
Zoloft/Sertraline
Antidepressant, L2. A serotonin re-uptake inhibitor with a short half-life. No concerns reported via breastmilk, probably safe for breastfeeding.
Hale, 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk (14th ed.), page 930.
Fluoxetine/Prozac
Psychotropic drug. L2 in older infants, L3 in neonates.
Riordan & Wambach, 2010. Breastfeeding and Human Lactation (4th ed.), page 182.
Hale, T., 2010. Medications and Mother's Milk, (14th Edition), page 430.