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John Adams's midnight judiciary appointments

1800-1801 Adams used his authority under the Judiciary Act of 1801 to pack the courts with Federalist judicial appointments during the final two months and up to the last days of his administration. He believed a Federalist judiciary was necessary to offset an incoming president (Thomas Jefferson) and Congress dominated by one party, the Democratic-Republicans.

Judiciary Act of 1801

One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
Repealed in 1802

Yazoo Land Compromise

controversy over land that had been sold through the bribery of a state legislature

Marbury v. Madison

The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).

Louisiana Purchase

The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.

Justice Samuel Chase

Associate justice of the Supreme Court and signer of the Declaration of Independence, he was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1791 by Washington, and was impeached for his criticism of President Jefferson. Chase was defended strongly, and was later acquitted by the Senate.

Aaron Burr

Jilted presidential nominee, he duels and kills Hamilton and attempts to create a revolution in the West

Lewis and Clark Expedition

an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States

Chesapeake Affair

1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.

Embargo Act

Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south. The act was seen as one of many precursors to war.

Non-Intercourse Act

1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.

Macon's Bill No. 2

reopened trade with everyone, and if either Britain or France repealed commerical restrictions, America would restore the trade restrictions against the other

Battle of Tippecanoe

1811 Tecumseh and the Prophet attack, but General Harrison crushes them in this battle ends Tecumseh's attempt to unite all tribes in Mississippi.

Orders in Council

edicts that closed European ports to foreign shipping unless they stopped first in a British port

War of 1812

a war (1812-1814) between the United States and England which was trying to interfere with American trade with France

USS Constitution

warship which defeated the British Warship Guerriere in 1812 -- called "Old Ironsides"

Battle of Lake Eerie

Oliver Hazard Perry led a small fleet to meet the British on September 10. This battle ended when the British surrendered. Perry's victory forced the British to withdraw, giving the U.S. Army control of the lake and new hope.

Battle of the Thames

William Henry Harrison pushed up the river Thames into Upper Canada and on October 4, 1813, won a victory notable for the death of Tecumseh, who was serving as a brigadier general in the British army. This battle resulted in no lasting occupation of Canada, but weakened and disheartened the Indians of the Northwest.

Battle of Bladensburg

American Defeat in war of 1812 in Maryland. This allowed the Brits to enter Washingon (James Madison and wife fled to Virginia), and burn the whitehouse.

Battle of Plattsburgh

Battle where Thomas McDonough defeated the British in the North

Hartford Convention

Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.

Battle of New Orleans

Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached them

Second Bank of the United States

chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.

Rush-Bagot Treaty

1817; The US and British agreed to set limits on the number of naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes.

British-American Convention

gave America fishing rights in Newfoundland, fixed boundaries between Canada, opened the Oregon Territory

Transcontinental Treaty

Treaty signed in 1819 between the U.S. and Spain in which Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. and agreed to a southern border of the U.S. west extending all the way to the Pacific Ocean.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Supreme Court ruled that a private corporation could not be altered by the state.

McCulloch v. Maryland

Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law

Missouri Compromise

an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories

Monroe Doctrine

A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.

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