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problems plants had adapting to life on land

1)preventing water loss
2)obtaining enough good and water
3) dealing with wind and weather
4)exposed gametes and embroyos/spores

ancestor of land plants

green algae

the first land plants

mosses and ferns, both are found near water or in very moist areas because the sperm needs a film of water in order to fertilize the egg

only nonvascular plants on earth


vascular plants

have specialized tissues that transport water up and food down their stems

nonvascular plants

do not have these specialized tissues or stems


mosses , nonvascular, spores


ferns, vascular, spores


conifers or gymnoospores, seeds


flowering plants or angiosporms, fruiting reproductive organs

basic characteristics of plants

1) multicellular
2) eukariotic(have organelles and nucleus)
3) autotrophs
4) cell walls contain cellulose


trap sunlight for photosynthesis
food(glucose) is made here and transported to the rest of the plants.
gas in CO2(carbon dioxide), out O2(oxygen) and H2Og(water in vapor form)


support upright growth


special kind of vascular tissue that transports water up from the roots


special kind of vascular tissue that transports food down to the rest of the plant

evolution of vascular plants

allowed plants to grow big and tall and live away from water


anchor the plant tot the ground,m absorb water and minerals, and sometimes store excess sugar as starch


reproductive organs for angiosperms(anthrophyta)


reproductive organs for gymnosperms(coniferphyta)

environmental factors that affect plants



light, goes towards the light so it is positive tropism


gravity. goes away from gravity so it is negative tropism


response to touch


temperature(in winter plants become inactive aka dormant)


90% of the water absorbed through the roots is lost through the leaves in this process

capillary action

helps draw water up to the leaves for photosynthesis


openings in the lower epidermis of leaves which allow for gas exchange and help control water loss

gaurd cells

open and close the stomata of the leaves which control the rate of transpiration and water loss


protective, waxy layer that covers the leaves, stem, and fruit of plants, and helps prevent water loss

leave modifications

1) needle-like leaves and spines: prevent transpiration(water loss)
2) tendrils: help vines climb
3) needles or thorns: protect plants from herbivores
4) succulent leaves: store extra water

Root hairs

the actual part of the root that absorbs water

Xylem Tissue

goes up with water to transport H2O

Phloem Tissue

comes down with food

Root Cap

protects the root tip

Herbacues Stems

Color: Green
Flexibility: Yes
Photosynthesis: Yes
Bark: No

Woody Stems

Color: Brown
Flexibility: No
Photosynthesis: No
Bark: Yes

tell the age of a tree

counting the rings of the Xylem Tissue


outermost, green floral parts (protects the budding bloom)


brightly colored parts just inside the sepal


male reproductive parts made of the anther and filament


long, thing structures that supports the anther


strucutes where the pollen is produced


flower part that contains one or more ovules


stalk with the stigma at the top


sticky, top portion of the style

pistil/ carpel

female reproductive structure made up of the stigma, style, and ovary

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