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Unit 1 Set 4 Civil War and Reconstruction
Reconstruction and its Legacy
Terms in this set (33)
Reconstruction, in U.S. history, the period (1865-77) that followed the American Civil War and during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy and to solve the problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 states that had seceded.
Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1865. The speech describes a national moral debt that had been created by the slavery ("bondsmen's 250 years of unrequited toil") and ends with a call for compassion and reconciliation.
Enslaved people who had been freed by the war
The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a Southern state to form its own government after ten percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
Radical Republican plan for Reconstruction that required 50% of a state's 1860 voters to take an "iron clad" oath of allegiance and a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials; pocket-vetoed by Lincoln.
President Andrew Johnson implemented a plan of Reconstruction that gave the white South a free hand in regulating the transition from slavery to freedom and offered no role to blacks in the politics of the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
One of the Reconstruction Amendments
- Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the U.S.
Due Process Clause
- Prohibited state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness.
Equal Protection Clause
- Required each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction.
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
U.S. Congress seized control of Reconstruction from Pres. Andrew Johnson and passed the Reconstruction Acts of 1867-68, which sent federal troops to the South to oversee the establishment of state governments that were more democratic. Congress also enacted legislation and amended the Constitution to guarantee the civil rights of freedmen and African Americans in general.
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
South divided into 5 military districts; states to guarantee full suffrage for blacks; ratify 14th amendment
Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
One of the Reconstruction Amendments
Prohibited the government from using a citizen's race, color, or previous status as a slave as a voting qualification.
the right to vote
the right to vote
Freedmen's Bureau (1865-1872)
Agency set up by Congress to provide freedmen with shelter, food, and medicinal aid and to help them set up schools and find work. The Bureau was dissolved in 1872.
Special Field Order 15
Order by General William T. Sherman in January 1865 to set aside abandoned land along the southern Atlantic coast for forty-acre grants to freedmen; rescinded by President Andrew Johnson later that year.
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Largely former slave owners who were the bitterest opponents of the Republican program in the South. Staged a major counterrevolution to "redeem" the south by taking back southern state governments. Their foundation rested on the idea of racism and white supremacy. Redeemer governments waged and agressive assault on African Americans.
putting a person to death by mob action without due process of law
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Enforcement Act of 1870
Protects voting rights by making intimidation of voters a federal crime
organization established to restore political power to the pre-civil war white Democrats and did not hesitate to use violence to achieve that end
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Dunning School of historical interpretation
Scholarly opinion that argued Reconstruction of state governments were damaging to the South; influenced the films "The Birth of a Nation" and "Gone with the Wind"
"Lost Cause" Myth
Belief developed among white Southerns in the post-Civil War period that the Civil War was a war over states' rights and national independence and NOT about defending and preserving slavery
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Jim Crow Laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
Condition of being deprived of the right to vote
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person's ability to read and write - they were done very unfairly so even though most African-Americans could read and write by the 1950's they still failed.
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