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Physio 33 & 34 for PBL
Terms in this set (42)
Where are RBCs made during your 1st trimester, 2nd trimester and Last month in the womb?
yolk sac, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.
__ circulates as free protein and is not enclosed in RBCs, 3% leaks through capillaries into tissues.
Blood cells begin as bone marrow from ______.
pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells
____ promotes growth of all types of committed cells
RBCs start as ___. They have a nucleus and ER until they become ____
Relationship between tissue oxygenation and the RBCs
Lowered oxygenation leads to increased RBC production.
If anemic, ____ produces large amounts of RBCs
If low oxygen, ____ circulates and enhances RBC production until hypoxia is relieved
For proper maturation of RBCs what two vitamins are needed?
B12 and Folate
Hemoglobin synthesis begins in proerythroblasts and continues into ___stage.
When reticulocytes leave bone marrow and pass into blood, they form minute quantities of ___ for another day until they become mature
When Fe is absorbed from small intestine, it combines in the blood plasma with a beta globulin, ___ to form ___, which then transported in the plasma.
After the life span, hemoglobin released from cell is ingested by _____. Iron is liberated and stored in ___ to be used to form new hemoglobin.
macrophage cells, ferritin pool
Many RBCs are destroyed where?
In the spleen
___ portion of the hemoglobin is converted by macrophages into a bile pigment (bilirubin), which is released into the blood and later removed from the body by secretion through the liver into the __
After rapid hemorrhage, the body replaces the fluid portion of the plasma in 1 to 3 days, but this response results in a low concentration of RBCs.
Blood Loss Anemia.
Exposure to high dose radiation or chemotherapy for cancer treatment can damage stem cells of the bone marrow?
Aplastic Anemia Due to Bone Marrow Dysfunction.
Loss of vitamin B12, folic acid, and intrinsic factor can lead to slow production of erythroblasts.
RBCs rupture as they enter capillaries (especially through spleen)
excessive amounts of RBCs in the blood
People who are at high altitudes go through this
Hematocrit 60-70% instead of 40-45%, which causes excess production of WBCs and platelets too
What are Leukocytes?
WBC, white blood cells
Which two do you see in highest circulatory concentrations?
Neutrophils, then lymphocytes
2 major lineages of WBCs formed
the myelocytic and the lymphocytic lineages
The granulocytes and monocytes are formed only in the ___. Lymphocytes and plasma cells are produced mainly in the various ___ tissues.
bone marrow, lymphogenous
Lifespan of the granulocytes after being released from the bone marrow is normally ___ circulating in the blood and another __ in tissues where they are needed.
4 to 8 hours, 4 to 5 days
What are monocytes to macrophages? Free floating immature versions that exist before the cell reaches a tissue and becoming macrophages
The process of squeezing through pores of the blood capillaries
What cells perform diapedesis? Neutrophils and macrophages
when monocytes enter tissues -> become macrophages -> can phagocytize large particles and can survive for long periods after ingesting microorganisms
neutrophils entering tissues are already mature cells so they can start phagocytosis -> attaches itself to particle via pseudopodia -> forms phagocytic vesicle or phagosome -> can only phagocytize particles smaller than bacteria
What increases phagocytosis rates?
Rough surfaces, No protective coat, opsonized (antibodies adhering to bacteria)
Inflammation is characterized by
local blood flow, vessel permeability, capture of PMNs/ macrophages, Diapedesis, Chemotaxis to target
What forms pus?
mixture of necrotic tissue, dead neutrophils, dead macrophages, and tissue fluid
Sometimes, if we can't deal with a problem, we will ___ the area via ___ to delay spread of disease
wall off, fibrinogen clots
weak phagocyte, attaches to parasite and releases hydrolytic enzymes and the like
Secretes heparin in the blood, and matures to mast cells in tissues.
bone marrow produces few WBCs -> leaves body susceptible to infections -> get mouth/colon ulcers or a severe respiratory infection can occur
increased numbers of abnormal WBCs in the circulating blood
caused by cancerous production of lymphoid cells, usually beginning in a lymph node or other lymphocytic tissue and spreading to other areas of the body
begins by cancerous production of young myelogenous cells in the bone marrow and then spreads throughout the body so that WBCs are produced in many extramedullary tissues—especially in the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver -> produces partially diﬀerentiated cell like neutrophils leukemia, ect -> these are nonfunctional
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