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APUSH Unit 2 Vocabulary Terms
Terms in this set (61)
Sugar Act of 1764
Definition: reduced tax on molasses from 6 pence to 3 pence, but put tax on wine, coffee
Cause: regulate trade to the benefit of Britain revenue to defray cost of garrisons in America
Effect: viewed as internal tax without consent by colonial legislatures. Smuggling, boycott
Quartering Act of 1765
Definition: An act passed to help soldiers provide them with houses, beer, candles etc
Cause: To provide recourses for British soldiers during the war
Effect: Concerned how cost would affect their wallets and anxious about soldiers living with some of them
Stamp Act 1765
Definition: Parliament passed that every legal document and publication would have a stamp tax
Cause: To put direct tax on colonies, get more money
Effect: colonists lashed back violently, burned stamps, collectors rid out of town, hanged or tarred
Henry, Otis, Daughters/Sons of Liberty
Definition: A theory proposed by Greenville stating that every member of Parliament represented every British citizen, even the colonists
Cause: The Americans wanted some type of representation in the British parliament after the first series of acts were passed
Effect: The Americans thought the idea was silly
Definition: A representative would be present in the creation of laws for the colonies in the Parliament.
Cause: "No taxation without representation" after many taxes were passed in the colonies
Effect: Americans soon realized any representatives they would send to Parliament would get ignored.
Sons of Liberty
Definition: Secret organization in the colonies that would help protect the colonist's rights by boycotting British goods or led violent protests against British leaders in the colonies.
Cause: Largely caused by the stamp act
Effect: Led to the eventual repeal of the Stamp Act
Proclamation Act 1763
Definition: Prevented the colonists from moving westward after the French and Indian War
Cause: The British could not pay for any potential conflicts with the colonists and the Indians of the western areas
Effect: Colonists thought they deserved to have the land since they fought for it, so it raised colonial resentment toward GB.
Declaratory Act 1766
Definition: Parliament had full power and authority to make laws and statues of sufficient force and validity to bind colonies and people of America
Cause: Rebuild illusion of control following Stamp Act Congress and the repeal of the Stamp Act
Effect: Colonists happy stamp act was over but frustrated because this hinted more acts to come
A British politician who convinced the British Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts in the colonies
Townshend Acts 1767
Definition: Light import tax on glass, white lead, paint, paper, and tea, payable at American ports (indirect tax) right to use writs of assistance was reaffirmed
Cause: Britain needed to collect revenue and pay officials.
Effect: the colonists agreed of some nonimportation agreements, took the tax less seriously, and started smuggling goods.
Definition: A clash between Bostonians and the British troops in Boston
Cause: British troops stationed more troops in the colonies and colonial resentment towards previous British aggression
Effect: 11 Colonists were wounded or killed, and only two soldiers were found guilty o manslaughter.
Tea Act 1773
Definition: The East India company had a complete monopoly on the tea that was being sold to the colonies
Cause: Since so many people in the colonies were not buying British tea, the company had millions of pounds of unsold tea
Effect: Many pf the colonists saw this as a scam, and the smugglers in the colonies could no longer make a living
Committees of Correspondence
Definition: Township groups which issued a statement of rights and grievances and invited other towns to do the same.
Cause: Resistance and belief that the colonial rights were being overlooked after the Townshend Acts.
Organized the first committee of correspondence in Massachusetts. A member of the Sons of Liberty. Led the Boston Tea Party.
Coercive Acts/ Intolerable Acts 1774
Definition: A series of Acts passed by the British government after the Boston Tea Party.
Cause: British government wanted the colonies (specifically Massachusetts) to be punished for their behavior.
Effect: Colonists rushed to Boston's aid and eventually established the First Continental Congress.
Definition: extend Quebec's territory down to Ohio Valley
Cause: British needed somewhere to put the conquered French citizens they gained after the French and Indian war
Effect: Colonists lost some of their land, and the Roman Catholic Church was extended.
Massachusetts Government Act
Definition: British government took away Massachusetts charter and gave the royal governor all of the power.
First Continental Congress
Definition: meeting of delegates from the colonies to discuss ways of expressing colonial grievances.
Cause: In response to the intolerable Acts
Effect: More way of resistance showed up, including The Association
Defeated the idea in the First Continental congress that America should rule then self under the British crown
Definition: Complete boycott of British goods
Cause: Created by the First Continental Congress and they wanted to stop parliamentary taxation.
Effect: Violence towards non-supporters, and rejection from parliament.
German soldiers that were paid by the British government to fight against the colonists, and many of them only wanted to get money in America, not fight for the British.
Lexington and Concord
Cause: British troops wanted to seize colonial gunpowder and take rebel leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock.
Effect: Once the colonists were ready to fight in Concord, the British troops were forced to retreat.
Colonists who rebelled against British control before and during the American revolution.
American colonists that styed loyal to the British crown before and during the American Revolution.
Slang for "loyalist"
Second Continental Congress
Definition: A way to list the grievances of the colonies, and raise money for an army and navy.
Cause: Colonists needed a way to protect themselves after Lexington and Concord
Effect: Olive Branch Petition, Declaration of Independence
A previous officer and was selected to be the leader of the Second Continental Congress
Ticonderoga and Crown Point
Green Mountain boys took and looted the supplied in the British garrison at Fort Ticonderoga, and another detachment captured Fort Crown Point a few days later.
Battle of Bunker Hill
The British were trying to seize a larger artillery in Boston, so the colonists were protecting it by staying on top of a hill and shooting the brits as they come. Even though the Americans eventually ran out of ammo, they still considered it a victory
He helped take over Fort Ticonderoga and played a role in getting a British general to surrender in New York at the battle of lake Champlain. Because he felt like he wasn't getting enough attention for his accomplishments, he agreed to go over to the British army for money.
Wrote Pamphlets such as Common Sense, and the American Crisis that showed what was wrong about British rule in America.
A Best selling pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that would tell American colonists why they needed to gain independence fro Britain.
Right of Englishmen
Natural right given to English men they the colonists believed were being taken away from them
Power of the Purse
power committees hold to add money for certain programs, cutting spending on others, or completely end funding for some
The Regulators were a large group of North Carolina colonists who opposed the taxation and fee system imposed by colonial officials in the late 1760s. This political argument led to a battle between the colonial militia and the Regulators in 1771.
Writs of Assistance
A paper issued by a tax collector that is a search warrent
Internal v. External taxation
An internal tax is on things that many people use, for example, the stamp Act, while external taxation is tariffs being on things that travel in/out of the country
imposed on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers and thus protecting domestic industries from foreign competition.
a tariff imposed principally to raise government revenue rather than to protect domestic industries.
A Specific set of rights that every human is born with and they should be protected by the government
Social Contract Theory
A person social/political obligations are dependent on an agreement in the society they live in
A court without a jury and the verdict is guilty until proven innocent
Consent of the Governed
government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and legal when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
Richard Henry Lee
he made the resolution for declaring independence against Britain.
Battle were the colonists where vastly outnumbered by the British, and Washington was forced to retreat
British Military commander, and led the British troops to their victory at the Battle of Bunker hill, and a loss in 1777.
French military officer that led the British in to the battle . this Battle led to the French being allied with the Americans in the war.
Baron von Steuben
Was a Prussian American military officer who helped train the soldiers at valley forge
Battles of Trenton and Princeton
In the Battle of Trenton (December 26), Washington defeated a formidable garrison of Hessian mercenaries before withdrawing. A week later he returned to Trenton to lure British forces south, then executed a daring night march to capture Princeton on January 3.
Battle of Saratoga
Was seen as the turning point in the revolution because America got in an alliance with France.
Nathanael Greene was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia
Was a British military officer who led many victories, until he was forced to move into Virginia, where he would eventually get defeated at the battle of Yorktown
George Rogers Clark
soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the Kentucky militia throughout much of the war.
John Paul Jones
Scottish American sailor and the United States' first well-known naval fighter in the American Revolutionary War. "Father of the US navy" for his actions on British waters
Admiral de Grasse
French admiral that helped George Washington during the siege of Yorktown in the American Revolutionary War
Battle of Yorktown
One of the last battles of the revolution. America was in extreme debt. General Cornwallis was falling into a trap after being forced to go to Virginia because he needed supplies from Britain, but Britain wasn't there. The French and Americans surrounded Cornwallis and took his troops down.
signer of the Treaty of Paris, and first Chief Justice of the United States.
French officer who helpedrain and lead Americans into battle.
A place that holds authority over seas
Battle of Kings Mountain
victory in South Carolina for the Patriot militia over the Loyalist militia in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War.
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