Terms in this set (34)

- invested heavily in public works - roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals, protective walls -- all designed to integrate their respective domains militarily and commercially
- invoked supernatural sanctions to support their rule (Rome: deceased emperor considered gods and established religious cult to bolster the authority of living rulers, China: emperors were the Son of Heaven and said to govern by the Mandate of Heaven
- absorbed foreign religious tradition (Rome: Christianity, China: Buddhism)
- established effective centralized control over vast regions and huge populations (Rome: developed an elaborate body of law, dealing with matters of justice, property, commerce, and family life/ China: developed an elaborate bureaucracy to hold empire together, imperial academy for bureaucracy, civil service system integrated empire)
- effects on environment (Rome: noise and smoke in cities, urban sprawl extended to fertile land, mining operations and smelting of metals led to extensive deforestation and unprecedented levels of lead/China: iron working contributed to substantial urban air pollution, growth of intensive agriculture and logging stripped land of its grass and forest cover, causing sufficient soil erosion)

- different relationship to societies they governed (Rome: began as small city-state, was always a distinct minority, granted citizenship to various individuals, families, or whole communities for their service to the empire or in recognition of their adoption <-- conveyed legal status, did not erase other identities/China: grew out of much larger cultural heartland, the "non-Chinese" became Chinese)
- establishment of rituals (Rome: mixed Greco-Roman tradition which was served to disseminate throughout region/ China: widely recognized model to which others should conform, experienced little competition from older or foreign traditions)
- Use of Language (Rome; Latin gave rise to distinct languages, various people able to maintain separate cultural identities, China: Chinese characters not easily transferable, language used as instrument of elite assimilation)