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130 terms

Kaduceus Practice C.N.A. Exam Terms

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MRSA
Methicillin Resistant Staph
CVA
Cerebral Vascular Accident or a "Stroke"
OBRA
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987
OBRA Intent
To improve the quality of life for residents in nursing home - residents rights
NATCEP
Nurse Aide Training and Competency Evaluation Program
Expiration of Nurse Aide Certification
24 months after entry into registry. Must submit verification of paid employment
Incident
An occurrance or event that interrupts normal procedures or precipitates a crisis
Accident
An unexpected, undesirable event
Locked Out
When unsafe or broken equipment is taged so it is not used
MSDS
Material Safety Data Sheets
R.A.C.E.
Remove, activate alarm, contain fire, extinguish fire
Safe Medical Device Act of 1991
Requires that the FDA be notified of any death or serious injury caused by a medical device
Texas Concealed Handgun Law
Prohibits carrying a concealed weapon in a hospital, nursing home or other health care facility
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration - Protects the employee
Aspiration
Breathing fluid, food, vomitus, or an object into the lungs
Syncope
Fainting
Microorganism
Living organisms so small they can only be seen with a microscope
Infection
A condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and cause harm
Pathogens
Disease producing microorganisms
Medical Asepsis
The absence of pathogens
Infection Control
The method used in health care facilities to prevent the spread of infection
Direct Contact
Touching the source of infection
Indirect Contact
Touching contaminated objects
Airborne Route Example
Inhaling small pathogens floating in the air.
Droplet Route spreads through
Contacting drops of secretion placed in the air through sneezing, coughing or talking.
Cross - Contamination
Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another
Handwashing is
The single most important measure in the prevention and control of infection.
PPE
Personal Protective Equipment
Example of PPE
Gloves, Gown, Mask
Biohazard Waste
Any waste product that has come into contact with blood, body fluids, or known pathogens.
Sweat
A body fluid that is not considered a hazardous waste.
Standard Precautions
Practices used in health care facilities to prevent the spread of infection
Standard Precautions apply to
Blood and body fluids, secretions and excretions (except sweat), mucous membrane and non - intact skin (of resident or nurse)
Transmission- Based Precautions
Recommended by the CDC to prevent the spread of certain highly transmissible, known or suspected infection that cannot be controlled by Standard Precautions alone.
The three types of Transmission - Based Precautions
Airborne, Contact, Droplet
Hepatitis B
Blood - borne disease caused by the Hepatitis Virus that can lead to serious liver disease.
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus - a blood borne disease that leasds to immune system damage.
AIDS
The final stages of HIV disease when the immune system falis.
When do you use Standard Precautions?
In the care of all residents to prevent exposure to diseases spread by blood and body fluids.
TB
Tuberculosis - an infections caused by the TB pathogen and spread by the airborne route.
What transmission precautions are used for TB?
Airborne
Drug Resistant Organisms
Germs that cannot be killed with the usual antibiotics and are difficult to treat.
How do organisms become drug - reisistant?
After prolonged exposure to low levels of antibiotics such as when antibiotics are overused or misused.
Contact Precautions
Practices used to prevent spread of disease by direct or indirect contact
Pediculosis
Head Lice
What is the treatment for head lice?
Medicated shampoo applied to hair and scalp and left on for 24 hours. Follow contact precautions. Check hair and and scalp for nits.
Scabies
Caused by parasite called "itch mite".
Scabies
Spread mainly by direct skin contact and can cause intense itching and multiple scab-like lesions on fingers- webs, wrists, ankles, elbows, underarms, waists, knees, or genitals.
Abuse
The willful infliction of injury, unreasonable confinement, intimidation or punishment with resulting physical harm, pain, or mental anguish.
Neglect
The failure to provide goods and services necessary to avoid physical harm, mental anguish or mental illness
Misappropriation of Residents Property
The deliberate misplacment, exploitation, or wrongful, temporary or permanent use of a resident's belongings or money without resident's consent.
Communication
The way we exchange messages with others.
Verbal Communication
What we say in communication.
Non-Verbal Communication
The messages we send without words such as facial expressions, gestures, nods, posture, personal appearance
Feedback
Acknowledging that you have received a message through communication- could be verbal or non verbal.
What is the most common way to send a message through communication?
Verbal
What is the most important way to send a message through communication?
Non- Verbal
What is a Communication Assistive Device?
A device useful for residents with sensory loss such as a picture board and white board.
Stress
A state of mental or emotional strain or suspense
Burnout
Total mental, emotional and sometimes physical fatigue.
Dependability
Working in a reliable and responsible manner.
Tact
The ability to say or do the right thing at the right time.
Normal daily range of fluid intake.
2000 - 2500 cc
Normal urine output daily range
1500 - 2000 cc
Physical Restraint
Any method or equipment used on or near the resident's body that the resident cannot remove easily and which restricts freedom of movement or normal access to one's body.
Do you need a doctors order for a restraint?
Yes, and it must specify the reason for the use of the restraint.
What is the normal range for an oral temperature?
97 - 99. Report if lower or higher
What is a normal range for an axillary temperature?
96 - 98
What is a normal range for a rectal temperature?
98 - 100
What is the pulse?
The rate of the heartbeat. How many heartbeats per minute.
What is a normal range for an adult pulse rate?
60 - 90 beats pr minute.
How can the pulse rate be described?
regular, irregular, bounding, weak, thready
What is a normal adult respiratory rate?
12 - 22 breaths per minute
What is the defintion for blood pressure?
The force of the blood against the artery walls as the heart beats.
What is a normal adult blood pressure range?
100 / 60 - 140 / 90
Define objective observation
A sign or symptom that you can actually see, hear or feel or smell.
Define subjective observation.
Something that is desribed to you by the resident.
Urgent report
A report of something you have discovered that must be given immediately such as a slow pulse rate, blood in urine, trouble breathing etc.
Routine report
A report that can be given at change of shift or when asked. May be recorded on flow sheet. Such as urinated x3 etc. Should be within normal range.
5 stages of Coping with Death
Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
Postmortem Care
Care of a person after death
ADL's
Activities of Daily Living such as eating, dressing, bathing.
ROM
Range of Motion
Active ROM
Range of Motion in which the resident assist with the movements.
Passive ROM
Range of Motion in which the resident is unable to assist with movement
What are the 5 Basic Human Needs based on Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs in order of most basic
Physical, Security, Love or social, Self-Esteem or Status, Self Actualization
True or False: security needs are both physical and psychosocial.
True
Fecal Incontinence
The inability to control the passage of feces and gas through the anus.
Stoma
An opening
Hematuria
Blood in the urine
Oliguria
Scant amount of urine
Polyuria
Abnormally large amounts of urine
Flatulence
The excessive formation of gas in the stomach and intestine.
Sterilization
The process which kills all microorganisms
Developmental task of infant
To develop basic trust(security)
Developmental task of toddler
Develops autonomy (self - discovery). Learns self - control
Developmental task of preschool
Develops initiative (ambition/drive) Explores world
Developmantal task of School Age
Develops industry (work). Gains skills.
Developmental task of teenage
Develops identity 9 individuality and sexuality)
Developmental task of young adult
Develops intimacy (close relationships). Starts family
Developmental task of middle adult
Develops generativity (productivity)Pursues career
Developmental taks of older adult
Develops ego - integrity (mature identity) Reviews own life and accepts own mortality
Compensation
Using a strength to hide a weakness (a person with hearing loss does all the talking)
Rationalization
Providing an acceptable but untrue reason for one's own behavior ( I am too sick to go)
Projection
Placing the blame for one's own problems on someone or something else
Denial
Refusing to admit that a problem exists
ABS's of behavior management
(A) Antecedent (cause); (B) Behavior; (C) Consequences ( effect or results)
AD
Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's Disease
a chronic progressive brain disease that eventuially destroys cognition.
Alzheimer's Disease
The most common type of chronic dementia
Urinary retention
Not emptying the bladder completely.
UTI
Urinary tract infection
Cystitis
Bladder infection
Pyelonephritis
Kidney infection
Renal calculi
Kidney stones
Urinary urgency
The need to urinate at once.
Catheter
A tube used to drain or inject fluid through a body opening.
Fecal impaction
The prolonged retention and buildup of feces in the rectum.
Dysphagia
Difficulty swallowing.
Hypoglycemia
Low blood sugar
Hyperglycemia
High blood sugar.
Hypotension
Low blood pressure
Hypertension
High blood pressure
Orthostatic hypotension
Low blood pressure when you stand up
NPO
Nothing by mouth
Mechanical soft diet
A diet where the foods are easily chewed and digested
Full liquid diet
A diet where the food are liquid at room temperature.
Ombudsman
A person who supports or promotes the needs and interests of another person.
Systole
The period of heart contraction
Diastole
The period of heart relaxation