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Head librarian at Alexandria during the 3rd century BC, was one of the early cartographers. Greated accomplishment = accurate computation of earth's circumference.. coined the term


The science of map-making, central to the study of geography


500 years after Eratosthenes; 2nd century AD; published Guide to Geography which included rough maps of the landmasses known at the time and a grid system

George Perkins March

1864; Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action - described 1st descriptionof the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions. Warned that people's willful destruction of the ecvinroment cojuld have potentially disastrous consequences ie desertification in the Fertile Crescent - advocated conservationist approach to natural resources;

Fertile Crescent

one of the first areas of sedentary agriculture and urban society - climate changes and overuse transformed it into dry desert

Carl Sauer

1925 geographer @ university of california; argued that cultural landscapes (products of complex interactions between humans and their environments); should be the fundamental focus of geographic inquiry

cultural landscapss

products of complex interactions between humans and their environments; proposed by Carl Sauer should be the fundamental focus of geographic inquiry

natural landscapes

landscapes unaltered by human activities - carl sauer agued even these had indirectly experienced some sort of alteration over history as a result of human activity

quantitative revolution

stressed the use of empirical measurements, the use of hypothesis testing, and the development of mathematical models, and the use of computer programs to explain geographic patterns; critisized for limiting the types of questions that are deemed important and for ignoring a myriad of cultural issues inherent in scholarly research.

Geographer's tools since the 1970s

remote sensing, GPS, GIS

Remote sensing

the process of capturing images of the earth's surface from airborne platforms such as satellites or airplanes


integrated network of satellites that orbit the earth, broadcasting location information to hand-held receivers on the earth's surface; highly accurate info about lat/long


family of software programs that allow geographers to map, analyze, and model spatial data; uses thematic layers and each layer consists of a individual map that contains specific features such as roads, stream networks, or elevation contours; unites multiple thematic layers to create one data rich map

Phyical geography

the study of spatial characteristics of the earth's physical and biological systems

Earth System Science

a new field of study over the last few decades = studies the interactions between physical systems on a global scale

systematic geogrpahy

researchers study the earth's integrated systems as a whole, instead of focusing on particular processes in a single space; they may study a particular phenomenon as it occurs across the globe, instead of focusing on the many phen. occurring in one unique place; climate change, biodiversity loss, desertification, El Nino

Environmental geography

where physical and human geography meet


human-induced environmental change


implies an approach to the environment that emphasizes restraint in the use of natural resources to ensure enough resources for future generations

W.D. Pattison

1964 University of Chicago; claimed that geography drew from 4 distinct traditions: 1. earth-science 2. culture-environment 3. locational 4. area analysis

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