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midterm q1 syspath
Terms in this set (53)
type of mutation in ERB1 mutations
type of mutations in ERB2 errors
activated state of RAS
bound to ATP
function of GAP
activates GTPases to inactivate GTP bound to RAS
TOF ERB2 defect is associated with lung adenocarcinoma.
false. ERB1 assoc with lung adenocarcinoma
fusion of ELM4 with ALK gene results in what cancer?
end effect of ELM4-ALK protein
constitutive tyrosine kinase activity
HER2 is associated with what cancer
inhibition of EGFR and ALK is useful in what cancer?
resistance to targeted therapy(targeting ELM4-ALK fusion) in advanced lung cancer is due to
tyrosine kinase mutation (encoded by MET)
RAS and PI3k pathways is commonly involved in gain of function mutation. this statement is
in tumors with RAS mutation, RAS can completely substitute for what enzymatic activity that is associated with receptors?
tyrosine kinase activity
In cancers involving RAS mutations, tyrosine kinase activity is also required to produce malignant cell growth
false. tyrosine kinase activity is enough to elicit such malignancy. in fact it can substitute entirely.
the most common type of mutation in RAS that is involved in abnormality associated with proto-oncogene in human tumors
how many percentage of all human tumors are expressed by mutated RAS proteins?
15 to 20 percent.
pancreatic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma in 90 percent of all cases are associated with mutation of?
50 percent of colon cancers are due to ras. this statement is
30 percent of myeloid leukemia and thyroid cancer is due to mutation of what gene?
transient activation of RAS is due to
intrinsic activity of RAS. it is augmented by GAPs
NF1 gene impairment leads to what cancer
neurofibromatosis type 1
NF1 functions as
hairy cell leukemiam benign nevi and 60 percent of melanomas are malfunctions of what downstream factors of RAS?
between RAF and MAPK, which plays a more significant role in pro-growth signalling?
AKT pathway is activated by what factor?
PI3K is inhibited by what factor?
mTOR a sensor of cellular nutrition status is activated by what ?
what is the effect of AKT suppression on cell survival?WHY
enhanced. BAD causes apoptosis and it is inhibited by AKT. when AKT is supressed, there is disinhibition of BAD so there is no cell growth thus survival is enhanced.
AKT acts on FOX in the same mechanism that it acts with BAD. this statement is
what happens to AKT pathway when PTEN is mutated?
enhanced due to lack of inhibition of PI3k which is just upstream of AKT.
which among the these two mutations have better prognosis? RAS mutation-BRAF mutation
BRAF mutation. RAS does not respond well to chemotheraphy due to unpredictable changes to RAS proteins
chronic myolegenous-leukemia is associated with what gene mutation?
translocation of ABL to BCR gene
BCR-ABL produces its self stimulation by
stimulation via its tyrosine kinase activity.
the reason behind persistence of BCR-ABL mutant cells in CML despite chemotheraphy is due to?
stem cells harboring the BCR-ABL mutation which do not require BCR-ABL signal to survive.
Polycythemia vera,essenial thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis is due to mutation of RAF. this statement is
false. it is due to an error in JAK2/STAT pathway.
MYC FOS JUN . which of the following is most commonly mutated in human tumors?
MYC is present in what type of cells?
all eukaryotic cells.
quiescent cells are stimulated to proliferate via
MYC expression can be increased by
SNPs enhance enhancer activity hence higher likelihood of being transcribed.
3 mechanisms by which MYC produce hallmarks of cancer:
overexpression of genes involved in cell growth, increase in telomerase activity, reprogramming of somatic cells into pleuripotent stem cells.
when D cyclins are low, it is most likely due to inhibition of what specific growth factor?
Burkitt lymphoma is associated with what growth factor mutation?
type of DNA damage of MYC in burkitt lymphoma
MYC in Burkitt lymphoma:tranlocated ; MYC in breast, colon and lung cancer: ________
Hedgehog and WNT pathway transform cells via what molecule ?
how does CDKi inhibition affect cell survival?
increases cell survival. mitogenic signals does just that.
mutation in this checkpoint results to mutator phenotype
CDK4 genes are translocated in lymphoid tumours while _____ in melanoma, sarcoma and glioblastoma.
mode of action of RB
binds E2F transcription factors in its hyperphosphorylated state. regulates G1/S.
p21 is induced by?
p27 is induced by?
loss of function mutation in G1/S is due to silencing of what gene?
What specific CDKi is mutated in melanoma?
RB and P53 encodes proteins that affect what checkpoint
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