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46 terms

Biology Plants

STUDY
PLAY
problems plants had adapting to life on land
1)preventing water loss
2)obtaining enough good and water
3) dealing with wind and weather
4)exposed gametes and embroyos/spores
ancestor of land plants
green algae
the first land plants
mosses and ferns, both are found near water or in very moist areas because the sperm needs a film of water in order to fertilize the egg
only nonvascular plants on earth
mosses
vascular plants
have specialized tissues that transport water up and food down their stems
nonvascular plants
do not have these specialized tissues or stems
byrophyrta
mosses , nonvascular, spores
pterophyta
ferns, vascular, spores
coniferophyta
conifers or gymnoospores, seeds
anthrophyta
flowering plants or angiosporms, fruiting reproductive organs
basic characteristics of plants
1) multicellular
2) eukariotic(have organelles and nucleus)
3) autotrophs
4) cell walls contain cellulose
Leaves
trap sunlight for photosynthesis
food(glucose) is made here and transported to the rest of the plants.
gas in CO2(carbon dioxide), out O2(oxygen) and H2Og(water in vapor form)
Stems
support upright growth
Xylem
special kind of vascular tissue that transports water up from the roots
Phloem
special kind of vascular tissue that transports food down to the rest of the plant
evolution of vascular plants
allowed plants to grow big and tall and live away from water
roots
anchor the plant tot the ground,m absorb water and minerals, and sometimes store excess sugar as starch
flowers
reproductive organs for angiosperms(anthrophyta)
cones
reproductive organs for gymnosperms(coniferphyta)
environmental factors that affect plants
-tropism
phototropism
light, goes towards the light so it is positive tropism
gravitropism
gravity. goes away from gravity so it is negative tropism
Thigmotropism
response to touch
Photoperiodism
temperature(in winter plants become inactive aka dormant)
transpiration
90% of the water absorbed through the roots is lost through the leaves in this process
capillary action
helps draw water up to the leaves for photosynthesis
stomota
openings in the lower epidermis of leaves which allow for gas exchange and help control water loss
gaurd cells
open and close the stomata of the leaves which control the rate of transpiration and water loss
cuticle
protective, waxy layer that covers the leaves, stem, and fruit of plants, and helps prevent water loss
leave modifications
1) needle-like leaves and spines: prevent transpiration(water loss)
2) tendrils: help vines climb
3) needles or thorns: protect plants from herbivores
4) succulent leaves: store extra water
Root hairs
the actual part of the root that absorbs water
Xylem Tissue
goes up with water to transport H2O
Phloem Tissue
comes down with food
Root Cap
protects the root tip
Herbacues Stems
Color: Green
Flexibility: Yes
Photosynthesis: Yes
Bark: No
Woody Stems
Color: Brown
Flexibility: No
Photosynthesis: No
Bark: Yes
tell the age of a tree
counting the rings of the Xylem Tissue
sepal
outermost, green floral parts (protects the budding bloom)
petals
brightly colored parts just inside the sepal
stamen
male reproductive parts made of the anther and filament
filament
long, thing structures that supports the anther
anther
strucutes where the pollen is produced
ovary
flower part that contains one or more ovules
style
stalk with the stigma at the top
stigma
sticky, top portion of the style
pistil/ carpel
female reproductive structure made up of the stigma, style, and ovary