Criminal Justice Midterm Owens
Terms in this set (69)
US district courts exist
to handle trial-level federal cases
Which type of cases are heard in federal courts?
both criminal and civil cases
Which of the following are the three levels of state courts?
appellate, general jurisdiction, limited jurisdiction
According to your text's discussion on a unified court system, which of the following is NOT a goal of a unified court system?
having courts funded by local government
Why would a local court want to implement a centralized court administration?
it would not allow the political party in power to use those positions as "rewards"
According to the diagram, which two courts can appeal directly to the Supreme Court of the US?
circuit courts of appeals and appellate courts of last resort
A court-appointed special advocate is someone who
has no official legal training
According to Cole and Smith, what is the biggest barrier to effective justice for state courts?
the fragmented structure of the judicial system
According to the figure provided below, why is Georgia considered an "unreformed" court structure?
it has neither reduced the number of courts nor standardized their names
What is the main purpose of drug courts?
to help drug offenders overcome their addictions
Which of the following statement is true regarding work as a judge?
judges are usually able to set their own schedule and work hours
Which of the following is NOT a responsibility performed by judges?
In the US, the judicial system operates according to a(n)
adversarial system of justice
American judges often
take a pay cut in order to assume a position on the bench
In which role does the judge spend significant amounts of time behind closed doors talking to the prosecutors and defense attorneys?
The criterion for deciding whether evidence is strong enough to uphold an arrest is called
The court appearance of an accused person where the charges are read is called a(n)
Most felony arrests are decided by a(n)
An application to a court requesting that an order be issued to bring about a specified action is called a(n)
Which of the following statements best describes the method of judicial "nonpartisan election"?
judges run for election and are not endorsed by political parties
Which of the following is true about the bail system?
bail is sometimes set before the defendant has an attorney
In 1984, Congress passed the Bail Reform Act. This legislation authorized the use of
The practice under which judges grant releases if the defendant is employed and has roots in the community is canned
release on recognizance
Upon which of the following principles should bail decisions be made?
accused offenders are entitled to release on their own recognizance
Which of the following are NOT a factor in how the judge determines the amount of the ail?
admissibility of evidence gathered by the police
Which statement best reflects what have some critics said of the use of preventive detention?
it is unfair to incarcerate someone when we assume all offenders are innocent until proven guilty
In the case of United States v. Salerno and Cafero (1987), the Supreme Court decided that:
the use of preventive detention was constitutional
Which of the following is TRUE concerning the Russian legal system?
Russia's system is more severe than the United States
What did Amnesty International report about torture and intimidation in the Russia legal system?
it occurs at all stages of detention and imprisonment
What has been referred to as "the ultimate ghetto"?
The United States has a _____ court system.
Courts that do not try criminal cases but hear appeals are called_____ courts.
A problem with state courts is the overlapping____.
The ____ system involves a passive judge.
the ____ system involves an active judge.
In a ____, judges are openly endorsed by political parties.
When a judge oversees the "contest" between the defense attorney and the prosecutor, he or she has taken on the role of ____.
When judges work with attorneys outside of the public view, they are usually taking on the role of ____.
____ often retain great influence over courts by using court jobs to reward campaign workers.
The facts upholding the belief that a crime has been committed is called
The ____ makes the decision about whether to file charges for particular crimes and offenders.
Defendants state their pleas (guilty or not guilty) at the ____.
The amount of money specified by a judge to be paid as a condition of pretrial release is called ____.
Money bail systems disadvantage ____ people.
State courts have huge caseloads.
All courts in the US use a basic three-tiered structure.
At the heart of reform of state courts is the goal of making the process more complex.
The American legal system is based on a passive judge and jury seeking to find the truth as attorneys for each side argue vigorously.
The occupation of "bail bondsman:" is a job unique to the US.
It is easy for a poor person with little education to become a judge.
Judges have a variety of roles within the judicial system.
Judges selected based on merit must eventually face public elections.
After a suspect is arrested, he/she cannot be deprived of freedom until guilt is proven.
The criterion for deciding if evidence is strong enough to uphold an arrest is called probable cause.
Most felony cases are disposed of by dismissals.
Both prosecutors and defense attorneys can bring pretrial motions in court proceedings.
The Eighth Amendment to the US Constitution forbids the use of excessive bail.
Bail is typically determined within three hours after the arrest.
The bail system discriminates against poor people.
The bail bondsman is a non-profit actor within the criminal justice system.
The US has a dual court system.
Most criminal cases are heard at the federal level.
The geographic territory that defines a court's authority is called jurisdiction.
Trial courts of general jurisdiction handle only misdemeanors and lawsuits for small amounts of money.
Appellate courts do not try criminal cases.
Trial courts of limited jurisdiction have jurisdiction over all offenses, including felonies and appeals.
The fragmented structure of state courts is the biggest barrier to effective justice.
Few efforts have been made to reform state courts in the twentieth century.
Within the Russian legal system, people can find themselves detained for years awaiting their day in court on minor charges.