Upgrade to remove ads
History Exam 2
Terms in this set (70)
True or False? In general, colonies are more likely to stay in close contact with London than their neighboring colonies.
Reasons for colonies not being able to communicate amongst each other?
Roads, dangerous, no postal service
Philosophical movement applied to educated classes and applies scientific principles to further our understanding of the world.
Turned to reason and rationality
John Locke and Rousseau
Changed the religious culture of the colonies, creating more and more splits within churches, and more and more new denominations
Freedom of religion
Edwards and Whitefield
The Great Awakening
Britain draws a line at the Appalachian Mountains to tell colonists to not move west- stay east. The goal is to prevent hostilities with the Native Americans
Proclamation of 1763
three laws (sugar, quartering, stamp acts) passed under Prime minister who?
First major effort of Britain to draw revenue from colonies.
Tax on sugar and other certain luxury items
Cut down on molasses- > CRACK DOWN on smuggling (increase revenue for Britain)
The Sugar Act of 1764 (Revenue Act)
Colonists must pay for standing armies; hardest for New York
The Quartering Act of 1765
"revenue stamps" which is a tax on paper goods
First tax levied directly on individuals
Taxation without representation
The Stamp Act
What three things came out of The Stamp Act?
1) Stamp Act Congress- only their own elected representative had authority to approve taxes- political sharing of opposition
2)Sons and Daughters of Liberty-initmidate, tarr and feather officials- radical ""
3) Boycott of British Imports- Will not buy British goods. pragmatic ""
Passed in the repeal of the Stamp Act.
Parliament can tax and make laws for colonies "in all cases whatsoever."
Declaratory Act of 1766
Punishment for New York defying Quartering Act
Created new taxes on things like tea, glass, paper
British can search private homes- smuggled goods
Eventually repealed in the wake of Boston Massacre
Two people associated with The Townshend Acts?
John Dickinson (pamphlets) and
Sam Adams (whip people up- taxation without representation is illegal)
Gunfire from British solders,
5 colonists dead, 6 wounded
True or False? Boston is one of the most resentful cities.
Prompts Committees of Correspondence (COC)- keeps discontent for 3 years
Colonials attacked/burned British Gaspee ship that busts smugglers- > vandalism! Colonials tried in English courts
Responsible for resentment towards British to not die
Committees of Correspondence (C0C)
Allows British company to ship tea to suppliers
British tries to buy loyalty- "have cheap tea!"
COC tells colonists about act- propaganda
Tea Act (1773)
December 16- 16 colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians and dumped tea in the Boston Harbor
The Boston Tea Party
These acts were mainly aimed at Massachusetts, particularly Boston. The British called it the Coercive Acts while the Colonists called it what?
The Intolerable Acts
What were the four acts part of the Coercive/Intolerable Acts? First two affect only Massachusetts hint hint
Port Bill, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Expansion of Quartering Act
1)The Port Bill- Specifically Boston- Closes port until tea dumped is paid for
2) Massachusetts Government Act- People cannot meet unless approved from Royal Governor.
3) Administration of Justice Act- British officials accused of crime to be tried elsewhere
4) Expansion of Quartering Act- Expand troop buildings
Affects Quebec. No representative government. Colonials think theirs might be taken away.
Quebec Act (1774)
So what theories really pushed the colonists over edge?
Port Bill and Massachusetts Government Act
Called together to figure out colonial reaction to Intolerable Acts
First Continental Congress
Two actions of First Continental Congress?
1) Endorsed the Suffolk resolves
2) Declaration of Colonial Rights
Rejects Intolerable Acts and calls for immediate repeal. Begin to make military preparations
Petition king to deny Parliament's authority of internal colonial affairs
Whether or not they need British troops
Declaration of Colonial Rights
Colonial legislature tax on Parliament behalf
Any colony that contributes to British cause is not taxed as badly
Minutemen must fight in minute's notice.
Aim: arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock around Lexington
*British forces met by colonial minutemen at Lexington
Casualties- 247 British Casualties (73 killed, 174 injured)
88 colonial casualties (49 killed, 39 injured)
Lexington and Concord
What are the two distinct struggles?
1) Military struggle
2) Struggle over political aims- what IS the goal?
Where do we see the start of independence being brought up? (Even though opinions are split)
Second Continental Congress
Some actions taken by the Second Continental Congress are..
1) Declaration of Causes and Necessities
2) Olive Branch Petition
-King George dismisses it, passes Prohibitory Act
Decided at the Second Continental Congress; each colony gets troops (aggressive end of things)
Declaration of Causes and Necessities
Decided at the Second Continental Congress to ask King George Directly to secure peace and declare colonial rights (compromising end of things)
Olive Branch Petition
Essay advocating that the colonies make a total break with England.
Argument based on rationality
1) distance- 9 months to hear from Parliament
2) Being part of British empire= not good unwanted wars)
4) English culture? American culture? Def challeneges middle colonies
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Resolution introduced- declares colonies to be independent from Britain is July 2, 1776
Backs up Lee's Resolution and declares formal justification. 5 men on committee, three are TJ, Adams and Franklin. Adopted on July 4th
Declaration of Independence
1) Restatement of political theory
2) Listing of alleged crimes of monarchy
Two parts of Declaration of Independence
Contract based on happiness of people under it. Government must protect rights to life, liberty and prosperity
John Locke's Contract Theory of Government
The divided colonial population were the Revolutionaries/Patriots and the Loyalists/ Tories and the Neutrals (Don't care). Describe the first two!
1)R/P- start calling states states. Support revolutionary cause. Heavy concentrations in New England and Virginia
2) L/T- Supported British. Many NA
Two huge challenges for the colonies were what?
mobilization and finance
Problem with mobilization?
Hard to gather troops, arm troops, retain troops
Problem with finance?
Few states willing to contribute
Tried selling war bonds, tried selling printer paper money
"Home turf advantage"
Deep commitment to cause from supporters
Manages to secure support from foreign powers
Where does the Battle of Bunker Hill actually take place?
In this Battle, colonials run out of gunpowder on third time and there are 450 colonial casualties and 1000 British casualties
Battle of Bunker Hill (technically British victory but look at casualties o.O)
Massachusetts colonials drove Britain out of Boston
Siege of Boston
Colonials sought to remove British threat from above, win Canadians to their cause (doesn't go well)
Overall invasion efforts halted by British
Invasion of Canada
What two people besieged Quebec in early parts of 1775 and were later defeated in assault?
Arnold and Montgomery
Part of the Continental Army, responds by rushing from Boston to NY with as many troops
In the Battle of Long Island, who begins to unload huge amounts of troops onto Long Island?
Major General William Howe
In the Battle of Long Island, Washington and the Continental Army try to hold positions but ultimately suffer huge defeat. True or False?
What goes on during the Winter of 1776?
Christmas night- US troops cross Delaware and attack Hessian (support British( near Trenton)
Move to Princeton- push out British
Unable to hold down either town and eventually settle for the winter around Morristown NJ
Goal: Cut New England from the rest of the states using a multi-pronged attack
1) Down the Hudson from Canada
2) Up the Hudson from NYC
3) Down the Mohawk River toward Albany
British Setbacks and Blunders
Who takes Fort Ticonderoga but ends up surrounded at Saratoga?
He is forced to surrender on October 7 and British no longer have military advantage. Colonists sign official alliance with France
John Burgoyne and the Plan to Bisect the Colonies
British army officer?
John Burgoyne (only has two forces because Howe abandons plan and takes Philly instead)
What generally happened at Saratoga?
British got defeated
Burgoyne surrenders (no british military advantage)
What does the British defeat mean?
Convinces French that the revolutionary cause was viable
What two treaties come out of the French Alliance?
1) Treaty of Amity and Commerce
2) Treaty of Alliance
Spain and France joined the U.S. side
Negotiates relationship between France and U.S.
-See U.S. is independent
Treaty of Amity and Commerce
1) Both sides will fight until British recognize independence
2) Neither side will sign a peace treaty without others consent
3) Neither will take each others territory
Treaty of Alliance
The French alliance results in what?
Fighting in Europe and giving the U.S. a navy
Spain will join forces with France
British declare war on Dutch because they continue trading with France and U.S.
South- cash crops
Charles Cornwallis is in charge of operations fort the British
Charleston surrenders to British, conflict spreads
Britain's Southern Strategy
In charge of operations for the British
In charge of US forces in South- Change tactics! Divide U.S. forces to avoid open battles- wild goose chases!
Nathaniel Greene and a change of strategy
Final blow to British war cause. "End of revolutionary war."
(at the Battle of Gilferd Courthouse)
U.S can't make peace without French so they send emissaries and Ben Franklin helped calm French even though U.S. technically broke treaty. True or False?
What did the Treaty of Paris do?
1) clear-cut independence, territory from Canada to N. Florida and from Atlantic to Mississippi River
Also fishing rights off coast of Canada
2)U.S. agreed to honor loyalists claim for property confiscated during work
Also pay off all debts to British merchants
Three things that came out of Notable and Lasting Effects of the Revolution
1) Aristocratic titles abolished
2) Separation of church and state
3) Slavery survives intact
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
APUSH Chapter 5 Key Terms & People
chapter 4-American History
APUSH CH. 5 KEYS
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
OT Mental Health Practice with Adults
TBI AOTA Exam Prep
Spinal Cord Injury AOTA Exam Prep