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George Whitefield

Anglican minister from England.Wanted the Calvinist doctrine of salvation by predestination to be talked about, public entertainments banned. Very good orator, inspired people to think themselves similar/superior to ministers, and common people to claim equality.


Era of peace, brought about the Enlightenment (dissemination among educated public of faith in reason rooted in an appreciation of natural science : Benjamin Franklin).

Great Awakening (1730s-1740's)

Religious revival across Protestant Europe. Loosened spiritual/social tremors, shocked colonial self-confidence.

Charles II

Wanted to expand England's overseas trade and subordinate colonies to English commercial interests/political authority.

Sir Edmund Andros

governor, no more legislatures. Forced Puritans to share meetinghouse with Anglicans, strictly enforced Navigation Acts, one meeting a year, jailed prominent citizens.

Glorious Revolution in England and America

Bloodless revolution of 1688 : created "limited monarchy" : Parliament summoned annually, signed all bills, respected traditional civic liberties. Americans also tried for liberty, MD, NY, and MA rose up against Stuart regime. Boston's militia arrested Andros and councilors, colonies resumed self-government. William and Mary let the Dominion dismantle, MA couldn't elect own governor. Property owners could vote (not based on church membership). Puritans had to tolerate Anglicans.

Leisler's Rebellion

Took command of colony, repaired defenses, called elections for assembly. English troops came in 1691, Leisler didn't let them in, was arrested and killed, along with his son. Leisler's enemies plundered opponent's estates using the courts; Parliament revoked convictions in 1695.

John Coode

Leader of 1681 revolt, organized Protestant Association with three others to secure MD for William and Mary. Seized capital in 1689, removed Catholics from office, requested status as royal colony, made Church of England established religion. Catholics lost right to vote, could only worship in private.


reestablished legislative gov., religions freedom for Protestants. Colonial elites regained control of colonies, wanted political leaders to identify interests with England. Voluntary allegiance rather than submissive to power.

Grand Settlement

Iroquois made peace with France in exchange for access to western furs, redefined British alliance to exclude military cooperation.

Queen Anne's War (1702)

Colonial vessels captured, raiding parties landed, sieges of Quebec and St. Augustine failed. English seized Hudson Bay region, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia. French/Indian hold on interior of North America unbroken. Gave colonists sense of dependence on Great Britain, reminded them of loyalty owed to William and Mary. Recognized military weaknesses and that their shipping needed navy's protection. Reinforced sense of British identity.

Navigation Acts (1651-1773)

Limited imperial trade to British ships, barred export of certain "enumerated goods" to foreign nations unless items first passed through England/Scotland. Forbade Americans from competing with British manufacturers : but only on a large-scale basis. Burdened rice/tobacco exporters, commerce declined when they lost their trading rights in 1783. North America's economy grew.


Aim of guaranteeing prosperity by making their own country as self-sufficient as possible--eliminating dependence on foreign suppliers, damaging foreign competitors' commercial interests, increasing nation's net stock of gold/silver by selling more abroad than they bought. Opposite of free-market system.

Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations

theoretical defense of competitive free-market system by Scottish economist.

The Urban Paradox

Poverty increased, ocean voyages left immigrants too weak to work. High population density, poor sanitation led to contagious diseases, urban adults lived 10 years less than country people. More recessions after 1720, longer unemployment. Wages shrunk, cost of rents, food, and firewood increased. Almshouses weren't big enough, many people couldn't pay taxes, wealth was highly concentrated. Economic frustration caused violence. Competed with urban slaves, racial tensions. People didn't want to give money to the needy.

Stono Rebellion (1739)

Slave uprising. Group of slaves burned 7 plantations, killed 20 whites. Disturbances in other places needed over a month to suppress. Caused new slave code : kept slaves under constant surveillance. Threatened masters with fines for not disciplining slaves, required legislative approval for freeing of slaves.

Board of Trade

Parliament established in 1696 : supposed to monitor American developments and advise crown on colonial affairs. Could have stopped assemblies' rise to power by persuading crown to reject objectionable colonial laws signed by the governments, but didn't. Left a vacuum in royal policy that let the colonies become self-governing in most respects except for trade regulation, restrictions on printing money, and declaring war.


intended as a refuge where bankrupt debtors could settle, protecting South Carolina from Spanish attacks. Wanted them to export wine and silk, Parliament paid to ensure success. 1740 : 2,800 settlers, half from Germany, Switzerland, and Scotland. Least English of all colonies at beginning. Expansion halted afterwards.

James Oglethorpe

dominated provincial board of trustees. Founded port of entry, Savannah. Led massive assault on Florida in 1740, repelled 3000 Spanish troops and refugee South Carolina slaves. Tried to ban slavery from Georgia, thought slavery undermined economic position of poor whites. Required that landholdings be no larger than 500 acres, wanted to keep rural Georgia populated by white, independent farmer-soldiers. Struggled against economic reality for a decade, gave up. Legalized slavery, lifted restrictions on land, population immediately increased to 23000 from 4000.

Enlightenment Ideals

combined confidence in human reason with skepticism toward beliefs not founded on science or strict logic.

Benjamin Franklin

embodied Enlightenment spirit, gathered young men into a club called the Junto. 1732 : Franklin published Poor Richard's Almanack : made him famous. Devoted self to science and community benefit after retirement at 42. Found that lightning was electricity, led to lightning rod. Established first Philadelphian volunteer fire company, inspired creation of circulating library, founded the University of Pennsylvania.


mostly seaboard cities. Ideal was Royal Society in London : foremost learned society in English-speaking world. Strengthened ties between colonial and British elites. John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding made people embrace "Reasonable"/"rational" religion. Best argument for existence of God was derived through study of harmony/order of nature.


concluded that God, having created a perfect universe, did not intervene in its workings but left it alone to operate according to natural laws.

The Great Awakening

1740s : outpouring of passionate Christian revivalism, many thought reason was inadequate to move their hearts. Unleashing of anxiety/longing among ordinary people. Religion was an emotional commitment.

Jonathan Edwards

Congregationalist, led revival at Northampton, Massachusetts in 1735.Said that God holds you over the pit of Hell, wrath burns like fire. Famous sermon : Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.

George Whitefield

1739 : English clergyman with an overpowering presence. Inspired thousands to seek salvation. Divisions over the revivals developed, widened by tactics of extreme followers.

New Lights

the revivalists

Old Lights

dominated the Anglican, Presbyterian, Congregational churches.

New vs. Old Lights

challenged spirituality of Presbyterian ministers, undermined one of foundations of social order. Old condemned revival as "enthusiasm" that Enlightened intellectuals loathed.

Long Term Effects of the Great Awakening

opened splits in American Protestantism. Revivalists victorious : Anglicans lost members to New Light preachers. Congregationalists splintered. In Massachusetts/Connecticut, Old Lights denied new parishes of New Lights legal status. Passed laws forbidding revivalists to preach/perform marriages, expelled New Lights from legislature. Started decline in influence of Quakers, Anglicans, and Congregationalists. Presbyterians and Baptists increased in number, Methodists as well. Stimulated founding of new colleges 0Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth). Drew blacks and Indians to Protestantism. Added prominence to women in colonial religion : granted women right to speak/vote in church meetings. Fostered religious toleration by blurring theological differences among New Lights. Prepared Americans to accept denominational pluralism.


Parliament tried to reorganize empire, tightened control over colonies' economic/political affairs. Colonial leaders believed their actions were to crush colonial prosperity/independence.


generation of peace, brief war with Spain in Georgia.

War of the Austrian Succession

international war between Britain/Prussia and France/Spain/Austria.

King George's War

Raids/counterattacks in northeast. 1745 : 4000 New Englanders under William Pepperell of Maine attacked Louisbourg in Nova Scotia (guarded entrance to St. Lawrence River), took the fort. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war, lack of recognition for colonial achievements during the war annoyed them.

Ohio Valley

area of conflict between Britain/France. Refugee Indians had moved in, French were annoyed due to their willingness to trade with Pennsylvania traders and fight against the French in the Seven Years' War. "Republicans" tried to neutralize the conflict, eventually Indians thought English were a greater threat to their independence. Claimed by VA, PA, France, and Iroquois. French built forts to regain control of trade, George Washington demanded that they leave.

Albany Plan of Union

7 colonies north of VA sent representatives to plan for their mutual defense. Albany Plan of Union : proposal for a colonial confederation. Grand Council representing each state, crown-appointed President General as executive officer, would devise policies about defense/Indians, could demand funds according to an agreed-upon formula. Rejected because colonies didn't want to be taxed.

Seven Years' War (French and Indian War)

originated from rivalries in England. British and colonists fought together. Braddock arrived from England to take Fort Duquesne, underestimated opponents, they ended up ambushed and many people (including Braddock) died. 2000 New Englanders seized 2 French forts near Nova Scotia, drove out civilians that didn't promise not to bear arms for France (moved to Louisiana, became Cajuns). French maintained advantage in colonies and in Europe. Iroquois/Ohio Indians called for a treaty (thought French had too large of an advantage) that allowed them to retreat. Some joined British cause. William Pitt took control of military affairs in royal cabinet : thought the key to winning was the colonial soldiers, offered to pay if they mobilized troops. Colonists were victorious, French resistance ended in 1760 when Montreal surrendered. France ceded all territories on the North American mainland by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Britain got land east of Mississippi, Spain got land west of it (and New Orleans). Spain ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba.

Pontiac's Rebellion

sacked 8 British forts, besieged two others; epidemics and lack of supplies led the Indians to make peace with Britain.

Proclamation of 1763

British gov. asserted control over land transactions, settlement, trade, and other non-Indian activities west of the Appalachians. Stopped colonial expansion by recognizing Indian land titles everywhere west of the "proclamation line".

King George III

distrusted British political establishment, wanted to have a strong influence on gov. policy but be a constitutional monarch who cooperated with Parliament and worked with prime ministers.

English/Colonial Opinions Post-War

English thought the victory was because of their trained soldiers, colonists were indignant (they had been put in vital support roles). British soldiers treated colonial ones with contempt and disrespect, complained about colonists' unwillingness to provide them with food/shelter. English thought it was stifling their defense efforts, also angry that colonists didn't have to pay for the war. British debt doubled to 132 million pounds after the war. Colonists spent extra money on British goods with doubled prices, went into debt to maintain middle-class lifestyle; thought British wanted to enslave the colonies.

Soldiers in the Colonies

10,000 British soldiers stayed in the colonies, Britons thought it was reasonable that the colonists help pay for them. Colonists thought they shouldn't have to, thought they were threatening their liberty.

Writs of Assistance

general search warrants that permitted customs officials to enter any ships/buildings where smuggled goods might be hidden, used to crack down on smuggling. Didn't need any evidence of probable cause for suspicion, most English thought it was unconstitutional. Threatened colonists' privacy. James Otis was a lawyer that fought for Boston merchants that took the case to court; lost, but declared that Parliament couldn't violate rights of Englishmen.

The Sugar Act

Ended Britain's policy of exempting colonial trade from revenue-raising measures : amended Molasses Act of 1733 (taxing all foreign molasses entering British America at 6 pence a gallon). Changed it to a 3 pence duty per gallon. Colonists could only export lumber, iron, skins, hides, whalebone, logwood, etc. to foreign countries if the shipments landed in Britain first. Wanted colonists to buy less from foreign competitors and increase English merchants' sales of European wine. Complicated requirements for shipping colonial goods, defied oceanic commerce so broadly that trade between colonies became subject to complex rules. Disregarded traditional English protections for a fair trial. Grenville ordered the navy to enforce the Sugar Act, and customs officers extorted fees from lumber-carrying boats. Americans continued smuggling, Britain lowered the duty to 1 penny, which was less than the bribe : brought in revenue. 9 legislatures thought Parliament abused its authority to regulate trade, hesitated to denounce it as unconstitutional (only amended Molasses Act).

Vice-Admiralty Courts

heard smuggling cases : a judge alone gave the verdict (and had a financial incentive to find defendants guilty since they got 5% of the seized cargo). Didn't allow defendants to be tried where their offense had taken place. Reversed normal courtroom procedures (instead, defendant had to disprove the prosecution's charge).

The Stamp Act

made Americans pay and use special stamped paper for newspapers, documents, etc. Internal tax : duty levied directly on property, goods, gov. services in the colonies, and designed to raise revenue for the crown. Grenville and supporters thought the tax was a small price to pay for the benefits of the empire, but some (William Pitt) said that colonists had never been subject to British revenue bills and that they already taxed themselves. Grenville agreed that they shouldn't be taxed without representation in Parliament, but argued that they were represented, they just never elected anyone. Colonists had no seats in Parliament, but were "virtually represented". Denied that colonists could be exempt from taxes because they elected their own assemblies : local powers didn't nullify Parliament's authority over them.

Colonial Opinions About the Stamp Act

forced them to confront the issue of parliamentary taxation or surrender any claim to meaningful rights of self-government. Thought Stamp Act demonstrated Parliament's indifference to the colonists' interests and the shallow nature of virtual representation. They wanted self-government like Ireland.

Resisting the Stamp Act

Patrick Henry persuaded VA House of Burgesses to adopt strongly-worded resolutions denying Parliament's power to tax the colonies. Bitterness against the act released spontaneous, contagious violence.

Loyal Nine

group of artisans, shopkeepers, businessmen that fought the Stamp Act. Oversaw a truce between two mobs.

Boston - the center of resistance. Bostonians blamed British policies for their economic distress.


Sons of Liberty

directed violence against properties and left escape opportunities for victims. No one was killed/tarred and feathered.

Stamp Act Congress

agreed that Parliament lacked authority to levy taxes outside Britain and to deny anyone a jury trial.

Results of the Stamp Act

most stamp distributors resigned/fled, royal customs officials/court officers refused to do their jobs. Colonial upper class assumed control of outcry against the Stamp Act. Colonists boycotted British goods, England's business community warned Parliament that it would stimulate bankruptcies, unemployment, and political unrest. March 1766 : Parliament revoked the Stamp Act. Colonists declared their loyalty to Britain because of the repeal.

Declaratory Act

affirmed Parliament's power to legislate for the colonies in all cases whatsoever. Americans ignored it (thought Britain wanted to save face), England meant that colonies could not be exempted from any parliamentary statue.


John Locke : natural rights of life, liberty, and property. Social contracts to form governments that would protect those rights. A gov. that encroached on natural rights broke that contract and could be overthrown. English radicals fashioned wide-ranging critique of English gov. and a new way of thinking about politics. Colonists thought there was a conspiracy behind British policy during the Stamp Act. People found reasons to oppose British actions/policies (infringing on natural rights, etc) Samuel Adams combined religion/history to rally public protest. Preachers (not Anglicans or Quakers) took up the cause.

The Quartering Act

Townshend took office when the New York legislature clashed over the Quartering Act (made colonial legislatures pay for certain goods needed by soldiers within their respective borders). Indirect tax : obligated assemblies to raise an amount of revenue. New York's resistance to indirect taxation led to the New York Suspending Act, which threatened to nullify all laws passed by the colony after October 1st if the legislature refused to vote the supplies.

The Townshend Duties

British slashed their own taxes by 25%, led Townshend to propose increasing colonial customs revenue by taxing imports entering America. Passed the Townshend Acts in 1767, taxing glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea imported into the colonies. External tax, but was passed for revenue, not to control trade. Also wanted to establish a fund to pay royal governors so the colonists couldn't withhold salaries to get them to pass laws that England disapproved of. The Revenue Acts increased Britain's debt. Conflict with America became a test of national will over the principle of taxation.

Reactions to the Townshend Duties

unsure of how to act until Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania was published : emphasized that Parliament could not tax commerce just to raise revenue. Taxes to produce revenue could not be imposed unless the constituents voted for it. Sam Adams condemned taxation without representation and the threat to self-governance posed by Parliament's actions. British gov. overreacted to letters opposing the acts, took it as an incentive to rebel. Lord Hillsborough told MA assembly to disown the letter, forbade overseas assemblies to endorse it, and commanded that royal governors dissolve any legislatures that violated his instructions. Decided to go with nonimportation to pressure a repeal - depended on willingness to merchants to do so, whose livelihood depended on it. Only 40% of imports from Britain were blocked. Hit the British people, many English wanted the bill repealed.

John Wilkes

led a movement in opposition to domestic/foreign policies of George III and the current Parliament. : was arrested for seditious speech but won his court case. Ran for Parliament while people wanted to dismiss the landowning wealthy ministers, many protested low wages and high prices that came from gov. policies. Wilkes was elected to Parliament, then arrested, but was very popular. Sharpened political thinking of gov. opponents in Britain, English voters protested refusal to seat Wilkes and believed that virtual representation was false. Showed that Parliament's authority could be questioned.

Women's Role in the Resistance

Daughters of Liberty : attended political rallies, ignored men who didn't resist against the Stamp Act. Denounced the consumption of tea due to the Townshend Acts; nonconsumption agreements became popular, included tea and English manufactures. Held spinning bees to weave/sew replacement apparel : undermined masculine prejudice that women had no place in public life, endowed spinning/weaving. Forced British to appreciate the depth of colonial commitment to maintaining the nonimportation agreements.

Customs Racketeering

Townshend created American Board of Customs Commissioners to enforce Navigation Acts. Raised the number of port officials, provided money for secret informers, and funded a colonial coast guard. Drew protests due to the way of enforcement and the fact that those accused were guilty unless proven innocent. 1/3 of the seized cargo was awarded if a smuggler was convicted, fines could be tripled : incentive to seize illegal cargoes. Customs commissioners invaded traditional rights of sailors (sailor's chest was private property that wasn't listed as cargo, but revenue agents started treating it as such)."Customs racketeering" : little more than a system of legalized piracy, fed upsurge in violence. Caused more riots and assaults. British seized John Hancock's ship, the Liberty, were driven out of Boston. Expanded protests against taxation without representation to making legislation without representation : could only regulate imperial commerce.

Repeal of the Townshend Duties

Lord North was prime minister, favored repealing most of the Townshend duties except for the tax on tea. Colonial leaders didn't know if they should keep with the nonimportation to get the duties completely repealed, or stop. Ended up collapsing, still didn't drink British tea.

The Boston Massacre

British troops landed in Boston in 1768, colonists perceived them as a standing army that threatened their liberty and were a financial burden. Protestants were annoyed that many soldiers were Catholics and some were blacks, and that they took their jobs. Customs official killed a young boy : a week later, officer tried to disperse a crowd led by Crispus Attucks (black seaman), someone fired after being hit by a snowball, 5 killed. Royal authorities isolated soldiers on a fortified island in the Boston harbor, those who fired were tried (most acquitted, 2 found guilty were branded)

The Committees of Correspondence

Gaspee ran aground, colonists despised the ship and burnt it to the waterline. British said all suspects should be sent back to England for a trial : taking away colonists' right to a trial with a local jury. Revenue money used to pay for governor's salaries. MA communities appointed people responsible for exchanging information/coordinating defense of colonial rights. First attempt to maintain close/continuing political cooperation over a wide area. Sam Adams publicized letters written by Thomas Hutchinson, which said that colonists' rights should be oppressed. 1774 : every province but PA had a committee of correspondence.

Frontier Tensions

Growth of colonial population/economy led to expansion to the Appalachians, wanted Indian land. British too poor to enforce Proclamation of 1763, colonists unpunished for acts of violence against Indians. British/Iroquois agreed in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768) to grant land along the Ohio River to the gov. of PA and VA. Provoked conflict among the colonists over land, and between frontier settlers/their governments (frontier settlers underrepresented in legislature and exploited by corrupt officials). Regulators : aimed to redress the grievances of settlers living in NC's western regions. Showed colonists' willingness to resort to violence and defy established authorities.

The Tea Act of 1773

Eliminated import duties on tea entering England, lowering the selling price to consumers; permitted East India Company to sell its tea directly to consumers. Alarmed Americans : thought it was menacing to colonial representative gov., would produce revenue to pay royal governors. Colonists resisted importation of tea without violence/destruction of property, intercepted tea-carrying ships and sent them back. November 28, 1773 : ship landed in Boston, duties had to be paid or the cargo would be seized from the captain and the tea placed on sale. Boston Tea Party : dressed as Indians, attacked no one, dumped 45 tons of tea overboard, then left. Enraged British

The Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts

closed Boston harbor unless they paid for the ruined tea, revoked MA charter and made the gov. less democratic (upper house no longer elected, but chosen by the crown, jurymen appointed by sheriffs instead of elected), forbade communities to hold more than one town meeting a year without the governor's permission. Administration of Justice Act¬ : permitted someone charged with murder while enforcing royal authority in MA to be tried in England/other colonies. New Quartering Act : allowed the governor to set aside empty private buildings for housing troops. Quebec Act : established Roman Catholicism as Quebec's official religion, gave governor powers, did not establish a legislature. Extended Quebec's land claims to south of the Ohio River and west of the Mississippi, where colonies had claimed land. Made colonists think that the crown wanted to corrode traditional English liberties. Pushed most colonies to the brink of revolution : Virginia wanted active resistance, could provide the most military manpower.

The First Continental Congress

Committees of Correspondence of every colony but Georgia sent representatives to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Wanted to find a way to defend American rights short of war. Endorsed extreme statements of principle (Suffolk Resolves) that declared that the colonies owed no obedience to the Coercive Acts. Voted to boycott British goods after December 1, stop exports to Britain/West Indian possessions in September 1775. Sent a petition to the king with a summary of their principles and demands (parliamentary efforts to impose taxes, enforce laws through admiralty courts, suspend assemblies, revoke charters were unconstitutional, but could regulate colonial commerce).

The Fighting Begins

resistance leaders coerced waverers/loyalists, forced merchants who traded with Britain to apologize and burn imports. Committees took on gov. functions by organizing volunteer military companies and extralegal legislatures. 1775 : established "congresses" that rivaled colonial assemblies headed by royal governors.

Concord - British gov. ordered Thomas Gage to put down the rebellion by arresting patriot leaders; Gage sent men to seize the weapons supply at Concord. William Dawes/Paul Revere alerted towns of British movement, minutemen tried to oppose the soldiers at Lexington, started the fighting. New Englanders besieged British garrison in Boston, overran Fort Ticonderoga, and the second Continental Congress met. Olive Branch Petition

demanded a cease-fire at Boston, repeal of the Coercive Acts, and negotiations to establish guarantees of American rights. Arrived in Britain the same time as news about the battle on Breed's Hill and Bunker Hill, the king declared New England in a state of rebellion. December : declared colonists were rebellions, made their ships subject to seizure.

Failure of Reconciliation

Continental Congress agreed to establish an American continental army, named George Washington its commander. Americans resisted independence because they thought the ministers were forcing unconstitutional measures on them, not the king, and they thought saner people would take office.

Common Sense

by Thomas Paine : kingship was rooted in superstition, dangerous to liberty, and inappropriate to Americans. Argued that the conspiracy against American liberty was rooted in the monarchy. America had no economic need for Britain. Thought America would be a new kind of nation (no oppressive beliefs).

Declaring Independence

Richard Henry Lee proposed it on June 7, adopted on July 2nd and created the United States of America. Thomas Jefferson composed a statement to justify their separation from England, Congress approved the document on July 4th. Said that the king wanted to establish a tyranny over the colonies. Argued that the English gov. violated its contract with the colonists, gave them the right to replace it with their own gov. Emphasized equality of all individuals and natural rights to justice, liberty, and self-fulfillment.

Western Territory (Appalachians to Mississippi River)

belonged to Indians, 150,000 people, struggling to preserve way of life. Ohio Valley tribes formed a defensive confederacy, southeastern nations didn't recognize American rule. British backed resistance in northwest, Spain armed southwest Indians. War parties caused anxiety from PA to GA. Fought Indians with overwhelming military force/threatened tribes with starvation : couldn't be carried out by frontier militia. US Army : 672 soldiers, caused Indians to evacuate southern Indiana/Ohio, colonists settled in Ohio. British had forts, wanted to prevent expansion westward until there was an Indian buffer state south of the Great Lakes. Canadian fur traders were successful. Spain offered southeast settlers citizenship, talked about secession. Citizens manipulated by foreign countries.

Regional Economies (Debts/Infant Industries) - South

crops didn't return to prewar export levels, Chesapeake tobacco growers switched to wheat/hemp. Mid-Atlantic : agricultural production benefited from demand of food, export prices went up. New England : taxes to pay money borrowed for Revolution, lawsuits against debtors, crop yields low. Economic depression, overpopulation, British restrictions against trading.

Entrepreneurs, Artisans, and Wage Earners

Entrepreneurs thought agriculture should be balanced with banking, manufacturing, and commerce, should reduce dependence on British goods, and a merchant marine. Private banks founded, Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufacturers and the Useful Arts : promoted immigration of English artisans. Slowly became industrial society. "Mechanics" (master artisans and journeymen) manufactured goods by hand, hired low-paid day workers, rich employed servants. Competed with British manufacturers : supported candidates willing to raise tariffs on British imports. Artisans would contract as mechanics became wage earners working for industrialist entrepreneurs. Most politically conscious Americans hoped for republican ideals.

Washington's Presidency

President had to get Senate's approval for nominees to head bureaus, executive personnel could be impeached. Cabinet : secretaries of state, treasury, war, and the attorney general; Washington balanced with north/south. Suggested few laws to Congress, didn't speak out against opponents of gov. policy, limited public statements to foreign/military affairs. Deferred to congressional decisions whenever possible, only vetoed twice. Thought gov. should be run by educated men who would act in the people's best interests.

Ex Post Facto Laws

criminalizing previously legal actions and punishing those who have been engaging in such actions

Bill of Attainder

proclaimed someone's guilt and punished them without a trial

Judiciary Act of 1789

established federal district court in each state, operated according to local procedures.

Bill of Rights

prevented tyranny, Madison drafted first 10 amendments. First 8 guaranteed personal liberties (1 : freedom of expression, 2/3 - right for states to have militia, protected against standing armies, 4-8 limited police powers of the state, 9-10 reserved powers not given to the fed. gov. to the states)

Chisholm v. Georgia

state could be sued in federal courts by nonresidents : decision overturned, passed 11th amendment (private citizens couldn't undermine states' financial autonomy. Fed. power could threaten local interests.

Alexander Hamilton

attended Columbia University, entered Continental Army, extremely close to Washington (pres. supported his policies), wanted to strengthen nation against foreign enemies/disunion. Weak national credit, economy couldn't fight European power, worried about states overpowering national gov. Thought gov. would survive by building support among politically influential citizens through financial interests.

Report on the Public Credit

evaluated status of Revolutionary debt - $54 million in US debt, $42 million owed to Americans, rest to foreign nations. States had debts of $25 million. Proposed that fed. gov. fund the debt (raising money through new securities, interest), fed. gov. fund state debts (states didn't pay back money, US loses credit). Raising money : tariffs, selling federal lands, import taxes, whiskey tax. Debt to American citizens should be permanent. People objected that those who didn't deserve money would get it, no compensation for those who had sold their certificates. All states but MA, NC, and CA had paid their creditors, South had paid most of debt : rewarded irresponsibility. Relocated capital to South, assumption passed, reversed nation's fiscal standing.

National Bank

would diversify national economy. Private investors could buy shares of the bank, would make portions of the recently funded debt available for loans and receive interest payments from Treasury. Little chance of losing money, would cost taxpayers almost nothing and benefit the nation. Safe place for tax revenues, inexpensive loans to the gov., regulating state banks, credit to expand the economy, and issuing paper notes that circulated as money. Hamilton admired British self-sufficiency.

Challenge to Limited Government

permanent national debt violated equality among citizens (favored interests of public creditors), thought bank would give a small, elite group power to influence the gov. Revolutionary-generation Americans thought Bank of England undermined integrity of British gov. Jefferson thought it might corrupt the Congress, John Taylor thought wealth would allow the bank to take over the country. Opponents thought it was unconstitutional : Constitution didn't specifically state it could be made, wanted strict interpretation. Hamilton justified it with the elastic clause ("necessary and proper"). Madison/Jefferson opposed tariffs on foreign manufactures (promoted uncompetitive industry, raised prices of goods due to taxes, reduced incentive for American manufacturers to make cheap products), didn't believe in industrialism. Congress didn't approve high protective tariff, set higher duties on imports.

Hamilton's Legacy

Federalists : favored centralized national gov., dominated in New England, NJ, PA, NY, and SC. People believed that Hamilton was rewarding special interests : Southerners reacted badly. Plans for commercial expansion/industrial developments seemed unrelated to the West (agriculturally-based). Uneven impact annoyed PA and NY.

Whiskey Rebellion

excise tax on domestically produced whiskey (distributed debt across nation). Western PA found tax burdensome, removed profit from selling whiskey. Trials about tax evasion had to be conducted in federal courts. Initially protested with mass meetings/petitions, became more militant. Hamilton deemed rebellion lawless, Washington gathered militia to put down rebellion. Determined limit on public opposition to fed. policies (could only change laws through constitutional procedures).


countered Russian/Britain/US for North American territory, established "New California", strengthened southwest by allying with Indians.

Washington's Policy

Spanish bribed political figures in Tennessee and Kentucky, states admitted to the Union with Vermont. Wanted tight control through patient diplomacy : Spain opened New Orleans to American trading. Neutralized Creek Indians (Spain's strongest allies) : Treaty of New York let colonists settle Georgia Piedmont, preserved Creek territory against US expansion. Military efforts to enforce peace failed, passed laws against trespassing on Indian land, regulating trade, outlawing alcohol, and punishing crimes committed there by non-Indians. Wanted Indians to be "civilized". Creeks revoked treaty.

French Revolution

Americans sympathetic to revolutionaries, South/frontier wanted pro-French foreign policy : France went to war with Spain/Britain. Slave uprising in Saint Domingue caused hatred of British. North hated France : conservatism, good relations with Britain needed for occupational prosperity. South : viewed Britain as an obstacle to self-determination, wanted to have duties on cargos from England/Scotland. Federalists opposed this idea : predicted war.

Citizen Genet

tried to mobilize republican sentiment in favor of France, strengthen treaty of alliance, gather militia to conquer Spanish territories/attack British shipping. Washington declared neutrality. Gathered southern volunteers for American Foreign Legion, had no money to pay them, but outfitted privateers (seized British vessels).

British Retaliation

seized foreign ships trading with French islands in the Caribbean, US merchant marine being drafted into Royal Navy.


forcibly enlisting British subjects as the king's sailors, sometimes took US citizens, disregarded former subjects' right to American citizenship.

Control of the West

British denied US claims north of the Ohio River, built Fort Miami on US soil. Anthony Wayne challenged British authority in the Northwest with Fort Defiance, routed thousand Indians, morale dropped.

Treaty of Greenville

opened Ohio to white settlement and ended Indian hostilities for 16 years.

John Jay's Treaty - got British to remove troops from US soil, gained access to West Indian markets. British could violate American neutrality and ruin profitable commerce by restricting US trade with French ports during wartime. Didn't compensate for slaves taken during the Revolution. Defused war, ended British occupation of US territory, allowed settlement of claims of British merchants who were owed American debts, arranged for Americans' compensation for property seized by the Royal Navy. Americans developed commerce with India, West Indies declared their harbors open to US ships.


Treaty of San Lorenzo

unrestricted, duty-free access to world markets through the Mississippi River, recognized 31st parallel as US's southern boundary, dismantled all forts on American soil, discouraged Indian attacks against western settlers.

Northern Federalists

hated France's disregard for civil rights/attempt to substitute reason for God. Thought French leadership incited poor against rich. Didn't like mob rule, Genet encouraged opposition of Washington's rule and found hundreds willing to fight for France. Unwise to involve public in politics : undependable, could be influenced by rabble-rousers. Properly-led people could stand against anarchy, voters should choose candidates by their personal merits. Representative gov., elite class and gov. should be close. Limited public office to wise/virtuous men who would protect liberty.

Southern Interpretation of Republicanism

gov. dominated by elite was corrupted, liberty would be safe if distributed among the public. Enlightenment : free flow of ideas would ensure progress, thought people shouldn't inhibit political participation.

National Gazette - Tried to turn public opinion against the Federalists, nation's first opposition newspaper. Democratic societies formed, dissatisfied with Washington's policies (identified as Federalist). Federalists thought they were acting as foreign agents.


Republican Party

Jefferson and Madison : hadn't wanted political factions/parties (corrupt), Constitution should've prevented them. Republicans attacked pro-British leanings in local elections, won slight majority in House of Representatives. Used press to mold public opinion (newspapers), were libelous and irresponsible (fear mongering, character assassination). Republicans accused Federalists of wanting to enrich wealthy citizens at the taxpayers' expense and wanting to recreate the European court (citizens' worth measured by money), falsely accused them of wanting to introduce legal privilege, aristocracy, and fundamental assumption

Washington's Farewell Address

condemned political parties, thought they would endanger republic's survival. Shouldn't favor any one country, or else they would be overwhelmed by a battle for other countries. Should avoid connection with Europe's wars : isolated from foreign battles.

Election of 1796

Republicans had Democratic societies, workingmen's clubs, and immigrant-aid associations. Immigrants prime target for Republican recruiters : could tip the balance in states like PA and NY (closely divided opinion). Candidates : John Adams (Federalist), Thomas Jefferson (Republican). Republicans expected to win southern electoral votes/congressional seats like Federalists expected to win New England, NJ, and SC. Swing states were PA and NY, Republicans didn't get NY, so Jefferson lost by 3 electoral votes.

John Adams

intellectual, uncomfortable with people, didn't command personal loyalty but garnered trust, emotional political debate. Rational, reserved personality. Unable to unify the country.

XYZ Affair

French ordered seizure of American ships carrying goods to British ports. Adams sent peace delegation to Paris, Charles de Talleyrand (French foreign minister) didn't meet delegation, said through three agents "X" "Y" and "Z" that negotiations would begin after he received money. "Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute". Discredited Republicans' foreign policy views, tried to excuse their behavior. Jefferson's supporters were routed. Armed 54 ships to protect commerce, army enlarged in case of civil war.

The Alien and Sedition Acts

Alien Enemies Act : prevented wartime spying or sabotage (fundamental principles for protecting national security/respecting rights of enemy citizens, operated only during war). Alien Friends Act : authorized president to expel foreign residents whose activities he considered dangerous. Naturalization Act : increased residency requirement for US citizenship from 5 to 14 years. Sedition Act : distinguished between free speech/attempts to violate laws/overthrow gov. Couldn't criticize the gov. Sedition cases heard by juries : interfered with free speech. Targeted US opposition press, wanted to intimidate journalists into keeping quiet in the election. Militia in Kentucky/VA signed petitions denouncing the Acts. Federalists controlled all three branches of gov., individual liberties not protected, doctrine of states' rights advanced as a means of preventing national gov. from violating basic freedoms.

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions- Madison/Jefferson declared that state legislatures could judge constitutionality of federal actions, had interposition (could protect liberties of their citizens). Objectionable federal laws could be nullified by the states. Southern states might secede from the Union.


Election of 1800

Republicans : Thomas Jefferson for pres., Aaron Burr for VP. Federalists argued between Hamilton and Adams. Jefferson discouraged radicalism, Adams rejected demands that Congress declare war on France/sparking insurrections. Federalists didn't exploit Republican sympathy for the enemy, voters annoyed at ballooning national debt, blamed Federalists. Republicans convinced NY and Philadelphia to vote for Jefferson, popular interest in politics rose. Jefferson won.

America's Impact on Eastern Indians

Reduced population/territory, crowded illegally onto territories, lands trespassed on, pressured to give up lands and cultures. Turned to alcohol and killed each other. Handsome Lake appealed to Seneca Iroquois' religious traditions, welcomed Quaker missionaries/federal aid for teaching American agricultural methods. Women who didn't accept the change were accused of witchcraft and some were killed.

Status of Free Blacks in North vs. South

8% were free by 1790, 1800 : 11%. State reforms improved slaves' conditions, 1794 : outlawed Atlantic slave trade. Ensured free blacks' legal equality, dropped restrictions on freedom of movement, protected property. All but 3 permitted free blacks to vote/didn't restrict them. Before end of 1790s, slavery was more entrenched, whites were reluctant to accept blacks as fellow citizens. Federal Militia Law of 1792 : state militias could exclude blacks. Places that treated them as political equals of whites dropped sharply in early 1800s.

Fugitive Slave Law

required judges to award possession of a runaway slave upon any formal request by a master/representative. Runaways denied jury trial/permission to present evidence of freedom. Denied free blacks legal protections that the Bill of Rights guaranteed them.

Gabriel's Rebellion

slave insurrection, a thousand slaves planned to march on Richmond. State militia put down the rebellion, confirmed possibility of slave revolts in America. Antislavery sentiment diminished, abolitionists lost political influence.

Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin

demand in textile industry stimulated cotton cultivation, invented gin that separated fibers of short-staple cotton from the seed. Needed slaves. Slaves no closer to freedom, political gains eroded.

Character of Jefferson

didn't pay much attention to dress, thought pomp/fanfare was too out of hand, wanted to restore "republican simplicity" to Congress. Dispassionate, aroused emotion in others, viewed as defender of liberty and aristocrat that trusted the people/infidel and frenzied rebel. Was governor of VA, secretary of state under Washington, VP of John Adams. Thought republics collapsed from within (taxes, standing army, corrupt officials), promoted states' rights, thought popular liberty needed popular virtue (putting the good of the nation ahead of private interests). Liked educated farmers, disliked city dwellers. Not impractical.

Jefferson's Revolution

Repealed most internal taxes, slashed expenditures (closed overseas embassies, downsized army). Placed economy over military preparedness. Peace of Amiens stopped conflict between France/Britain that had affected colonial shipping.

Tripolitan (Barbary) Pirates

Jefferson ordered navy to attack them instead of bribing them (would be less expensive in the end). 1805 : negotiated peace treaty for half the price it had been paying for safe passage in the Mediterranean.

Judiciary Act of 1801

Wanted to draw moderate Federalists onto his side. Thought talent and virtue (not political affiliation) should determine judgeships. Federalists passed law : 16 new federal judgeships, reduced Supreme Court justices to 5 from 6 : Jefferson might not be able to appoint a Supreme Court judge, Federalist-dominated Supreme Court. Adams appointed last-minute prominent Federalist judges before Jefferson took office. Jefferson thought independent judiciary was necessary to successful republican gov. Jefferson repealed it in 1802.

Writ of Mandamus

order from higher court commanding that a certain action be taken

Marbury v. Madison

Adams appointed Marbury as justice of the peace, didn't get commission there in time before midnight. Madison refused to release the commission, Marbury petitioned for a write of mandamus.

John Marshall

Virginian, loyal to Union, Federalist. Declared an act of Congress unconstitutional in Marbury v. Madison, denied Marbury's petition for a write of mandamus. Jefferson believed in judicial review, thought all branches of gov. should be able to evaluate constitutionality, was annoyed at Marshall's lecture to Madison.

Judicial Partisanship

Federalist John Pickering (New Hampshire District Court) convicted of crimes, was obviously insane. Samuel Chase (Supreme Court) indicted : strongly supported Sedition Acts, convicted Jefferson's friend : but John Randolph messed up and Chase was acquitted. Doubted whether impeachment was an appropriate method of removing judicial partisanship. Acquittal ended Jefferson's problems with judiciary.

The Louisiana Purchase

Treaty of San Ildefonso : Spain ceded Louisiana Territory to France (Napoleon). Jefferson wanted an expansion of an empire of free/virtuous Americans. Spain was weak, posted no threat to US, but France could make treaties with Britain to trap/crush US. Napoleon wanted a French empire bordering the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, and to subdue Santo Domingo's slave rebellion. Spanish prohibited Americans from depositing produce in New Orleans for shipment to foreign countries. Jefferson nominated James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston to negotiate with France for purchase of Louisiana/the Floridas. Napoleon wanted to restart war in Europe, needed money, sold all of Louisiana for $15 million. Didn't know about constitutionality of land sales, proposed an amendment to make it legal, but rationalized that Napoleon might retract his offer. Dropped amendment, treaty ratified in the Senate. Put aside favor of strict interpretation in order to guarantee more land for farmers. Also attracted more supporters for Republicans (farmers in the West).

The Lewis and Clark Expedition

Meriwether Lewis instructed to find source of Mississippi River, cross western highlands, and follow the best water route to the Pacific. Wanted to increase scientific knowledge and expand commercial possibilities. Second-in-command William Clark, left St. Louis in 1804. Followed Missouri, Snake, Columbia rivers, hired French-Canadian fur trader Toussaint Charbonneau and wife Sacajawea as a guide and interpreter. Reached Pacific Ocean in 1805, returned to St. Louis.

Aaron Burr Conspiracy

Burr denied renomination as VP, talked with High Federalists who wanted to split from the Union by forming a pro-British Northern Confederacy of Nova Scotia, New England, New York, and PA. Burr was the Federalist nomination for NY governor, defeated by Hamilton. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and mortally wounded him. Indicted in two states for murder of Hamilton, allied with James Wilkinson (military governor of Louisiana Territory, Spanish spy) to split western states and West Florida into a confederacy south of the Ohio River. 1806 : Burr went to join Wilkinson at Natchez, but Wilkinson recognized that Jefferson was moving against the plot and the British were uninterested, reported the conspiracy. Jefferson officially denounced conspiracy, Burr put on trial for treason but was found not guilty. Fled to Europe to avoid indictments for Hamilton's murder, tried to convince Napoleon to make peace with Britain and invade US/Mexico.

The Quids

led by John Randolph, believed in honest wisdom of the farmer against the corruption of rulers and "court" hangers-on : threatened liberty, but was more for opposition than governing. Accused Jefferson of backing a compromise in the Yazoo land scandal, awarded 5 million acres to Yazoo investors (land was bought in good faith from land companies that bribed the whole legislature). Thought Jefferson requested money without asking Congress, but was untrue.

Suppression of American Trade

Peace of Amiens collapsed, Britain/France resumed war. Re-export trade : trade closed in time of peace couldn't be opened in time of war. Broken voyage : Americans carried foreign produce to American port and reexported as American goods. Orders in Council (British) : blockade of French ports in Europe. Continental System : ships obeying British regulations could be seized by France. Outlawed American trade.


pressing into service of purported British sailors who deserted from the Royal Navy due to bad conditions, and also American soldiers (6000). Less impact on economy, more humiliating.

Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

British warship Leopard attacked American frigate Chesapeake, forced to surrender. Seized four deserters.

The Embargo Act

prohibited vessels from leaving American ports for foreign ports, "peaceable coercion". Wanted to pressure nations into respecting American neutrality, British found new markets in Spain. Hit New England and Massachusetts hard : dependent on foreign trade, diverted merchant's capital into manufacturing.

The Election of 1808

Madison/Clinton (Republican) vs. Pinckney/King (Federalist). Republicans had majorities in Congress, Madison won. Federalists made a comeback (embargo, younger Federalists were influential)

Failure of Peaceable Coercion

Madison thought American liberty had to rest on virtue of the people, virtue was tied to agriculture, agriculture needed trade to be successful (British West Indies). Embargo didn't coerce anyone.

Non-Intercourse Act

repealed Embargo Act, opened American trade to all nations except Britain and France, pres. could authorize trade to either if they didn't violate neutral rights. British/French didn't respect shipping.

Macon's Bill No. 2

replaced Non-Intercourse Act : reopened trade with Britain and France and bribed (repealed restrictions on neutral shipping, then US would halt commerce with the other)

War Hawks

South and West hotbloods who wanted war (angry at insults to America). Led by Henry Clay, supported by John Calhoun (South Carolina), Richard Johnson, and William King. Wanted to expel British from Canada and Spanish from FLoridas.

Tecumseh and the Prophet

Tecumseh and half-brother Prophet wanted to unite several tribes in Ohio/Indiana territory against US. Tried to unify people and revive Native American virtues. Battle of Tippecanoe : William Harrison won, Tecumseh joined British.

Causes of the War of 1812

Sent request for war with Britain to Congress, Britain went through economic slump. Britain repealed Orders of Council. Republicans in populous states carried war declaration through Congress (Federalists opposed). Sectional/party split. Impressment, presence of British ships in American waters, British violations of neutral rights. Incitement of Indians, economic recession that affected South and West. British policy damaging America's economy. Madison thought British wanted to strangle American trade.

The War of 1812

Americans intimidated by Indians, lost battles

General William Henry Harrison

renewed offensive, defeated British/Indians in Battle of the Thames. Tecumseh died in the battle.

Oliver Perry

constructed fleet of vessels, cannon captured in a raid on York, destroyed British squadron at the western end of Lake Erie. British lost Erie.

The Naval War

US victories more psychological than of strategic value.

The British Offensive

British stopped by US at battles of Chippewa and Lundy's Lane. Wanted to split New England from the Union, but American naval squadron defeated the British. Burnt Washington DC to the ground.

The Treaty of Ghent

ended war between Britain and US, British position grew worse with time. Demanded territorial concessions from the US, but gave up.

Battle of New Orleans

after Treaty of Ghent, Jackson shredded British redcoats and inflicted 2000 casualties.

The Hartford Convention

Federalist convention, passed resolutions summarizing New England's grievances, wanted to abolish 3/5th law, require 2/3rd vote of Congress to declare war and admit new states to the Union, limit president to a single term, prohibit election of two presidents from the same state, bar embargoes lasting more than 60 days.

Era of Good Feelings

eliminated Federalists as national political force, convinced Republicans that nation was resilient, embraced some doctrines related to Federalists. National bank, tariff protection, fed. support for internal improvements. War eliminated divisive issues, effort to prevent political controversies.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

states couldn't interfere with contracts : when a state chartered a college, it surrendered its power to alter and its authority to regulate the beneficiary.

McCulloch v. Maryland

Banks were constitutional, but national gov. was supreme, so states couldn't interfere with federal powers. Attacked states' rights.

Missouri Compromise

House of Reps wanted to admit as a slave state. Tallmadge said slaves couldn't be introduced and called for emancipation. Drew attention to slavery (11 free, 11 slave states : Missouri would tip the balance). South said North was trying to destroy the Union and end slavery, North said South was extending the institution. Maine was a free state, Missouri was a slave state. Prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of 36 degrees, 30'. Second : prohibited Missouri from discriminating against citizens of other states. Southern victory.

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