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If an articulation permits only angular movement in the forward/backward plane, or prevents any movement other than rotation around its longitudinal axis, it is:
The reason that the elbow and knee are called hinge joints is:
they permit angular movement in a single plane
The part(s) of the vertebral column that do(es) not contain intervertebral discs is (are) the:
In the hip joint, the arrangement that keeps the head of the femur from moving away from the acetabulum is
the articular capsule enclosing the femoral head and neck
The popliteal ligaments extend between the femur and the heads of the tibia and fibula, reinforcing the:
back of the knee joint
In which of the following conditions does the abdomen and the buttocks protrude because of an exaggeration of the lumbar curvature?
The annulus fibrous and nucleus pulposus are structures that are associated with:
A characteristic decrease in height with advanced age may result from:
decreased water content of the nucleus pulposus in an intervertebral disc
When the nucleus pulposus breaks through the annulus and enters the vertebral canal, the result is a(n):
Contraction of the biceps brachii muscle produces:
supination of the forearm and flexion of the elbow
The unique compromise of the articulations in the appendicular skeleton is:
the stronger the joint, the more restricted the range of motion
Even though the specific cause may vary, arthritis always involves damage to the:
If you run your fingers along the superior surface of the shoulder joint, you will feel a process called the:
A __ fracture results when the shaft of the bone is broken and the adjacent bone is bent like a twig.
A complete dislocation of the knee is extremely unlikely because of:
the seven major ligaments that stabilize the knee joint
When a ligament is stretched to the point where some of the collagen fibers are torn, the injury is called a:
The metacarpal and metatarsal bones articulate with the fingers and the toes, respectively. This creates what type of synovial joint?
You can make a scary face by grabbing your bottom lip with your top teeth. When you do this, your mandible moves in an anterior direction. This is an example of:
The structures that pass across or around a joint, limiting range of motion and providing support, are:
The hip and shoulder are multiaxial joints that permit what type of movements?
flexion and extension, adduction and abduction, circumduction, and rotation
The appendicular skeleton includes:
all bones besides axial skeleton, the limbs & the supportive girdles
also called shoulder girdle, connects arms to body, provides base for arm mov., connects with axial skeleton at manubrium
five long bones of the hand, Numbered I-V from lateral (thumb) to medial (thumb is 1, pinky is 5), Articulate with proximal phalanges
Greater sciatic notch
mark on ilium, NEVER GIVE SHOT NEAR SCIATIC NERVE in butt (can use gluteus medias, vastus lateralis, deltoid to give IM injections)
The Pelvis consists of:
two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx, Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae
Joint structure determines..
direction and distance of movement (range of motion) Joint strength decreases as mobility increases
Synchondrosis, synarthrotic joint:
Is a rigid cartilaginous bridge between two bones, epiphyseal cartilage of long bones, between vertebrosternal ribs and sternum
Synostosis, synarthrotic joint:
Fused bones, immovable:
metopic suture of skull
epiphyseal lines of long bones
Synovial joints (diarthroses)
aka movable joints, At ends of long bones, Within articular capsules, Lined with synovial membrane
Pad articulating surfaces within articular capsules:
prevent bones from touching
Smooth surfaces lubricated by synovial fluid:
reduce friction, Contains slippery proteoglycans secreted by fibroblasts, Functions of synovial fluid lubrication, nutrient distribution, shock absorption
pockets of synovial fluid that help lubricate joints, cushion areas where tendons or ligaments rub
Factors That Stabilize Synovial Joints
Prevent injury by limiting range of motion, Collagen fibers (joint capsule, ligaments), Articulating surfaces and menisci
Other bones, muscles, or fat pads, Tendons of articulating bones
Articulating surfaces forced out of position, Damages articular cartilage, ligaments, joint capsule
aka, gliding, Two surfaces slide past each other, Linear motion happens in between carpal or tarsal bones
Flexion (bring toward body), Angular motion, Anterior-posterior plane, Reduces angle between elements
Extension (lengthens it out)
Angular motion, Anterior-posterior plane, Increases angle between elements
take it just a little bit beyond what is comfortable
Extension past anatomical position
Flattened or slightly curved faces, Limited motion (nonaxial), vertebrocostal joints, intercarpal and intertarsal joints, C2 to L5 spinal vertebrae articulate
Angular motion in a single plane (monaxial) 1 axis, elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal joints.
cannot be both mobile and strong, The greater the mobility, the weaker the joint, Mobile joints are supported by muscles and ligaments, not bone-to-bone connections
aka glenohumeral joint, Allows more motion than any other joint, Is the least stable; Ball-and-socket diarthrosis
Standing with legs straight: "locks" knees by jamming lateral meniscus between tibia and femur
Meniscus of the Knee
Medial and lateral menisci, Fibrous cartilage pads, At femur-tibia articulations, Cushion and stabilize joint, Give lateral support
Caused by wear and tear of joint surfaces, or genetic, factors affecting collagen formation, Generally in people over age 60
An inflammatory condition, Caused by infection, allergy, or autoimmune disease, Involves the immune system
Occurs when crystals (uric acid or calcium salts), Form within synovial fluid, Due to metabolic disorders
Reduces flow of synovial fluid, Can cause arthritis symptoms, Treated by continuous passive motion (therapy)
Bones and Aging
Bone mass decreases, Bones weaken, Increases risk of hip fracture, hip dislocation, or pelvic fracture
Living bones maintain equilibrium between, Bone building (osteoblasts), And breakdown (osteoclasts)
Factors Affecting Bone Strength
Age, Physical stress, Hormone levels, Calcium and phosphorus uptake and excretion, Genetic and environmental factors
The skeletal system
Supports and protects other systems, Stores fat, calcium, and phosphorus, Manufactures cells for immune system
Disorders in other body systems can cause
Bone tumors, Osteoporosis, Arthritis, Rickets (vitamin D deficiency)
aka ellipsoid joint, an oval articular joint nestles within a depression in the opposing face. Biaxial, radiocarpal joint.
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