CCP Government 4/5

Civil liberties are _____ that government cannot take away
a)property rights
b)personal freedoms
c)business rights
d)recognitions of equality
e)religious freedoms
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Terms in this set (120)
The Constitution protects against search of an individual's person, home, or vehicle without __________. a)due process b)permission c)a warrant d)compensation e)a good reasonCWhat does the Sixth Amendment guarantee to those accused of a crime? a)assistance of counsel b)access to law books c)a jury trial d)assistance by the press e)a written indictmentAToday, the US is one of the only two industrialized nations that currently use which of the following to punish crime? a)a prison system b)a juvenile justice system c)the 8th Amendment d)the death penalty e)corporal punishmentDWhat did Mapp v Ohio find to be unconstitutional? a)illegally obtained evidence b)forced sterilization c)segregated education d)discrimination against homosexuals e)imprisonment without a trialAThe free exercise clause guarantees that the national government will not interfere with which of the following? a)education b)finance c)business d)speech e)religionEProfanity, obscenity, and threats are examples of which of the following? a)hate speech b)prior restraints c)fighting words d)free speech e)free exerciseCAccording to Table 1.1, Right is in the Original Constitution, which of the following is a right specified in the original Constitution? a)trial by jury in the national courts b)freedom of speech c)right to bear arms d)freedom of assembly e)right to petition governmentANew York Times Co v Sullivan held that there must be proof of which of the following in order to find libel against a public figure? a)property loss b)actual malice c)an audience d)a written record e)actual harmBHigh school is one of only two places where which of the following is constitutional? a)commercial speech b)prayer c)free speech d)prior restraint e)civil disobedienceDAccording to Roe v Wade, a woman has which type of right to an abortion in her first trimester? a)an absolute right b)a substantial right c)a qualified right d)a partial right e)an arguable rightAOver the course of the early 2000s, the Supreme Court ruled that detainees have a right to which of the following? a)due process b)the assistance of counsel c)equal protection d)habeas corpus e)a bill of attainderDThe doctrine of prior restraint prevents the government from prohibiting speech or publication __________. a)that is obscene b)after the fact c)that is illegal d)that is critical of the government e)before the firstEIn Employment Division v Smith, the Supreme Court developed which of the following? a)an exclusionary rule b)the due process clause c)the free exercise clause d)the incorporation doctrine e)the selective incorporation doctrineCWhich test examines the constitutionality of religious establishments? a)Orange b)Lemon c)Free Exercise d)Prior Restraint e)Due ProcessBMiranda rights included to which of the following? a)a phone call b)due process c)a jury trial d)be free from search and seizure e)counselEThe USA PATRIOT Act enhances the government's ability to do which of the following? a)examine private records b)take personal property c)imprison citizens without trial d)indict foreign enemies c)control public schoolingAWhich Supreme Court case developed the exclusionary rule? a)Parker v Gideon b)New York Times Co v Sullivan c)Mapp v Ohio d)Wolf v Colorado e)Gideon v WainwrightCThe Supreme Court has ruled that states can limit abortions if the regulations do no pose which of the following? a)a bar to equal protection b)a due process violation c)a prior restraint d)an undue burden e)a substantial inconvenienceDThe Supreme Court briefly outlawed which of the following in the 1970s by asserting that it was being imposed in an arbitrary manner? a)capital punishment b)school prayer c)access to court-appointed counsel d)symbolic speech protection e)the exclusionary ruleAWhat kind of speech is by its very unattractive intended to inflict injury or incite an immediate breach of peace? a)hate speech b)symbolic speech c)political speech d)fighting words e)obscenityDWhat type of due process protects citizens from arbitrary or unjust state or federal laws? a)procedural b)constitutional c)substantive d)individual e)prospectiveCThe Supreme Court has used selective incorporation to ______ the rights of the states a)protect b)limit c)expand d)define e)enforceBThe right of the individual to contract, to acquire useful knowledge, and to marry are liberties that are expressly protected by which type of due process? a)civil b)substantive c)criminal d)procedural e)constitutionalDIn matters of religion, the free exercise clause protects individuals from which of the following? a)discrimination b)persecution c)obstruction d)segregation e)dissenting opinionsCWhat type of jury privately hears evidence presented by the government to determine whether persons should be required to stand trial? a)petit b)private c)secret d)grand e)citizensDIn what year did the Supreme Court lift the moratorium on the death penalty? a)1966 b)1963 c)1978 d)1981 e)1976EWhich Supreme Court case upheld California's three felonies rule, which allowed a 25-years-to-life sentence for certain convictions? a)Ewing v California b)Gideon v Wainwright c)Miranda v Arizona d)Mapp v Ohio e)Griswold v ConnecticutAThe USA PATRIOT Act expands an exception found in which amendment to allow spying? a)first b)second c)fourth d)fifth e)sixthCThe "right to remain silent" is a citizen's protection against which of the following? a)governmental intrusion b)search and seizure c)religious establishment d)a biased jury e)self-incinmationEIf a police officer has a reasonable belief that someone is committing or about to commit a crime, that officer can stop and frisk the suspect without __________. a)their consent b)arresting them c)a warrant d)a witness e)evidenceCThe double jeopardy clause prevents an individual who is a quitted of a crime from which of the following? a)media coverage b)being tried again c)going free d)asserting innocence e)seeking the assistance of an attorneyBWhich of the following is an example of procedural due process? a)the right to bear arms b)the right to a speedy trial c)the right to free speech d)the right to practice religion e)the right to voteBThe establishment clause was created, in part, as a reaction to which of these? a)Native American principles b)French civil law c)English legal system d)German criminal codes e)Spanish jurisprudenceCWhich of the following created the right to privacy? a)the Bill of Rights b)the Constitution c)the executive branch d)the legislature e)the judiciaryEIn Barron v. Baltimore, the Supreme Court held that the Bill of Rights limits __________, not __________, action. a)federal, state b)state, federal c)state, local d)local, state e)federal, localAShouting profanities in public is an example of __________, which is not protected speech. a)hate speech b)fighting words c)obscenity d)libel e)slanderBIn recent years, the Supreme Court has struggled to address __________ on the Internet in a First Amendment context. a)slander b)libel c)hate speech d)obscenity e)fighting wordsDBased on Figure 11.1, Timeline of Selective Incorporation, Which class of rights has the Supreme Court most frequently applied to the states? a)speech rights b)religious rights c)rights of the accused d)right to bear arms e)property rightsCConvicted criminals whose sentences increase during their prison term due to a change in the law have been illegally subjected to what kind of law? a)cruel and unusual b)habeas corpus c)ex post facto d)bill of attainder e)writ of certiorariCWhich of the following is responsible for determining whether enough evidence exists to support a conviction against a criminal defendant? a)trial court b)defense attorney c)prosecutor d)legislature e)juryESubstantive due process created a standard whereby the states had a legal burden to prove that their laws were which of the following? a)a valid exercise of power b)fairly applied to all citizens c)consistent with the first amendment d)consistent with federal regulations e)similar to one anotherAWhat do proponents of the Guantanamo Bay detention facility call its prisoners? a)war criminals b)enemy combatants c)prisoners of war d)foreign aggressors e)enemy troopsBAlthough the speech in question was suppressed, the Court in Gitlow v. New York held that not all forms of __________ can be limited. a)hate speech b)symbolic speech c)political speech d)fighting words e)obscenityCWhich of the following Supreme Court case applied selective incorporation? a)Barron v Baltimore b)Roe v Wade c)New York Times Co v Sullivan d)Powell v Alabama e)Miranda v ArizonaDWhich of the following rights has the Supreme Court found to be one of the unstated liberties linked to explicitly stated rights? a)right to marry b)right to travel c)right to vote d)right to privacy e)right to have a familyDWhich of the following could pass muster and not be considered obscenity under the Roth test? a)child pornography b)nude images c)film d)hardcore pornography e)profane languageEThe USA PATRIOT Act lowered requirements for which of these? a)violation of free speech b)warrant approval c)prior restraint d)civil disobedience e)libelBJournalists argue that they must have the right to _________ in order to protect their sources' confidentiality. a)plea bargaining b)prior restraint c)withhold information d)fighting words e)double jeopardyCThe Military Commissions Act of 2006 allows the government to jail detainees without an opportunity to file which of the following? a)an appeal b)a writ of habeas corpus c)a bill of attainder d)a motion for summary judgment e)a jury demandBWhich of the following is an example of a regulatory taking? a)the City of New York forces a homeowner to sell his home for a new highway b)the City of Detroit builds a new landfill, rendering adjacent properties uninhabitable due to oder and land pollution c)the City of Atlanta takes three feet of every yard on a city street to make room for the addition of a new traffic lane d)the City of Miami zones a particular area as "residential only", which prohibits commercial businesses on the area of the city e)the City of Los Angeles imposes noise limits during certain hours , which effectively prohibits a music venue from operating after 11pmBThe 13th Amendment bans slavery. When was it passed? a)when the South seceded from the Union b)during the Civil War c)immediately after the Civil War d)immediately after Reconstruction e)during the civil rights movementCThe 14th Amendment attempted to guarantee the following to former slaves? a)40 acres of farmland and a mule b)free university education c)economic quality with whites d)citizenship rights e)debt forgivenessDThe provision of the 14th amendment that prohibits any state from denying "any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws" is known as the ______ clause a)due process b)jurisdiction c)grandfather d)equal protection e)privileges and immunitiesDThe 15th Amendment guarantees citizens the right to vote regardless of _______ a)race b)gender c)age d)property ownership e)involvement in insurrectionAWhat was the objective of the women's suffrage movement? a)the right to an abortion b)the right to own property c)equal pay for equal worth d)the right to vote e)broad gender equalityDWhen did women win the guaranteed right to vote? a)when the Constitution was adopted b)during the Civil War c)immediately after the Civil War d)at the same time the black males won the right to vote e)decades after blacks won the right to voteEWhich of these does the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ban? a)poll taxes and grandfather clauses b)discrimination in public accommodations c)integration in public transportation d)discrimination based on sexual orientation e)nonviolent direct actionBThe Civil Rights movement pushed for racial equality. When did this movement take place? a)immediately after the civil war b)during reconstruction c)during the early 1900s d)during the 1950s and 1960s e)after passage of the Equal Rights AmendmentDIn what two ways does the Constitution protect civil rights? a)by declaring that all people are created equal and stating that all are equally entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness b)by ensuring that government officials do not discriminate against citizens and by granting federal and state governments power to protect citizens against discrimination by private individuals c)by granting the states the power to ignore any federal laws that the states find are discriminatory against the particular people living in that state d)by declaring that all people, men, and women, black and white, are created equal, and that all forms of discrimination are wrong whether political, social, or religious e)by ensuring that the federal government does not discriminate against citizens and by directing the federal government to encourage states to follow its leadBWhat did Jim Crow laws mandate? a)voting rights b)racial segregation c)poll taxes d)grandfather clauses e)black codesBWhich of the following occurred during the period including both world wars that facilitated employment and social gains for African Americans? a)entry into the military by African Americans to serve their country b)dissolution of segregation in war factories to recruit more African American work in them c)more admissions of African Americans into colleges to compensate the loss of white students who were off at war d)migration of African Americans to northern cities to seek jobs in war factories e)greater need for African Americans to work in agricultural production in the SouthDWhat precipitated the Montgomery Bus Boycott? a)the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr's "i Have A Dream Speech" b)the Greensboro, NC, lunch counter sit in c)the arrest of Rosa Parks in Montgomery, AL d) the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v Ferguson e)the assassination of the Reverend Martin Luther King JrCWomen were guaranteed the right to vote by __________. a)Korematsu v US b)Reed v Reed c)the 19th Amendment d)the 1964 Civil Rights Act e)the 1965 Voting Rights ActCIn Regents of the University of California v Bakke, the Supreme Court determined that _____ were unconstitutional a)poll taxes b)grandfather clauses c)all forms of affirmative action d)Jim Crow laws e)racial quotasERosa Parks was arrested for challenging which of the following? a)poll taxes b)grandfather clauses c)Jim Crow laws d)slavery e)integrationC_____ are derived from the notion that every person, by virtue of being a human being, has an equal right to protection against arbitrary treatment and an equal right to civil liberties a)Natural rights b)Affirmative action rights c)Civil rights d)Due process rights e)Equal protection rightsARomer v Evans was a victory for ____ a)voting rights activists b)gay rights activists c)disabled rights activists d)Asian Americans e)Native AmericansBWhat are natural rights? a)the rights of all people to dignity and worth b)the rights of all people to be free of arbitrary government action c)the rights of all people, regardless of their sexual orientation d)the rights of all people, to be free from irrational discrimination e)the rights of all women, as well as men, to be free of discriminationAWhat did the Supreme Court determine was unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education? a)integrated schools b)poll taxes c)segregation of schools d)unequal school funding e)school busingCThe Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. insisted that civil disobedience aimed at ending discrimination in the South should be conducted __________. a)in accordance with the law b)nonviolently c)secretly d)anonymously e)with all deliberative speedBWhat provision of the Fourteenth Amendment serves as a cornerstone of our understanding of civil rights? a)the all men are created equal clause b)the equal protection clause c)the privileges and immature clause d)the Equal Rights Amendment e)the grandfather clauseBTo what extent were the civil rights of African Americans protected after the Civil War? a)their civil rights increased in the immediate aftermath of the Civil War and have continued to increase steadily ever since b)there were no attempts to protect the civil rights of African Americans until Reconstruction ended c)the civil rights of southern African Americans were considerably greater than their northern counterparts d)it was two decades after the civil war before African Americans had civil rights that were comparable to those of whites e)attempts to protect the civil rights of African Americans after the Civil War were largely unsuccessful before decadesEWhat did the Supreme Court decide in Korematsu v US regarding the internment of those with Japanese ancestry living in the US? a)it was permissible because the United States was at war with Japan b)it was permissible because it only applied to noncitizen c)it did not pass the strict scrutiny test, and the interment was promptly terminated d)it was constitutional, but it was too late to do anything about it e)it was unconstitutional, and Japanese-Americans must be duly compensatedAWhat strategy did the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) use most effectively to advance civil rights for African Americans? a)boycotts b)protests c)litigation d)nonviolent direct action e)marches and ralliesCWhat was the basis for the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that upheld the constitutionality of a state law requiring segregated railroad facilities? a)former slaves are not entitled to full citizenship rights because thy did not immigrate to the US willingly b)former slaves are not entitled to full citizenship rights because they were considered property under the law c)the Constitution does not prohibit segregation; it only mandates equal protection under the law d)railroad transportation involves interstate commerce, which is regulated by Congress, there is no provision in federal law that prohibits segregation e)each state has the right to interpret the Constitution as it sees fit, as long as the interpretation is "reasonable and without malice"CThe Supreme Courts decision in Lawrence v Texas primarily enhanced the civil liberties of ______ a)african americans b)asians c)american indians d)gays and lesbians e)disabled americansDIn the South after Reconstruction, what did the Democratic Party use to prevent African Americans from having a meaningful impact on the outcome of elections? a)Jim Crow laws b)whites-only primaries c)majority-minority districts d)de facto segregation/discrimination e)affirmative actionBHow did the Framers of the Constitution create a system of government designed to protect the rights of all people simply by virtue of the fact they are human? a)through stating that people are to have free speech and not be discriminated against because of their religions b)by reference to natural rights, which are not dependent on citizenship c)through the equal protection clause d)by referencing to rights of both citizens and residential aliens e)by declaring that all men, meaning all people, are created equalBWhat is the source of de facto segregation and discrimination? a)practice b)law c)the Constitution d)congress e)affirmative actionAWhich of the following is an accurate statement about naturalization? a)it refers to the state of being a citizen of two countries b)it prevented gays and lesbians from serving in the military c)it is a legal act that confers citizenship on a resident alien d)it refers to the natural rights of people protected for by the Constitution e)it was the argument used against the emancipation of womenCWhich of the following describes the right of expatriation? a)the right of individuals to renounce their citizenship b)the right of resident aliens to obtain full citizenship rights c)the right of the government to imprison traitors d)the right to insist on equality of results as well as opportunity e)the right of women to be protected in the workplaceAThe Supreme Court case of Boumediene v Bush dealt with which of the following? a)detention of citizens without counsel or access to a court of law b)affirmative action plants at Michigan universities c)detention of Japanese Americas during WWII d)the Ten Percent Plan used to increase diversity in university enrollment e)sexual orientation as a protected category in anti discrimination lawsAA law that classified people according to ______ would be given strict scrutiny by the Supreme Court to determine its constitutionality. a)race b)age c)disability d)gender e)sexual orientationAThe Civil Rights Act of 1964 was designed to overturn which of the following? a)integration b)Jim Crow laws c)nonviolent direct action d)the Fifteenth Amendment e)ReconstructionBWhat provision of the Constitution did Congress use to justify laws prohibiting discrimination in public accommodations, such as hotels and restaurants? a)the Eighteenth Amendment b)the First Amendment c)the full faith and credit clause d)the commerce clause e)the supremacy clauseDWhich of the following most accurately describes the shift in percentage of bachelor's degrees awarded to women since 1870, as seen in Figure 12.1? a)Each decade, a larger percentage of bachelor's degrees are awarded to women, yet women remain underrepresented in their graduating classes. b)Each decade, the number of women earning bachelor's degrees has increased, while the percentage of women earning bachelor's degrees has decreased. c)Each decade, the number of women earning bachelor's degrees has decreased, while the percentage of women earning bachelor's degrees has increased. d)The percentage of bachelor's degrees awarded to women has increased during most decades, although women remain underrepresented in their graduating classes. e)The percentage of bachelor's degrees awarded to women has increased during most decades, and women are currently overrepresented in their graduating classes.eIf a group of people has been systematically discriminated against in the past, to remedy this, which affirmative action policy would help members of this group overcome the legacy of this discrimination? a)a hiring policy that favor those with relatives working in government b)a college admissions policy that gives preferential treatment to members of the group c)a color-blind job application process to give members of this group an equal chance d)a policy that gives extra weight to votes cast by members of this group e)a requirement all applicants for government jobs have at least two years of prior experienceBWhich of the following accommodations would an employer most likely have to make to be in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act? a)hiring a disabled person instead of an equally qualified person without a disability b)providing better medical insurance for employees who have a disability c)lowering expectations for the quality of work performed by the employees with disabilities d)ensuring that employees who use a wheelchair have jobs that shield them from public contact e)installing a ramp and other physical accommodations for someone who uses a wheelchairEWhich of the following statements best describes the global community's attitude toward the importance of education for boys and girls based on the Pew Global Attitudes Survey in 2007? a)There is widespread support for educating both boys and girls in all countries except those in which education for girls is lacking, where only 14 percent of the respondents viewed education as being important for girls. b)There is widespread support for educating boys and girls in most countries, but approximately 14 percent of Eastern countries responded by saying it is only important to educate boys. c)Most countries support educating both boys and girls, but some Muslim countries are adamantly against education for girls and do not see it important at all. d)About half the countries in the world see educating boys and girls as being equally important, and about half believe it is far more important to educate boys. e)There is widespread support for educating both boys and girls in all countries, even in those where education for girls is lacking, although 14 percent of respondents viewed education for boys are more important.EWhich of the following would be the least likely to qualify for the strict scrutiny or even a heightened scrutiny test by the Supreme Court to determine whether the policy is an unconstitutional violation of the equal protection clause? a)preventing whites from attending schools designed to serve African American students b)a public employment program giving preference to Hispanic applicants c)voter redistricting plans based on the ethnic makeup of various neighborhoods d)a national hotel chain's policy of requiring proof of citizenship when registering e)having different minimum ages for men and women to marryETests given to African Americans with questions that are far more difficult than those asked on comparable tests given to whites have been used to discriminate against African Americans in what area? a)running for office b)employment c)serving on juries d)admission to college e)votingEWhich of the following strategies for expanding civil rights would the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. have been most likely to support? a)sabotaging the electricity supply to the homes of segregationist leaders b)intimidating elderly whites to discourage them from supporting Jim Crow laws c)boycotting stores that enforced segregationist policies d)boycotting elections to underscore the problem of African American disenfranchisement e)vandalizing government buildings that housed segregationist politiciansCWhich of the following is an example of de jure segregation a)Jim Crow laws b)the tendency for churches to be racially homogeneous c)the small number of African American senators d)sequestering the jury in order to ensue a fair trial e)Title IX legislationAWhich of the following affirmative action programs would be a clear violation of the Supreme Court's decision in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)? a)considering race as a factor in university admissions decisions b)considering how an applicant would contribute to the diversity of the university c)considering applicants' academic and extracurricular achievements d)admitting some minority applicants with lower academic achievement than some rejected white applicants e)setting aside a certain percentage of admissions slots for African American studentsEWhich of the following laws would be the most likely to draw strict scrutiny from the Supreme Court when determining its constitutionality? a)male and female student athletes cannot compete on the same basketball team at the university level. b)businesses cannot discriminate against gays and lesbians in hiring and promotion decisions. c)those without a college degree are not eligible for upper-level civil service jobs. d)African Americans and whites must be given equal access to the public school system, including extracurricular activities e)Government contracts must be awarded to a contractor who is a racial minority whenever at least 10 percent of the bidders are minority-owned businessesEWhich of the following situations most likely be a violation of Title IX? a)an election jurisdiction that does not provide bilingual ballots when there is a large bilingual community b)a legal prohibition on hiring women for positions that are known to be hazardous to women's reproductive health c)a college that spends significantly more on sports programs for men than for women d)job applications that are not made accessible to the blind e)an employer who systematically pays women less than men for doing comparable workCIf you thought you were getting an inferior public education because of your ethnicity, which part of the Constitution would you rely on most heavily to justify your case? a)the First Amendment b)the Thirteenth Amendment c)the Fourteenth Amendment d)the Nineteenth Amendment e)the Equal Rights AmendmentCUnder the Fourteenth Amendment, who of the following would automatically be a U.S. citizen? a)a Finnish immigrant who is studying English in Ohio b)a Cuban expatriate living in New York but working in Canada c)someone born in Hong Kong who has moved to Detroit d)someone born in California to Japanese parents e)the children born in the United States to foreign ambassadorsDWhy have some politicians and civil rights leaders begun to focus attention on the concept of equality between groups rather than equality of individual opportunity? a)because there are large disparities in wealth and advantage between groups that lead to social and economic disadvantages for most of the individuals within certain groups b)because there is far more power in group protest against discrimination and inequality than in individual actions c)because the courts are more willing to review accusations of discrimination when they are submitted by large groups of people than when they come from a single person d)because there are large disparities in political access between groups, and so people from those groups with access need to reach across the aisle and help people from the others e)because once the differences between groups are minimized, individuals within all the groups will experience less discrimination and more opportunityAHow has the Equal Rights Amendment affected women's civil rights? a)it has ensured that men and women are treated equally in the workplace. b)it has ensured that the courts evaluate gender discrimination using the strict scrutiny test. c)it has eliminated gender discrimination in the military. d)it has solidified the civil rights women has earlier won through legal victories. e)it has has little effect because it was not formally adopted.EWhat is the status of affirmative action in college admissions after the Supreme Court decisions in the two cases involving the University of Michigan, Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) and Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)? a)affirmative action policies are generally permissible, but they cannot involve race-based quotas or numerical point systems b)affirmative action policies are assumed to be unconstitutional unless the university can demonstrate the need to promote racial tolerance c)affirmative action policies are assumed to be constitutional unless an applicant can demonstrate that race affected the admissions decision. d)affirmative action policies must ensure that all racial and ethnic groups are represented in accordance with the population of the nation as a whole. e)all forms of affirmative action are unconstitutional because they unfairly favor some people over others based on the color of their skin.AHow might the Supreme Court decisions in Korematsu v. United States (1944), involving the Japanese internment, and in Boumediene v. Bush (2008), involving the detention of citizens and foreign nationals who were declared to be "enemy combatants," be viewed in retrospect? a)both decisions might be viewed as upholding important constitutional principles. b)the first might be viewed as a step toward protecting civil rights of citizens, and the second as a step backward in the struggle for civil rights protection. c)both decisions might be viewed as hindering the civil rights of citizens. d)both decisions might be viewed as important victories in the struggle for civil rights for all citizens. e)the first might be viewed as a missed opportunity for the Supreme Court to protect civil rights, and the second as a step toward protecting civil rights.EWhy did southern states enact poll taxes? a)to raise revenue for the government b)to ensure that only people who really want to vote would do so c)to get around the Fifteenth Amendment d)to enfranchise former slaves e)because literacy is necessary for democracy to functionCWhy did congress pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965? a)in order to facilitate the prosecution of those who has restricted the voting rights of African Americans b)because it was clear that the South has no intention of living up to the spirit of the Fifteenth Amendment c)because Congress was afraid the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. would lead a boycott of white businesses if the legislation was not passed d)to prevent the race riots from spreading from African American neighborhoods into traditionally white neighborhoods e)the Supreme Court had determined that only the national government could regulate electionsBHow are the Fourteenth Amendment and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 similar? a)they both were enacted quickly and easily. b)they both passed the strict scrutiny test administered by the Supreme Court. c)they were both based on Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce. d)they both sought equal rights for women. e)they both sought equal rights for African Americans.EHow do the rational basis and the quasi-suspect or heightened scrutiny standards of review differ? a)the rational basis standard requires an important governmental objective for classification; the quasi-suspect standard standard requires a compelling governmental interest. b)the rational basis standard applies only to racial classifications; the quasi-suspect standard applies to age and sexual orientation classifications. c)the quasi-suspect standard of review is applied to a broader array of classification than the rational basis standard. d)it is easier for the government to demonstrate that there is a rational basis for a law than to meet the requirements of the quasi-suspect standard. e)those who dislike a law will have an easier time getting it overturned if the Supreme Court applies the quasi-suspect standard instead of the rational basis test.DWhat was the Supreme Court's justification for overturning the separate-but-equal doctrine? a)the Supreme Court did not have all of the facts when it adopted the separate-but-equal doctrine. b)the separate-but-equal doctrine was never intended to apply to people. c)the quality of life for African Americans in the South had deteriorated considerably since the adoption of the separate-but-equal doctrine. d)the Supreme Court needed to step in because the South had been unwilling to segregate educational facilities as required by the Plessy v. Ferguson. e)segregated schools stigmatize minority children and are inherently unequal.EWhich of the following arguments would most likely be made by an opponent of affirmative action policies? a)affirmative action helps to compensate for past discrimination. b)discrimination is a natural part of the human experience. c)affirmative action discriminates on the basis of race. d)diversity helps Americans better understand each other. e)unaddressed past discrimination causes perpetual inequality.CWhat factors have prevented Hispanics from translating their numbers into comparable political clout? a)political differences among them, and the fact that many are not citizens or registered to vote b)programs like "Operation Wetback" and the "show me your papers" provision in Arizona c)the facts that many of them are not citizens or registered to vote, ans many are illiterate d)political differences among them, and the fact that many do not speak English e)their recent arrival in the United States, and the fact that many have not learned to speak EnglishAWhy did the Supreme Court strike down an affirmative action program in Gratz v. Bollinger (2003) but uphold a different affirmative action program in Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)? a)the Gratz program was predicated on promoting diversity, while the Grutter program was predicated on remedying past discrimination. b)the Gratz program used race as a "plus factor," while the Grutter program relied on a race-based quota system. c)the Gratz program used a mechanical, point-based system, while the Grutter program used race as a part of an individualized, holistic review. d)the Gratz program classified applicants by race, while the Grutter program classified applicants by ethnicity. e)the Grutter program had a history of discrimination, while the Gratz program was for an already diverse school.C