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Unit 1: WWII
Terms in this set (68)
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Communist leader of Russia during WWII
Fascist Dictator of Italy during WWII
Chief staff of Japan's army during WWII
Emperor of Japan during WWII
Prime Minister of England until 1940 who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement
Prime Minister of Great Britain after 1940
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the US during WW2, until his death on April 12, 1945
Harry S. Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
American general who was instrumental in winning the Battle of the Bulge. Considered one of the best military commanders in American history.
American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American general and leader of troops in Africa and commander in D-Day invasion
J. Robert Oppenheimer
lead the Manhattan Project: the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear bomb. He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb."
September 1, 1939
Date WWII began with German invasion of Poland
A region in Germany designated a demilitarized zone by the Treaty of Versailles; Hitler violated the treaty and sent German troops there in 1936
Land that Hitler's Germany thought was rightfully theirs due to the large German speaking population; Hitler gains control after Munich Agreement
Agreement between Germany and Great Britain in which Hitler is given the Sudetenland in return for agreeing not to take any more territory.
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Battle of the Bulge
WWII battle in which German forces launched a final counterattack in the west; proved to be a critical loss for Germany
Invasion led Dwight D. Eisenhower, started in Normandy, on june 6th 1944, was a success, turning point of WWII, first time allied forces successfully set foot in Europe
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
Battle of Kasserine Pass
The first large-scale meeting of American and German forces in World War II, the untested and poorly-led American troops suffered heavy casualties
Battle of Anzio
This battle was the turning point in the Italian Campaign as the Allied forces invaded Italy and led to the eventual fall of Rome.
Battle of Dunkirk
Allied forces met the Germans in Belgium, the Allies where pushed back to the beaches in Dunkirk they were rescued by private boats evacuating them across the English Channel
Detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state
Nazi centers of murder and extermination
Hitler's Final Solution
Genocide of the Jewish people
Wanted American involvement in WW2
Did not want America involving themselves in WW2
1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security
Agreement between Great Britain and the US stating that each country pledged to aid, both economically and politically, the other in the time of war.
Embargo on Japan
The U.S. protested Japans act of aggression so they cut off trade with Japan and Japan couldn't live without the oil; lead to the bombing of Pearl Harbor
Baatan Death March
In 1942, the Japanese marched 70,000 Filipino and American soldiers 60 miles to a prison camp
Executive Order 9066
112,000 Japanese-Americans forced into camps causing loss of homes and businesses
Japanese Internment Camps
The forcible relocation of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "War Relocation Camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
Korematsu v. US
1944 Supreme Court case where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 to each survivor
Battle of Midway
1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
Battle of Guadalcanal
World War II battle in the Pacific; it represented the first Allied counter-attack against Japanese forces; Allied victory forced Japanese forces to abandon the island
Battle of Leyte Gulf
1944 World War II naval battle between the United States and Japan. Largest naval engagement in history. Japanese navy was defeated.
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
Battle of Iwo Jima
A battle in 1945 in which U.S. forces took Iwo Jima, a small but strategically important island off the Japanese coast. During the battle, a photographer took a world-famous photograph of U.S. Marines raising the American flag on the summit of Mt. Suribachi.
Navajo Code Talkers
Native Americans from the Navajo tribe used their own language to make a code for the U.S. military that the Japanese could not decipher
America's first air attack on Japan to boost morale after Pearl Harbor; mission ultimately failed.
Battle of Okinawa
First Japanese Home island (only 340 miles from mainland Japan) to be invaded. Island of immense strategic value. Involving over 500,000 troops and over 1,200 ships. Battle showed Japanese determination to resist invasion.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
The Big Three
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Two Japanese cities on which the U.S. dropped the atomic bombs to end World War II.
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
the name of the American B-29 bomber that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945.
A political system headed by a single strong leader (dictator) that calls for extreme nationalism
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces
Germany, Italy, Japan
Great Britain, France, Russia, US
"Night of Broken Glass," when Nazis attacked Jews throughout Germany
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood. Forbade contact between Jews and Germans. Anyone who had three or four Jewish grandparents was defined as a Jew.
German fascism based on uniting all Germans
German-Soviet Non Aggression Pact
1939 agreement between Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler to never attack each other
Trying to pacify an aggressor in order to keep the peace
Neutrality Act of 1939
American law that allowed nations at war to buy U.S. arms if they paid cash and carried them away on their own ships
Tripartite Pact (1940)
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
Detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state, under the rule of Hitler in Nazi Germany. Conditions were inhuman and prisoners were mostly Jewish people.
Double V Campaign. Victory against Hitler. Victory against American Racism.
Set down the laws and procedures by which the Nuremberg trials were to be conducted, allowed Nazis to be tried
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