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APUSH Vocab Unit 2 Part 2, APUSH Ch 7, APUSH Unit 2 Vocabulary Terms
Post French and Indian War.
Terms in this set (134)
Prime Minister of Great Britain during most of her conflict with America; attempted to appease the colonies by modifying the Townshend Acts and imposing the Tea Act, but he just caused tensions to escalate and boil over; forced to resign after the British surrender at Yorktown
Tea Act 1773
designed to aid the floundering East India Company and in fact made tea cheaper; however colonists felt that it broadsided colonial merchants and smugglers and was an effort to garner support for previous taxes
Boston Tea Party 1773
in a radical form of defiance, on December 16, 1773, sixteen men dressed as Mohawk Indians board three ships in Boston Harbor, carrying mainly tea, and dump their contents in the Harbor; as punishment, the Coercive Acts are installed the following June
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts 1774
acts instituted by the British as punishment for the Boston Tea Party; closed Boston Harbor until debt could be repaid, dissolved all town meetings in MA, and appointed British as all government officials
Quebec Act 1774
laid out the way in which the providence of Quebec was to be governed; included in the Coercive Acts, it displeased many
First Continental Congress
gathering of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies in; discussed action to be carried out in response to the Coercive (Intolerable) Acts, adopted a Declaration of American Rights, urged MA to arm for defense, adopted the Continental Association to boycott British goods
put forward in the First Continental Congress by Joseph Galloway of PA; the idea was to have the colonies stay with Britain and create their own Colonial Parliament, which would act together with British Parliament; due to the already well-established radical wave, the plan was narrowly outvoted by the Congress
endorsed by the First Continental Congress, it declared the Intolerable Acts void and null
created by the First Continental Congress to implement boycotts all over the colonies against British goods; it was highly successful and got common people involved in the effort for independence
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
issued by the Stamp Act Congress, it was a document that questioned Parliament's power over certain spheres, such as the right to levy taxes, and it stated the points of colonial protest in a orderly manner; main point was that colonists should be fairly represented in Parliament
Second Continental Congress
met following the First Continental Conference to begin regulating the war effort and to adopt the Declaration of Independence, put together by Thomas Jefferson, to be sent to George III
Olive Branch Petition
last stand, so to speak, by the Americans in an effort to settle disputes with the British in a peaceful fashion (if you listen to us we'll listen to you); King scoffed at it and wouldn't even look at the petition
Published the pamphlet Common Sense. Failed in life at marriage, business tried to found a school (but failed). Common Sense directly attacked the monarchy and proposed independence for America.
Richard Henry Lee
Member of Continental Congress, called for a plan of confederation for the future gov't of the US.
Closest person that the Confederation had to an executive head, was superintendent of finance during the final years of war. Started Bank of North America, which held gov't cash, lent money to gov't and issued currency. Expected to make a profit for Morris and stockholders, but ultimately depended upon a secure income for the gov't.
Washington's army stayed here during the winter of 1777-78. The extreme cold led to 2500 soldiers' deaths and another 1000 deserted the army.
Marquis de LaFayette
Part of the siege of Yorktown, prevented Cornwallis' troops from retreating, eventually led to Cornwallis' defeat.
Baron von Steuben
Served as major general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is credited with teaching the Continental Army the essentials of military drill and discipline
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Great Britain recognizes the independence of US. Boundary established on the west of the Mississippi River. Britain could only get the colonists to agree that their merchants would be able to collect debts from colonists " with no legal impediment"
Influential Enlightenment thinker, responsible for the ideas of 'unalienable rights' and these rights in clued the right to life, liberty and property
Colonial soldiers upset with constantly late pay from gov't saw the possibly that they would never receive land and money promised to them by gov't for joining army. Planned to confront Congress and threaten a coup d'état. Put down by Washington who read a letter to the leaders of conspiracy, after which, 'many of them [were] fighting back tears."
Democracy in the colonies
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Albany Plan of Union
Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies, especially to defend against the French in the French and Indian War; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown (varying levels of independence.)
Treaty of Paris (1763)
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
English statesman who brought the Seven Years' War to an end (1708-1778)
1763- conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area. (Native American's allies with losing French. Important because it was a large coordinated revolt between tribes--> caused a backlash in GB who didn't want tension --> Proclamation of 1763. First instance of biological warfare [smallpox infested blankets])
Writs of Assistance
It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
a young lawyer in Boston, argued that colonists should not be taxed by Parliament because they could not vote for members of Parliament. His idea: "No taxation without representation!"
They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.
According to this doctrine, the colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country; they should add to its wealth, prosperity, and self-sufficiency. The settlers were regarded more or less as tenants. They were expected to produce tobacco and other products needed in England and not to bother their heads with dangerous experiments in agriculture or self-government.
The British Prime Minister from 1763-1765. To obtain funds for Britain after the costly 7-Years War, in 1763 he ordered the Navy to enforce the unpopular Navigation Laws, and in 1764 he got Parliament to pass the Sugar Act, which increased duties on sugar imported from the West Indies. He also, in 1765, brought about the Quartering Act, which forced colonists to provide food and shelter to British soldiers, who many colonists believed were only present to keep the colonists in line.
Between late 1600s and the early 1700s, the British passed a series of laws to put pressure on the colonists (mostly tax laws). These laws are known as the Navigation Acts. Example: 1651- All goods must be shipped in colonial or English ships, and all imports to colonies must be on colonial or English ships or the ships of the producer. 1660- incorporation of law of 1651. it also enumerated articles, such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton, can only be exported to England from the colonies. 1663- a.k.a. the staple act of 1663- all imports to the colonies must go through England.
1764. Updated Molasses Act. The act was put in place for raising revenue in the colonies for the crown. It increased the duties on foreign sugar, mainly from the West Indies. After protests from the colonists, the duties were lowered. Smugglers were tried in admiralty courts.
A law that imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British foreign colonies into the North American colonies; it was aimed to reserve a monopoly of the colonies. This caused anger among colonials due to the fear of increased prices of rum, since they felt that the British West Indies could not meet the needs of the colonies.
Limited amount of paper money the colonies could produce--> colonists had to trade w/ gold and silver--> goes to Great Britain.
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury. (colonists felt that this violated their rights as British citizens.)
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.
Theory that claimed that every member of Parliament represented all British subjects, even those Americanswho had never voted for a member of the London Parliament.
In response to the 1765 Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia House of Burgesses to adopt several strongly worded resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax the colonies. Known as the Virginia Resolves, these resolutions persuaded many other colonial legislatures to adopt similar positions.
an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Stamp Act Congress
met in New York City with twenty-seven delegates from nine colonies in 1765; had little effect at the time but broke barriers and helped toward colonial unity; the act caused an uprising because there was no one to sell the stamps and the British did not understand why the Americans could not pay for their own defense; the act was repealed in 1766.
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech. (See Virginia Resolves.)
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Internal taxation taxed goods within the colonies and acted much like a sales tax. The Stamp Act of 1765 is an example of internal taxation. External taxation applied to imports into the colonies. The merchant importing the good paid the tax on it, much like the Sugar Act of 1764. Colonists were more accepting of external taxation ("legislation") and more opposed to internal taxation.
In 1766, the English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed the Declaratory Act. This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." It is important in history because it stopped the violence and rebellions against the tax on stamps. Also, it restarted trade with England, which had temporarily stopped as a defiant reaction to the Stamp Act.
Law passed by Britain to force colonists to pay taxes to house and feed British soldiers. Passed in the same few years as the Navigation Laws of 1763, the Sugar Act of 1764, and the Stamp Act of 1765 Stirred up even more resentment for the British. The Legislature of New York was suspended in 1767 for failing to comply with the Quartering Act.
In 1767 "Champagne Charley" Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Massachusetts Circular Letter
The work primarily of Boston radical Samuel Adams, this was a plea to all colonial assemblies to unite in their protests against the hated Townshend Acts (1767). The British government viewed the letter as a direct challenge to Parliament's authority to rule the colonies ended the legislative session. Patriots used the episode to heighten colonial fears over the British government's lack of respect for colonial rights.
Often called the "Penman of the Revolution" He was a Master propagandist and an engineer of rebellion. Though very weak and feeble in appearance, he was a strong politician and leader that was very aware and sensitive to the rights of the colonists. He organized the local committees of correspondence in Massachusetts, starting with Boston in 1772. These committees were designed to oppose British policy forced on the colonists by spreading propaganda.
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered.
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were provoking and taunting them. Five colonists (incl Crispus Attucks) were killed. The colonists blamed the British (tried and defended by John Adams, found guilty) and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
patriot of the American Revolution, second president of the US; president from 1796-1800; attended the Continental Congress in 1774 as a delegate from Georgia; swayed his countrymen to take revolutionary action against England which later gained America independence from the English.
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre.
The Gaspée Affair was a significant event in the American Revolution. HMS Gaspée, a British revenue schooner that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations, ran aground in shallow water, on June 9, 1772 near what is now known as Gaspee Point in the city of Warwick, Rhode Island while chasing the packet boat Hannah. In an act of defiance that gained considerable notoriety, the ship was attacked, boarded, stripped of valuables and torched by American patriots led by Abraham Whipple. This attack can be considered the first shot of the American Revolution.
Believed the tea tax was unjust, but disagreed that the colonists had a right to rebel. He angered Bostons radicals when he ordered the tea ships not to clear the Boston harbor until they had unloaded their cargoes.
Committees of Correspondence
Samuel Adams started the first committee in Boston in 1772 to spread propaganda and secret information by way of letters. They were used to sustain opposition to British policy. The committees were extremely effective and a few years later almost every colony had one. This is another example of the colonies breaking away from Europe to become Americans.
1770's-1782 King George III's stout prime minister (governor during Boston Tea Party) in the 1770's. Lord North's rule fell in March of 1782, which therefore ended the rule of George III for a short while.
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Tea Party
Boston patriots organized the Boston Tea Party to protest the 1773 Tea Act. In December 1773, Samuel Adams warned Boston residents of the consequences of the Tea Act. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials (Sons of Liberty) disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard.
The Acts passed in 1774, following the Boston Tea Party, that were considered unfair because they were designed to chastise Boston in particular, yet effected all the colonies by the Boston Port Act which closed Boston Harbor until damages were paid.
Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
After the French and Indian War, the English had claim the Quebec Region, a French speaking colony. Because of the cultural difference, English had a dilemma on what to do with the region. The Quebec Act, passed in 1774, allow the French Colonist to go back freely to their own customs. The colonists have the right to have access to the Catholic religion freely. Also, it extended to Quebec Region north and south into the Ohio River Valley. This act created more tension between the colonists and the British which lead to the American Revolution.
First Continental Congress
a convention and a consultative body that met for seven weeks, from September 5 to October 26, 1774, in Philadelphia; it was the American's response to the Intolerable Acts; considered ways of redressing colonial grievances; all colonies except Georgia sent 55 distinguished men in all; John Adams persuaded his colleagues toward revolution; they wrote a Declaration of Rights and appeals to British American colonies, the king, and British people; created the Association which called for a complete boycott of English goods; the Association was the closet thing to a written constitution until the
Agreed to by delegates from Suffolk county, Massachusetts, and approved by the First Continental Congress on October 8, 1774. Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal government, and prepared local militias.
1774 proposed the formation of a colonial union under a royally appointed president-general and popularly elected council. This colonial union would be able to pass laws subject to the approval of the the president-general and parliament. This plan was rejected by the continental congress (too radical).
The name Continental is associated to two congresses. The first is in 1774 and the second is in 1775. They both take place in Philadelphia. the Continental Congress brought the leaders of the thirteen colonies together. This was the beginning of our national union.
To abstain from using, buying, or dealing with; happens all of the time everywhere all over the world; labor unions, consumer groups, countries boycott products to force a company or government to change its politics.
The Boards of Trade
An English legislative body, based in London, that was instituted for the governing and economic controlling of the American colonies. It lacked many powers, but kept the colonies functioning under the mercantile system while its influence lasted. The height of the Boards' power was in the late 1690's.
No Taxation without Representation
This is a theory of popular government that developed in England. This doctrine was used by the colonists to protest the Stamp Act of 1765. The colonists declared that they had no one representing them in Parliament, so Parliament had no right to tax them. England continued to tax the colonists causing them to deny Parliament's authority completely. Thus, the colonists began to consider their own political independence. This eventually led to revolutionary consequences.
Nicknamed "King of the Smugglers" ; He was a wealthy Massachusetts merchant in 1776 who was important in persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from England. He was the ring leader in the plot to store gunpowder which resulted in the battles in Lexington and Concord. These battles began the American Revolution.
The over-arching theme of chapter 7 is how England repeatedly forced its laws and regulations down the unappreciative Americans' throats; and eventually led to bloodshed.
1. Following the French and Indian War, the British crown needed money and figured the Americans could help pay for the war.
2. Also, the economic policy of mercantilism dictated that England try to keep its hard money within the British Empire. So, laws were passed to restrict American trade.
3. The taxes and regulations that followed were not received well by the Americans, notably the Stamp Act.
4. Conditions deteriorated and radical patriots brought matters to a head in events such as the Tea Party and Boston Massacre. Even though most Americans would be considered moderates at the time, the radical patriots were the ones making things happen.
5. The culmination of the patriots' activities came at Lexington and Concord, when the American Revolution began.
Sugar Act of 1764
Definition: reduced tax on molasses from 6 pence to 3 pence, but put tax on wine, coffee
Cause: regulate trade to the benefit of Britain revenue to defray cost of garrisons in America
Effect: viewed as internal tax without consent by colonial legislatures. Smuggling, boycott
Quartering Act of 1765
Definition: An act passed to help soldiers provide them with houses, beer, candles etc
Cause: To provide recourses for British soldiers during the war
Effect: Concerned how cost would affect their wallets and anxious about soldiers living with some of them
Stamp Act 1765
Definition: Parliament passed that every legal document and publication would have a stamp tax
Cause: To put direct tax on colonies, get more money
Effect: colonists lashed back violently, burned stamps, collectors rid out of town, hanged or tarred
Henry, Otis, Daughters/Sons of Liberty
Definition: A theory proposed by Greenville stating that every member of Parliament represented every British citizen, even the colonists
Cause: The Americans wanted some type of representation in the British parliament after the first series of acts were passed
Effect: The Americans thought the idea was silly
Definition: A representative would be present in the creation of laws for the colonies in the Parliament.
Cause: "No taxation without representation" after many taxes were passed in the colonies
Effect: Americans soon realized any representatives they would send to Parliament would get ignored.
Sons of Liberty
Definition: Secret organization in the colonies that would help protect the colonist's rights by boycotting British goods or led violent protests against British leaders in the colonies.
Cause: Largely caused by the stamp act
Effect: Led to the eventual repeal of the Stamp Act
Proclamation Act 1763
Definition: Prevented the colonists from moving westward after the French and Indian War
Cause: The British could not pay for any potential conflicts with the colonists and the Indians of the western areas
Effect: Colonists thought they deserved to have the land since they fought for it, so it raised colonial resentment toward GB.
Declaratory Act 1766
Definition: Parliament had full power and authority to make laws and statues of sufficient force and validity to bind colonies and people of America
Cause: Rebuild illusion of control following Stamp Act Congress and the repeal of the Stamp Act
Effect: Colonists happy stamp act was over but frustrated because this hinted more acts to come
A British politician who convinced the British Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts in the colonies
Townshend Acts 1767
Definition: Light import tax on glass, white lead, paint, paper, and tea, payable at American ports (indirect tax) right to use writs of assistance was reaffirmed
Cause: Britain needed to collect revenue and pay officials.
Effect: the colonists agreed of some nonimportation agreements, took the tax less seriously, and started smuggling goods.
Definition: A clash between Bostonians and the British troops in Boston
Cause: British troops stationed more troops in the colonies and colonial resentment towards previous British aggression
Effect: 11 Colonists were wounded or killed, and only two soldiers were found guilty o manslaughter.
Tea Act 1773
Definition: The East India company had a complete monopoly on the tea that was being sold to the colonies
Cause: Since so many people in the colonies were not buying British tea, the company had millions of pounds of unsold tea
Effect: Many pf the colonists saw this as a scam, and the smugglers in the colonies could no longer make a living
Committees of Correspondence
Definition: Township groups which issued a statement of rights and grievances and invited other towns to do the same.
Cause: Resistance and belief that the colonial rights were being overlooked after the Townshend Acts.
Organized the first committee of correspondence in Massachusetts. A member of the Sons of Liberty. Led the Boston Tea Party.
Coercive Acts/ Intolerable Acts 1774
Definition: A series of Acts passed by the British government after the Boston Tea Party.
Cause: British government wanted the colonies (specifically Massachusetts) to be punished for their behavior.
Effect: Colonists rushed to Boston's aid and eventually established the First Continental Congress.
Definition: extend Quebec's territory down to Ohio Valley
Cause: British needed somewhere to put the conquered French citizens they gained after the French and Indian war
Effect: Colonists lost some of their land, and the Roman Catholic Church was extended.
Massachusetts Government Act
Definition: British government took away Massachusetts charter and gave the royal governor all of the power.
First Continental Congress
Definition: meeting of delegates from the colonies to discuss ways of expressing colonial grievances.
Cause: In response to the intolerable Acts
Effect: More way of resistance showed up, including The Association
Defeated the idea in the First Continental congress that America should rule then self under the British crown
Definition: Complete boycott of British goods
Cause: Created by the First Continental Congress and they wanted to stop parliamentary taxation.
Effect: Violence towards non-supporters, and rejection from parliament.
German soldiers that were paid by the British government to fight against the colonists, and many of them only wanted to get money in America, not fight for the British.
Lexington and Concord
Cause: British troops wanted to seize colonial gunpowder and take rebel leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock.
Effect: Once the colonists were ready to fight in Concord, the British troops were forced to retreat.
Colonists who rebelled against British control before and during the American revolution.
American colonists that styed loyal to the British crown before and during the American Revolution.
Slang for "loyalist"
Second Continental Congress
Definition: A way to list the grievances of the colonies, and raise money for an army and navy.
Cause: Colonists needed a way to protect themselves after Lexington and Concord
Effect: Olive Branch Petition, Declaration of Independence
A previous officer and was selected to be the leader of the Second Continental Congress
Ticonderoga and Crown Point
Green Mountain boys took and looted the supplied in the British garrison at Fort Ticonderoga, and another detachment captured Fort Crown Point a few days later.
Battle of Bunker Hill
The British were trying to seize a larger artillery in Boston, so the colonists were protecting it by staying on top of a hill and shooting the brits as they come. Even though the Americans eventually ran out of ammo, they still considered it a victory
He helped take over Fort Ticonderoga and played a role in getting a British general to surrender in New York at the battle of lake Champlain. Because he felt like he wasn't getting enough attention for his accomplishments, he agreed to go over to the British army for money.
Wrote Pamphlets such as Common Sense, and the American Crisis that showed what was wrong about British rule in America.
A Best selling pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that would tell American colonists why they needed to gain independence fro Britain.
Right of Englishmen
Natural right given to English men they the colonists believed were being taken away from them
Power of the Purse
power committees hold to add money for certain programs, cutting spending on others, or completely end funding for some
The Regulators were a large group of North Carolina colonists who opposed the taxation and fee system imposed by colonial officials in the late 1760s. This political argument led to a battle between the colonial militia and the Regulators in 1771.
Writs of Assistance
A paper issued by a tax collector that is a search warrent
Internal v. External taxation
An internal tax is on things that many people use, for example, the stamp Act, while external taxation is tariffs being on things that travel in/out of the country
imposed on imports to raise their price, making them less attractive to consumers and thus protecting domestic industries from foreign competition.
a tariff imposed principally to raise government revenue rather than to protect domestic industries.
A Specific set of rights that every human is born with and they should be protected by the government
Social Contract Theory
A person social/political obligations are dependent on an agreement in the society they live in
A court without a jury and the verdict is guilty until proven innocent
Consent of the Governed
government's legitimacy and moral right to use state power is only justified and legal when consented to by the people or society over which that political power is exercised.
Richard Henry Lee
he made the resolution for declaring independence against Britain.
Battle were the colonists where vastly outnumbered by the British, and Washington was forced to retreat
British Military commander, and led the British troops to their victory at the Battle of Bunker hill, and a loss in 1777.
French military officer that led the British in to the battle . this Battle led to the French being allied with the Americans in the war.
Baron von Steuben
Was a Prussian American military officer who helped train the soldiers at valley forge
Battles of Trenton and Princeton
In the Battle of Trenton (December 26), Washington defeated a formidable garrison of Hessian mercenaries before withdrawing. A week later he returned to Trenton to lure British forces south, then executed a daring night march to capture Princeton on January 3.
Battle of Saratoga
Was seen as the turning point in the revolution because America got in an alliance with France.
Nathanael Greene was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia
Was a British military officer who led many victories, until he was forced to move into Virginia, where he would eventually get defeated at the battle of Yorktown
George Rogers Clark
soldier from Virginia and the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the Kentucky militia throughout much of the war.
John Paul Jones
Scottish American sailor and the United States' first well-known naval fighter in the American Revolutionary War. "Father of the US navy" for his actions on British waters
Admiral de Grasse
French admiral that helped George Washington during the siege of Yorktown in the American Revolutionary War
Battle of Yorktown
One of the last battles of the revolution. America was in extreme debt. General Cornwallis was falling into a trap after being forced to go to Virginia because he needed supplies from Britain, but Britain wasn't there. The French and Americans surrounded Cornwallis and took his troops down.
signer of the Treaty of Paris, and first Chief Justice of the United States.
French officer who helpedrain and lead Americans into battle.
A place that holds authority over seas
Battle of Kings Mountain
victory in South Carolina for the Patriot militia over the Loyalist militia in the Southern campaign of the American Revolutionary War.
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