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151 terms

Ch. 8 & 9

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slightly movable joint
amphiarthrosis
The type of synarthrosis that binds each tooth to the surrounding bony socket is a:
gomphosis
Ex of synchondrosis:
epiphyseal plate
Flexion is defined as movement that:
decreases the angle between articulating elements
The movement that allows you to gaze at the ceiling is:
hyperextension
If an articulation permits only angular movement in the forward/backward plane, or prevents any movement other than rotation around its longitudinal axis, it is:
monaxial
The reason that the elbow and knee are called hinge joints is:
they permit angular movement in a single plane
The shoulder and hip joints are examples of:
ball-and-socket joints
The part(s) of the vertebral column that do(es) not contain intervertebral discs is (are) the:
coccyx
The joint that permits the greatest range of motion of any joint in the body is the:
shoulder joint
In the hip joint, the arrangement that keeps the head of the femur from moving away from the acetabulum is
the articular capsule enclosing the femoral head and neck
Lying on one's stomach is termed the __ position.
prone
The movement illustrated by a ballerina pointing her toes is __.
plantar flexion
The popliteal ligaments extend between the femur and the heads of the tibia and fibula, reinforcing the:
back of the knee joint
In which of the following conditions does the abdomen and the buttocks protrude because of an exaggeration of the lumbar curvature?
lordosis
The annulus fibrous and nucleus pulposus are structures that are associated with:
intervertebral discs
A movement away from the longitudinal axis of the body in the frontal plane is:
abduction
The opposing movement of supination is:
pronation
The special movement of the thumb that enables it to grasp and hold an object is:
opposition
A characteristic decrease in height with advanced age may result from:
decreased water content of the nucleus pulposus in an intervertebral disc
When the nucleus pulposus breaks through the annulus and enters the vertebral canal, the result is a(n):
herniated disc
Contraction of the biceps brachii muscle produces:
supination of the forearm and flexion of the elbow
The unique compromise of the articulations in the appendicular skeleton is:
the stronger the joint, the more restricted the range of motion
Even though the specific cause may vary, arthritis always involves damage to the:
articular cartilages
In a shoulder separation the:
acromioclavicular joint undergoes partial or complete separation
If you run your fingers along the superior surface of the shoulder joint, you will feel a process called the:
acromion
A __ fracture results when the shaft of the bone is broken and the adjacent bone is bent like a twig.
greenstick
immovable joint, May fuse over time, Fibrous or cartilaginous connections
synarthrosis
diarthrosis:
freely movable joint, also called synovial joints
A complete dislocation of the knee is extremely unlikely because of:
the seven major ligaments that stabilize the knee joint
When a ligament is stretched to the point where some of the collagen fibers are torn, the injury is called a:
sprain
An abnormal fusion between articulating bones in response to trauma and friction is:
ankylosis
The metacarpal and metatarsal bones articulate with the fingers and the toes, respectively. This creates what type of synovial joint?
condyloid
You can make a scary face by grabbing your bottom lip with your top teeth. When you do this, your mandible moves in an anterior direction. This is an example of:
protraction
Arthritis always involves damage to the:
articular cartilage
Pain and stiffness affecting the skeletal and/or muscular systems may be caused by:
rheumatism
The structures that pass across or around a joint, limiting range of motion and providing support, are:
tendons
A suture is an example of:
synarthrosis.
Symphysis & syndesmosis are examples of:
amphiarthrosis
Bones that participate in a synovial joint have __cartilage at the end of each bone.
articular
A meniscus is
a pad of fibrocartilage within a synovial joint.
A bursa is __ that decreases friction within a synovial joint.
a sac of synovial fluid
The correct term to identify a dislocated joint is a
luxation.
Abduction and adduction are movements that __.
only involve the appendicular skeleton
A pivot joint permits
rotation only.
Intervertebral articulations are
slightly movable.
The joint between the atlas and the occipital bone is an example of a __ joint.
condyloid joint
Both the elbow and knee are:
hinge joints
The carpometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb is an example of a
saddle joint.
Spreading your toes apart is
abduction
The hip and shoulder are multiaxial joints that permit what type of movements?
flexion and extension, adduction and abduction, circumduction, and rotation
The appendicular skeleton consists of __ bones
126 bones
The appendicular skeleton includes:
all bones besides axial skeleton, the limbs & the supportive girdles
Pectoral Girdle
also called shoulder girdle, connects arms to body, provides base for arm mov., connects with axial skeleton at manubrium
Scapulae
aka shoulder blades, articulate w arm & collarbone, anterior surface: subscapular fossa
The upper limbs consist of the:
arms, forearms, wrists, and hands.
Interosseous membrane:
fibrous sheet
Radial tuberosity
below neck, attaches biceps
Carpal bones
8, carpal bones allow wrist to bend & wrist.
Styloid Process:
stabilizes wrist joint
Ulnar notch
articulates with wrist & radius, distal end
The Four Proximal Carpal Bones:
:
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform
Metacarpal Bones:
five long bones of the hand, Numbered I-V from lateral (thumb) to medial (thumb is 1, pinky is 5), Articulate with proximal phalanges
Phalanges of the Hands
14 total finger bones
acetabulum
hip socket
Greater sciatic notch
mark on ilium, NEVER GIVE SHOT NEAR SCIATIC NERVE in butt (can use gluteus medias, vastus lateralis, deltoid to give IM injections)
Pubic symphysis
Gap between pubic tubercles, Padded with fibrous cartilage
Obturator foramen-
where hip muscles attach
The Pelvis consists of:
two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx, Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae
Functions of lower limbs:
weight bearing, motion.
Patella
knee cap, sesamoid bone
Tibia:
aka. shinbone, larger than fibula
Tibial tuberosity:
attaches patella and knee cap ligaments
Body movement occurs at..
joints (articulations) where two bones connect
Joint structure determines..
direction and distance of movement (range of motion) Joint strength decreases as mobility increases
Functional classification is based on..
range of motion of the joint
Structural classification relies on..
the anatomical organization of the joint (how its made up)
Classifications of Joints:
Bony
Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial
Four types of synarthrotic joints: very strong
suture
gomphosis
synchondrosis
synostosis
Suture:
synarthrotic joint, only found in skull
Gomphosis, synarthrotic joint:
Fibrous connection (periodontal ligament)
Binds teeth to sockets
Synchondrosis, synarthrotic joint:
Is a rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bones, epiphyseal cartilage of long bones, between vertebrosternal ribs and sternum
Synostosis, synarthrotic joint:
Fused bones, immovable:
metopic suture of skull
epiphyseal lines of long bones
Amphiarthroses
More movable than synarthrosis
Stronger than freely movable joint
Synovial joints (diarthroses)
aka movable joints, At ends of long bones, Within articular capsules, Lined with synovial membrane
Articular cartilages
Pad articulating surfaces within articular capsules:
prevent bones from touching
Smooth surfaces lubricated by synovial fluid:
reduce friction, Contains slippery proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts, Functions of synovial fluid lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption
Cartilages:
cushion the joint:
Fibrous cartilage pad called a meniscus (articular disc)
Fat pads:
protect articular cartilages
Ligaments:
support, strengthen joints
sprain: ligaments with torn collagen fibers
Bursae:
pockets of synovial fluid that help lubricate joints, cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub
Tendons:
attach to muscles around joint, help support joint
Factors That Stabilize Synovial Joints
Prevent injury by limiting range of motion, Collagen fibers (joint capsule, ligaments), Articulating surfaces and menisci
Other bones, muscles, or fat pads, Tendons of articulating bones
Dislocation (luxation)
Articulating surfaces forced out of position, Damages articular cartilage, ligaments, joint capsule
Subluxation
A partial dislocation
Types of Dynamic Motion
Linear motion (gliding), Angular motion, Rotation
Linear motion
aka, gliding, Two surfaces slide past each other, Linear motion happens in between carpal or tarsal bones
Angular Motion
Flexion (bring toward body), Angular motion, Anterior-posterior plane, Reduces angle between elements
Extension (lengthens it out)
Angular motion, Anterior-posterior plane, Increases angle between elements
Hyperextension
take it just a little bit beyond what is comfortable
Angular motion
Extension past anatomical position
Opposition-
touching each finger with thumb
Circumduction
Circular motion without rotation
Inversion:
(big toe laying on ground)
twists sole of foot medially
Eversion
(big toe tip on ground)
twists sole of foot laterally
Dorsiflexion:
flexion at ankle (lifting toes toward shin)
Plantar flexion:
extension at ankle (pointing toes)
Protraction
Moves anteriorly, In the horizontal plane (pushing forward)
Retraction
Opposite of protraction
Moving anteriorly (pulling back)
Elevation
Moves in superior direction (up)
Depression
Moves in inferior direction (down)
Lateral flexion
Bends vertebral column from side to side
Gliding Joints
Flattened or slightly curved faces, Limited motion (nonaxial), vertebrocostal joints, intercarpal and intertarsal joints, C2 to L5 spinal vertebrae articulate
Hinge Joints
Angular motion in a single plane (monaxial) 1 axis, elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints.
Pivot Joints
Rotation only (monaxial), proximal radio-ulnar joint.
Saddle Joints
Two concave, straddled (biaxial), first carpometacarpal joint.
Ball-and-Socket Joints
Round articular face in a depression (triaxial), shoulder & hip joint.
Joints:
cannot be both mobile and strong, The greater the mobility, the weaker the joint, Mobile joints are supported by muscles and ligaments, not bone-to-bone connections
Intervertebral discs:
pads of fibrous cartilage, separate vertebral bodies
Vertebral Joints
Also called symphyseal joints
Intervertebral Ligaments
Bind vertebrae together, Stabilize the vertebral column
Slipped disc
Invades vertebral canal
Herniated disc-
Presses on spinal cord or nerves
Shoulder Joint
aka glenohumeral joint, Allows more motion than any other joint, Is the least stable; Ball-and-socket diarthrosis
Elbow Joint
A stable hinge joint
With articulations involving humerus, radius, and ulna
Humero-ulnar joint
Largest articulation of Elbow
Humeroradial joint:
Smaller articulation of elbow
Biceps brachii muscle
Attached to radial tuberosity, Controls elbow motion
Hip Joint
Also called coxal joint, Strong ball-and-socket diarthrosis, Wide range of motion
Knee Joint
A complicated hinge joint, Transfers weight from femur to tibia
Locking knees
Standing with legs straight: "locks" knees by jamming lateral meniscus between tibia and femur
Meniscus of the Knee
Medial and lateral menisci, Fibrous cartilage pads, At femur-tibia articulations, Cushion and stabilize joint, Give lateral support
How many ligaments are in the knee joint?
7
Rheumatism
A pain and stiffness of skeletal and muscular systems
Arthritis
All forms of rheumatism that damage articular cartilages of synovial joints
Osteoarthritis
Caused by wear and tear of joint surfaces, or genetic, factors affecting collagen formation, Generally in people over age 60
Rheumatoid Arthritis
An inflammatory condition, Caused by infection, allergy, or autoimmune disease, Involves the immune system
Gouty Arthritis
Occurs when crystals (uric acid or calcium salts), Form within synovial fluid, Due to metabolic disorders
Joint Immobilization
Reduces flow of synovial fluid, Can cause arthritis symptoms, Treated by continuous passive motion (therapy)
Bones and Aging
Bone mass decreases, Bones weaken, Increases risk of hip fracture, hip dislocation, or pelvic fracture
Bone Recycling
Living bones maintain equilibrium between, Bone building (osteoblasts), And breakdown (osteoclasts)
Factors Affecting Bone Strength
Age, Physical stress, Hormone levels, Calcium and phosphorus uptake and excretion, Genetic and environmental factors
The skeletal system
Supports and protects other systems, Stores fat, calcium, and phosphorus, Manufactures cells for immune system
Disorders in other body systems can cause
Bone tumors, Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Rickets (vitamin D deficiency)
Condylar Joint
aka ellipsoid joint, an oval articular joint nestles within a depression in the opposing face. Biaxial, radiocarpal joint.
Joints are classified according to:
ROM or anatomical organization
syndesmosis
bones connected by a ligament
symphysis
bones separated by fibrocartilage
Movements of the skeleton can occur only at a joint, which is also known as:
articulation
All diarthroses are categorized structurally as __ joints.
SYNOVIAL
The connective tissue that holds a tooth to a bony socket in a gomphosis is called the __ ligament
periodontal
The most freely movable (and most easily damaged) joint in the body is the __ joint.
SHOULDER