150 terms

A.P. United States History Key Terms Review

Review of Key Terms for A.P. U.S. History
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One of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers
Chesapeake Colonies
(Southern Colonies) included Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia. Had a cash crop agriculture, slavery was important, mostly illiterate, Protestant, very isolated, high death rates and unstable families.
Maryland Act of Toleration
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Virginia Company
Joint stock company received charter from King James I; Promises of Gold-passage through Americas to Indies/ Guaranteed English would have same rights in New world as in England.
Powhatan
Chief of the Powhatan Confederacy and father to Pocahontas. At the time of the English settlement of Jamestown in 1607, he was a friend to John Smith and John Rolfe. When Smith was captured by Indians, Powhatan left Smith's fate in the hands of his warriors. His daughter saved John Smith, and the Jamestown colony. Pocahontas and John Rolfe were wed, and there was a time of peace between the Indians and English until Powhatan's death.
James I
First Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
William Penn
A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.
King Phillip (Metacom)
Son of Massasoit; forged inter-tribal alliance and assaulted frontier settlements (pushed settlers back to Boston); this slowed English westward march in New England and drastically reduced threat of Indians
Salutary Neglect
Coined by British statesman Edmund Burke regarding the English colonies; idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference.
"City upon a hill"
A phrase that is associated with John Winthrop's sermon "A Model of Christian Charity," given in 1630. Winthrop warned the Puritan colonists of New England who were to found the Massachusetts Bay Colony that their new community would be a "city upon a hill," watched by the world.
Great Migration
Settlement of over twenty thousand Puritans in Massachusetts Bay and other parts of New England between 1630 and 1642.
Puritans
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization. English Protestant dissenters who believed that God predestined souls to heaven or hell before birth. They founded Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629. (p. 487)
Separatists
Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620's who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
Pequot War
1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot, result of competition for Dutch trade and friction over land boundaries; pequot virtually wiped out.
William Berkeley
a Governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676.
Bacon's Rebellion
Uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
Jonathon Edwards
"Sinners in the hands of an angry God" believed in the salvation through good works and the need for complete dependence on the Gods grace and lurid details of the landscape of hell.
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
Old vs New Lights
The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England. The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Yeoman Farmer
Most white southerners were part of this class in society and they owned small farms (100 acres). They either held few slaves and worked along side them or none at all and they survived by hunting, fishing, raising small gardens, & doing odd jobs for money
Albany Plan
Proposal formed by Benjamin Franklin, when delegates from Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and New England met in Albany, (established concept of colonial unity),here they tried to negotiate a treaty with the Iroquois, by setting up a general government that would manage relations with Indians, but war was already breaking out and no one in the colonial assembly approved it.
Iroquois Confederacy
An alliance of five northeastern Native Indian peoples (Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneiga and after 1722 one more) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England.
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
William Pitt
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Stamp Act
Act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents.
Declaratory Act
Act of the Parliament of Great Britain in 1766, during America's colonial period, one of a series of resolutions passed attempting to regulate the behavior of the colonies. It stated that Parliament had the right to make laws for the colonies in all matters.
Virtual Representation
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest
Daughters of Liberty
This orginization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
Townsend Duties
Placed levies on glass, lead, paint, it reinforced parliments power, got revolutionaries going, and imports halfed because of boycotts.
Common Sense
Written by Thomas Paine, it stated that it was common sense to rebel against King George. America should break all ties with Britain. It sold over 100,000 copies
Committees of Correspondence
Organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of representatives of nine of the thirteen colonies held in New York City in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send to the king listing how their rights had been violated.
Intolerable Acts
In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Written by Thomas Jefferson and passed by the Virginia General Assembly; forerunner of the first amendment of constitution; a statement about freedom of religion as well as a statement about the separation of church and state.
Articles of Confederation
The nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery
Shays' Rebellion
Conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; Led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes.
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Connecticut Comprimise
Plan adopted by the constitutional convention to provide for two chambers in congress, one that represented states equally and the other representing states based on their population.
Three-Fifths Compromise
Compromise between Northern and Southern states that broke the deadlock over how slaves should be counted for purposes of representation. Three fifths of slaves would be included in population totals, benefiting Southern states that had the largest concentration of slaves by inflating their representation in the House of Representatives.
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
An agreement during the Constitutional Convention protecting slave holders; denied Congress the power to tax the export of goods from any State, and, for 20 years, the power to act on the slave trade.
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalist
The Federalists were pro-constitution while the Anti-Federalists were against the constitution.
Jamestown
first permanent colony for the British, original settlers suffered from disease, economy stablized after John Rolfe's tobacco was cultivated; this colony was burnt to the ground twice.
Kentucky Resolution
Written by Jefferson and approved by the Kentucky legislature; written to nullify Alien and Sedition Acts; later used by southerners to support secession
Virginia Resolution
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Jay Treaty of 1794
Chief Justice John Jay negotiated in London. Treaty between the United States and Great Britain to regulate commerce and navigation. Corrected problems arising from violations of the Treaty of Paris of 1793. Britain opened some of its ports in British West Indies to U.S. trade and agreed to remove British troops from the American Northwest Territory. It was meant to establish a good relationship between Spain and the US.
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
Proclaimed the government neutrality in the widening conflict but sternly warned the American citizens to be impartial toward both armed camps. Proved to be a major prop of spreading isolation tradition.
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Authorized the president to imprison (or deport) any alien from an enemy nation (one the U.S. was fighting), or any alien considered dangerous; made it a crime to publish "false, scandalous, and malicious writing" against the government or its officials. No aliens were actually deported, and only 10 people were convicted of sedition; they were all pardoned by Jefferson when he became president in 1801.
Jeffersonian-Democrats
Anti-Federalists in favor of strict limits on national power. Started by Thomas Jefferson.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion.
Assumption
Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.
Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson's response to the cry for war. Prohibited american ships from leaving port for any foreign destination, so they completely avoided France/Britain ships. Resulted in an economic depression, his most unpopular policy of both terms.
Marbury vs. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Non-Intercourse Act
Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
American System
Economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves .This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
Tecumseh and The Prophet
People feared that the British in Canada would recruit Indians to halt the march of American settlement. A Shawnee chief, Tecumseh and his half-brother the Prophet, sought to unite several tribes in Ohio and the Indiana territory against American settlers. They tried to unify their people and revive traditional virtues.
South Carolina Exposition
Written by John C. Calhoun; negatively impacts the people of South Carolina; in the writing he revives the nullification theory. If the federal government doesn't recognize the state's right to disagree with an act of congress, then that state has the right to secede from the union.
Corrupt Bargain
Refers to the claim from the supporters of Andrew Jackson that John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay had worked out a deal to ensure that Adams was elected President by the House of Representatives in 1824.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff of 1828, raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
Spoils System
System in which incoming political parties throw out former government workers and replace them with their own allies.
Specie Circular
Issued by President Jackson, meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Cyrus McCormick
Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
Know-Nothings
Made up of nativists who answered questions about the society by answering "I know nothing." Supported only white, native born, protestant political candidates.
Lowell Mills
Was a factory in Lowell, Massachusetts and was the first American factory in which all steps involved in turning raw cotton into finished cloth. It had horrible working conditions
Cult of Domesticity
Ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband. Social customs restricted women to caring for the house
Transcendentalists
Followers of a belief which stressed self-reliance, self- culture, self-discipline, and that knowledge transcends instead of coming by reason. They promoted the belief of individualism and caused an array of humanitarian reforms.
Utopian Societies
Group of small societies that appeared during the 1800s in an effort to reform American society and create a "perfect" environment (Ex. Shakers, Oneidas, Brook Farm, etc.).
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions
Based on the Declaration of Independence; stated that all men and women are created equal; most prominent demand was for the right to vote; rejected the notion that men and women should be assigned separate spheres in society
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. Promoted abolition and intensified sectional conflict.
Nat Turner
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God. Largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
Fugitive Slave Act
Made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the acquired Mexican territory.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act.
Wilmot Proviso
Proposed in 1846 that congress ban slavery in all southwestern lands that might become states; passed in the House but not by the Senate; slave states saw it as a northern attack on slavery.
California Gold Rush
James Marshall noticed Gold at Sutter's Mill, and when the East coast heard of the Gold, by 1849 they flooded California in search of fast-cash. Yet the real money in the gold rush did not come from gold, it came from those who supplied the 'forty-niners' with food, clothing, housing and entertainment.
Bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Free Soil Party
Political party organized by Northerners taking the approach that slavery should not be extended into the land of the Mexican Cession. Martin van buren was their presidential candidate in 1848. Motto of "free soil, free labor, free men."
Ostend Manifesto
Declaration issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
Anaconda Plan
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of
Southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi River, and to take an army through Heart of South.
Appomattox Court House
Famous as the site of the Battle of Appomattox Courthouse, where the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee To Ulysses S. Grant took place on April 9, 1865
Pacific Railroad Act
Act to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes.
Copperheads
Most extreme portion of the Peace Democrats. They openly obstructed the war through attacks against the draft, against Lincoln, and the emancipation. Based in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. There was really no victory for this group.
Antietam
First major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation.
Vicksburg
The union forces wanted to capture Vicksburg in order to control to Mississippi River. General Grant surrounded Vicksburg and bombed it for a month. The people and Confederate soldiers starved until they surrendered.
New York Draft Riots
People against drafting rioted in New York City for four days. 100 people were killed and many black homes, businesses and even an orphanage was burnt down. The violence was only halted when federal troops stepped in.
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln issued it and freed all the slaves in the Confederate states, but slaves in Border States loyal to the Union remained enslaved. It led to slaves rebelling and joining the Union army and increased sympathy from Europe.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promised 1) To remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general) 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river.
Plessy Vs. Ferguson
The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory if blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons.
Resumption Act of 1875
Bill passed by hard-money advocates that pledged the government to the withdrawal of greenbacks from circulation and the guarantee of all paper currency in gold starting in 1879.
Vertical/Horizontal Integration
Beginnings of trusts; vertical was controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental)
New Immigration
The New Immigrates in the 1980's and 1990's came from Asia, Latin America and mostly from Mexico. These new immigrates came for many of the same reasons that the old immigrates came such as growth in population, and to look for jobs. They mostly settled in the Southwest. During this time nearly a million people came to America each year.
Social Gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization.
Gospel of Wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad that connected the eastern United States to the western United States. The railroad firmly bonded the East and West Coast, created a trade route to the far-east, and helped the western expansion
Mesabi Range
A section of low hills in Minnesota owned by Rockefeller in 1887, it was a source of iron ore for steel production.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions.
Knights of Labor
Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes
Sacco and Vanzetti
Two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tried, convicted, and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 for an armed robbery. It is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
Harlem Renaissance
This was a time when African Americans were very expressive of their culture. Harlem is a part of New York City where the renaissance started. Blacks advanced in music literature, drama, art and dance.
National Origins Act of 1924
A law that severely restricted immigration by establishing a system of national quotas that blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern and eastern Europe and virtually excluded Asians. The policy stayed in effect until the 1960s.
Scopes Monkey Trial
American legal case that tested the Butler Act that forbade the teaching of any aspect of the Theory of Evolution. The Butler Act made the teaching of evolution unlawful especially in Tennessee. John Scopes was persecuted for teaching evolution and he was found guilty.
Ku Klux Klan (1920s)
Capitalizing on middle-class Protestant dismay at changing social and economic conditions in America, the Klan took root throughout the South as well as in Western and Midwestern cities, and was dominated by white native-born Protestants. Membership and influence declined again in 1925, when corruption among Klan leaders was exposed.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. (H.H.)
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
Social Security Act
Guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
It was a governmental legislation that restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area. The Act created the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, to oversee the distribution of the subsidies to alleviate the problems with farms out west.
Civilian Conservation Corporation
Provided employment in fresh air camps for about 3 million workers, which helped in reforestation, firefighting, flood control, and swamp drainage. Income were mandatorily sent back to their parents. Critics of this policy called it "militarizing" nation's youth
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Established by the Glass-Steagal Act, this organization guaranteed all bank deposits up to $5,000 meaning if a bank should fail, small depositors would be able to receive back their money.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Works Progress Administration
Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemployed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Boulder Dam
Hoover Dam; A dam on the Colorado River built during the Great Depression as part of a public-works program intending to stimulate buisness and provide jobs. Originally called the Boulder Dam but was renamed by FDR to honor Herbert Hoover.
Court-Packing Proposal
In the wake of Supreme Court decisions that declared key pieces of New Deal legislation unconstitutional, Roosevelt proposed increasing the number of justices. If a justice did not retire at age seventy, the President could appoint an additional justice up to a maximum of six. Was denied by Congress as it would have shifted the balance of power in favor of the Supreme Court.
German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
Hitler knew that there couldn't be a two front war or else he would be beat so he signed a pact with the USSR in 1939 to vow that Nazi and USSR would not attack each other as he took over Europe but them Hitler violated it and USSR joined allies and fought axis.
Munich Agreement
Chamberlain flew to Munich to attend summit with France, Italy, and Germany; discussed future of Czechoslovakia; led to transfer of all Sudenten territories to Germany in return of Hitler promising respect sovereignty of remainder of Czechoslovakia
Tripartite Pact
Pact between Japan, Germany, and Italy signed in September 1940, by which each pledged to declare war on any nation that attacked any of them.
Neutrality Act of 1939
This act stipulated that European democracies might buy American munitions, but only if they could pay in cash and transport them in their own ships. The terms were known as "Cash-and-Carry." It represented an effort to avoid war debts and protect American arms-carriers from torpedo attacks.
Atlantic Charter
British-American declaration that stated the countries aims for the outcome of the war. Stated people of every nation should be free to choose their own form of government and live free of fear and want, disarmament, and a permanent system of general security. Signed by FDR and Churchill that basically said they aimed for peace and they agreed to not gain any territory from the war.
Yalta Conference
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
Executive Order 9066
A presidential executive order issued during WWII by FDR that sent Japanese ethnic groups to internment camps.It was issued because of the fear for the country's safety and also Japanese-American's safety.
Bracero Program
Series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated by an August 1942 exchange of diplomatic notes between the United States and Mexico, for the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States.
Merchants of Death
Term used by Senator Gerald P. Nye to describe the munitions-makers whom he blamed for forcing the United States into World War. Nye headed a committee that investigated the industry from 1934 to 1936.
Berlin Airlift
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
Cuban Missile Crisis
International crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev accepted the U.S. demands a week later.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Tet Offensive
National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment.
Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Brinkmanship
Policy used by D.D. Eisenhower in which the US had to go to the edge of all out war in order to maintain peace;stating that the US must be willing to go to the brink of war in order to maintain peace and prevent and spread communism.
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Dixiecrats
Were conservative southern Democrats who objected to President Truman's strong push for civil-rights legislation. Southern Democrats who broke from the party in 1948 over the issue of civil rights and ran a presidential ticket as the States' Rights Democrats.
Veitnamization
Nixon's policy involving the gradual withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam while the South Vietnamese army took over the full military effort.
HUAC
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda
CREEP
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate scandal.
SNCC
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) A group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Great Society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education to combat hunger and poverty.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.