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Nutrition Final

STUDY
PLAY
A graph of the relationship between mortality (left axis) and body mass index is shaped like a(n)
J
Which of the following may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?
Oxygen Consumed
Which of the following is not a known side effect of having insufficient fat stores?
Elevated blood pressure
Jenny is 34 years old and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as "pear-like." John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is "apple-like." Why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative diseases?
He has central obesity
What is the approximate value for the thermic effect of a 2500-kcalorie diet?
250 kcal
The risks for dying prematurely are doubled when the body mass index first rises above
35
Which of the following describes the process of thermogenesis?
Generation of Heat
All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except
eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories
What is an emetic?
a substance that induces vomiting
All of the following are characteristics of anorexia nervosa except
in those who recover, energy intakes return to normal
Approximately how many people in the United States are believed to have eating disorders?
5 million
All of the following are features of the health risks associated with excessive body fat except
the risks are higher in black women than in white women
Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger?
apples
What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements?
it is too variable to measure
Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
Pregnancy increases the PMR
Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index?
It correlates with disease risks
Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
Fever
Typical foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge include all of the following except
Vegetables
What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight women?
23-31%
Diet recommendations for people with bulimia nervosa include all of the following except
eat colds foods to stimulate satiety
What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines?
Compliance is better
What is the best approach to weight loss?
Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
All of the following are hormones that promote satiety except
ghrelin
A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)
fad diet
As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?
1200
The dieter's typical responses to a high-protein diet include all of the following except
a slow re-gain of the lost weight
All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except
the number decreases when fat is lost from the body
All of the following are features of high-protein diets except
they provide for long-term weight maintenance
What serves as the body's chief storage site for lipids?
white adipose tissue
Which of the following is known to cause a reduction in fat cell number in mice?
injection of leptin
Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?
blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat
Aggressive treatment should be introduced in obese people if they have which of the following risk factors?
High LDL and low HDL
Approximately what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight loss for at least one year?
50
Which of the following is a relation of "spot reducing" to exercise?
No exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body
At any given time, what percentage of all U.S. women are attempting to lose weight?
35-45
Of the following, which is not among the recommended strategies for weight gain in an underweight person?
Forced awakening during the night for supplemental meals and snacks
Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?
it stimulates appetite and energy storage
Obesity resulting from an increase in the number of fat cells is termed
hyperplastic obesity
Features of the adaptive response to regular physical exercise include all of the following except
it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period
What is the primary reason that laxatives are generally not effective agents for losing weight?
they act on the large intestine rather than the small intestine
What is a precursor?
a substance that is used to synthesize another compound
Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian?
Broccoli
Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings?
Choline
What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?
Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism
What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite the modest vitamin C concentration?
Potatoes
General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except
they must be consumed daily
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of
Vitamin A
Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue?
Pig
The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of
folate
Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?
Broccoli
Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?
some anticancer drugs
A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?
Niacin
What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting from folate deficiency?
Since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning
Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?
It is efficiently recycled in the body
What is a chief function of the B vitamins?
Coenzyme participation
Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to
ultraviolet light
Biotin can be synthesized by
intestinal bacteria
All of the following are features of vitamin B6 metabolism except
it enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein
Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin?
energy release from energy-yielding nutrients
Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?
They have similar structures similar to Vitamin A
Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?
3
All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except
gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults
The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of
polyunsaturated fatty acids
What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?
eliminator
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
exposure to sunlight
Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin?
Cyanocobalamin
The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population group?
newborns
What is the adult AI for vitamin K?
90-120 mg
The plant version of vitamin D is known as
ergocalciferol
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?
Beta-carotene
What is the Adequate Intake level for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age?
5 mg
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?
promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?
consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements
Approximately how many children worldwide have vitamin A deficiency?
100 million
Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?
outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight
All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except
intestines
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E?
deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids
Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?
bowed legs
The approximate percentage of water in pizza is
45
Magnesium is known to be involved in all of the following except
production of red blood cells
What is hydroxyapatite?
the calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones
Approximately what percentage of the body's calcium is found in the blood?
1
The minimum amount of water that must be excreted by the body to dispose of its wastes is termed
obligatory water excretion
How does antidiuretic hormone function?
it stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?
dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
Salt-sensitive population groups include all of the following except
caucasians
All of the following are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract except
oxalates
What is the incidence of bone fractures in African American women in comparison with Caucasian women?
one-half as much
How much calcium would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?
250 mg
The outer, hard shell of bone is called
cortical bone
How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g?
1000 mg
Why are salt tablets generally not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?
they can induce dehydration
Calcium-binding protein acts within the
intestines
The normal blood pH range is approximately
7.35-7.45
Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?
acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except
lactose in the diet
Common side effects of taking a high-dose calcium supplement include all of the following except
increased iron absorption
Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following is most responsible for maintaining her blood calcium levels in the normal range?
parathyroid hormone
What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products?
500
Among the following groups, which has the highest percentage of body water?
children
Among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcium-dense?
calcium carbonate
Which of the following is not a function of water in the body?
source of energy
All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration except
spastic muscles
What component of soy is thought to account for most of its beneficial effects on bone health?
phytochemicals
The primary mechanism by which soy consumption may lower the risk for osteoporosis is related to
the estrogen-like activity of soy phytochemicals
Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates?
spinach and sweet potatoes
Which of the following is a feature of calcium supplements?
common antacids are used as a source of calcium
What percentage of a person's total sodium intake derives from naturally occurring food sodium?
10
Sulfur is present in practically all
proteins
Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?
higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness
All of the following are characteristics of dolomite supplements except
they are usually sold as a very pure product
Which of the following is characteristic of calcium nutrition in teenagers?
the intake of calcium is higher in boys than girls because they eat more food
What is the force that moves water into a space where a solute is more concentrated?
osmotic pressure
Antiresorptive drug treatments for osteoporosis work primarily by
inhibiting the activities of the bone-degrading cells
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for salt?
1 teaspoon
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
sodium and chloride
All of the following are typical ingredients in an oral rehydration therapy formula except
protein
What is the minimum water intake for a 65-kg adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcalories?
2500 mL
Under which of the following conditions are certain supplements of zinc reported to be beneficial?
in the treatment of toxicity from certain other metals
What is the adult RDA for iodine?
150 mg
Which of the following foods are known to contain goitrogens?
cauliflower and broccoli
Your uncle Carlos has survived two heart attacks, and recently asked if he might be deficient in selenium, which he had just heard is essential to heart health. You are aware of his food habits and explain that his condition could not be the result of a dietary deficiency of selenium because
selenium is prevalent in most food groups
Which of the following describes one aspect of iron toxicity?
among men in the united states, it is twice as common as iron deficiency anemia
Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?
foods containing Vitamin C
All of the following are classified as phytonutrients except
hepcidin
Which of the following is characteristic of lead in the body?
blood concentrations correlate with low IQ scores
Zinc is highest in foods that also contain a high amount of
protein
Approximately how many people worldwide are thought to be affected by iron deficiency?
1.2 billion
Evidence to date in animals and/or human beings suggests that normal bone metabolism requires all of the following trace minerals except
silver
What dietary ratio of iron to zinc inhibits zinc absorption?
greater than 2 to 1
All of the following are known to result from excessive zinc intake except
galvanized liver and kidneys
All of the following factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron except
calcium form milk
Which of the following minerals functions primarily in reactions that consume oxygen?
copper
What is the optimal fluoride concentration in community water supplies?
1ppm
Among the following, which does not contain the MFP factor?
spinach
Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?
hamburger
One of the thyroid gland hormones is called
thyroxine
Which of the following is a characteristic of chromium in nutrition?
whole grains represent an excellent source
Which of the following describes the role of protein in the diet of competitive athletes?
The need for protein in weight lifters and marathon runners may be up to 75-100% higher than the RDA
Which of the following is least likely to affect the size of the body's glycogen stores?
Type of supplements taken
Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?
Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise
Which of the following is a characteristic of oxygenated water use in athletes?
The oxygen in the water is without benefit
A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of
hypertrophy
What type of chemicals are DHEA and androstendione?
Hormones
For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least
20 minutes
Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?
Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned
Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed
45 minutes
Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by
putting a demand on muscles by making them work harder
What would be the minimum amount of body water loss necessary to bring about a reduction in work capacity of an average 165-pound individual?
1 1/2 liters
Which of the following describes fat utilization during physical activity?
Fat represents the major fuel source during sustained, moderate activity
Which of the following describes a characteristic of fat use during physical activity?
Athletes who consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet for even one day are at risk for depleting their glycogen reserves quickly
During the first 20 minutes of moderate exercise, the body uses about
20% of the available glycogen.
What is the minimum amount of fluid that an athlete should drink for each pound of body weight lost during an activity?
1/2 liter
In the endurance athlete, the first priority of nutrient repletion should be
fluids
How much time spent in vigorous activity is usually needed to deplete glycogen reserves?
2 hours
Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to rehydrate?
Diluted juice or cool water
Mary is 15 years old and has just joined her high school swim team. After the first three months of training and competing, her coach sends the team for mandatory physical examinations and routine blood tests. When Mary got home, she told her mom that she has sports anemia. Why shouldn't Mary begin taking iron supplements as a way to treat this condition?
The anemia is not correctible by extra iron intake
Which of the following substances increases in muscles during intense exercise?
Lactate
Which of the following is a known side effect of prolonged ingestion of excessive amounts of zinc supplements?
Copper deficiency due to interference with copper absorption
All of the following are recognized symptoms of zinc deficiency except
anemia
What formulation of zinc has been found effective in treating the symptoms of the common cold?
Zinc gluconate
You have just been elected mayor of Smalltownville, where the major source of drinking water is from wells. What major health problem would be expected among the children of Smalltownville?
Dental caries
Which of the following is a feature of zinc in nutrition?
Pancreatic enzymes are rich in zinc
Iron overload is also known as
hemochromatosis
Which of the following would most likely result from an excessive intake of iodine?
Thyroid gland enlargement
As far as is known, what hormone is dependent upon chromium for optimal activity?
Insulin
Which of the following is a common example of iron contamination in the diet?
Using an iron skillet to scramble eggs can triple their iron content
Which of the following is a prominent feature of mild iodine deficiency in children?
Poor performance in school
Which of the following is the most effective and least costly strategy for preventing an iron deficiency?
Eat small quantities of meat, fish, and poultry frequently together with liberal amounts of vegetables and legumes
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
Meats and whole-grain cereals
Which of the following is a characteristic of the trace minerals?
The amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition
One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of
carbohydrates
Which of the following is known as an iron-overload protein?
Hemosiderin
What is the primary function of the thyroid hormones?
Control the rate of oxygen use by cells
Which of the following characteristics are shared by copper and fluoride?
Both may be obtained from drinking tap water
Which of the following is a rich source of phytoestrogens?
Soybeans
What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
Iodine
Which of the following is an important function of selenium?
Inhibits the formation of free radicals
Which of the following is characteristic of dieting and ketosis?
Body fat losses on a ketogenic diet are not higher than on other diets of equivalent kcalories
On which organ or tissue does leptin primarily act?
Hypothalamus
What is the primary reason for the weight loss that accompanies high-protein diets?
Reduced energy intake
Fraudulent weight reduction literature refers to visually apparent lumpy forms of body fat as
cellulite.
To help maximize the long-term success of a person's weight-loss program, which of the following personal attitudes should be encouraged in the individual?
Strongly believing that weight can be lost
An important aid in any weight-loss diet program is to
increase physical activity.
As a new assistant in a weight loss research laboratory, you are given a tour of the mouse laboratory. Why is the leptin-deficient mouse much larger than its leptin-sufficient counterpart?
Leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
Compared with the past two decades, current dietary trends in fat and/or energy intake for U.S. adults include all of the following except
our higher prevalence of obesity is due primarily to excess carbohydrate intake.
Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss?
2000
Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?
Its blood concentration is very high in people with anorexia nervosa
The classification of underweight is defined when the BMI first drops below
18.5.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the body's major types of adipose tissue?
Very little brown fat is found in adults whereas more is seen in infants
Adverse side effects of typical low-carbohydrate diets include all of the following except
high blood pressure.
Which of the following is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes?
Lipoprotein lipase
The thermic effect in people who regularly consume a high-protein diet for 10 years would, in theory, prevent them from gaining approximately how many pounds?
10
All of the following are characteristics of food portion sizes except
reducing portion size has a bigger impact than reducing energy density as a means of lowering total energy intake.
When consumed in high doses, which of the following is associated with modest weight loss in people?
Pyruvate
All of the following are characteristics of the results of weight loss surgery except
medical supervision in the postsurgery period is required only for the first 6-9 months.
Which of the following would not be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual?
Eat a large number of small meals
To help prevent body fat gain, the DRI suggests daily, moderately intense, physical activities totaling
60 minutes
Which of the following is a general characteristic of sodium in processed foods?
Salted peanuts contain less sodium than cornflakes on a per-gram basis
What is the calcium Adequate Intake for young adults?
1000 mg
All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except
processed foods are a major source
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
Distilled water
Which of the following is a feature of potassium supplements?
Can cause toxicity
Which of the following contributes most to the weight of the human body?
Water
Which of the following is a symptom of potassium deficiency?
Muscle weakness
After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?
Sex
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus?
Involved in energy exchange
Barbara has been healthy up to the past couple of weeks, but since then has been complaining of considerable muscle weakness. Her doctor just received the results of blood tests, which showed that she is deficient in potassium. If Barbara continues her current habits of consuming a diet low in potassium, for which of the following disorders is she most likely to be at risk?
High blood pressure
What organ is the chief regulator of the body's acid-base balance?
Kidneys
What is the major intracellular anion?
Phosphate
Which of the following is a feature of water?
Generated from oxidation of energy nutrients
What is the body's most indispensable nutrient?
Water
Which of the following is a feature of osteoporosis?
It has virtually no effect on blood calcium levels
All of the following are features of bone health and smoking except
smokers adapt by increasing their calcium absorption and reducing bone resorption rate.
The magnesium present in mineral water has a bioavailability of about
50%.
All of the following are common participants in the regulation of body fluid pH except
oxalic acid.
The development of osteoporosis in men typically occurs at what age in relation to the appearance of osteoporosis in women?
10 years later
In a normal individual with a daily requirement of 500 mg sodium, what would be the sodium balance after an intake of 10 g of common salt?
Equilibrium
The duration of exercise warm-up and cool-down periods should be
5-10 minutes each.
A person engaged in physically active work in hot, humid weather and who wears a rubber suit to promote weight loss is at high risk of experiencing
heat stroke
Which of the following are common early symptoms of hypothermia in athletes
Mitochondria
A person who suddenly begins sprinting will exhaust the muscle's supply of creatine phosphate in about
10 seconds
What high-energy compound acts as a reservoir of energy for the maintenance of a steady supply of ATP?
Creatine phosphate
The recommended amount of dietary carbohydrate (g/kg body weight) for an athlete training for a marathon is approximately
8
What is the recommended composition of the postgame meal of the athlete?
High-carbohydrate
For optimal performance of endurance athletes, sports nutritionists recommend approximately how much dietary fat energy?
20-30%
How can water loss from the body be quickly estimated at the end of a physical activity?
it is rarely fatal
A person engaging in exercise at a moderate level should walk at a speed of one mile per
quarter hour
Physical performance is noticeably affected when body water loss first reaches
2%
Which of the following is not derived directly from cardiorespiratory conditioning?
Increased flexibility
The volume of blood ejected by the heart each minute is known as the
cardiac output
Which of the following is a benefit of glucose polymer sports drinks as compared with sugar-containing drinks?
They attract less water in the GI tract and thus allow more water to remain in circulation
An athlete who believes in soda loading as a means of improving performance would, right before the event, consume
sodium bicarbonate
Which of the following is an effect of physical fitness on fat metabolism?
Fatty acid concentrations in the blood rise significantly after the first 20 minutes of physical activity
Hyponatremia refers to low blood levels of
sodium
The optimal carbohydrate concentration of sports drinks for the endurance athlete is
6-8%.
Which of the following is a feature of iodine in nutrition?
Processed foods in the United States do not use iodized salt
The most common tests to diagnose iron deficiency include all of the following measures except
DNA content of red blood cells
Which of the following fruits are known to contain substances that inhibit the functioning of the thyroid gland?
Peaches and strawberries
Approximately how much higher is the RDA for iron for a vegetarian woman of childbearing age compared with her nonvegetarian counterpart?
80%
What mineral is part of vitamin B12?
Cobalt
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to copper deficiency?
Excess zinc
Which of the following mechanisms explains why fluoride is effective in controlling tooth decay?
It helps form decay-resistant fluorapatite
All of the following are body proteins directly involved in iron metabolism except
metallothionein
All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except
MFP factor
What term designates foods that contain nonnutrient substances which may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition?
Functional foods
What is the RDA for iron for females 19-50 years old?
18 mg
Which of the following would represent a source of possible iron contamination?
Poor nutrition
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition?
On average, women do not eat enough iron-containing foods
What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?
Increase in its size to trap more iodine
What trace element is part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase?
What trace element is part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase?
What trace element is part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase?
Iron-fortified cereals
Naturally occurring food sources of fluoride include all of the following except
Naturally occurring food sources of fluoride include all of the following except
Chromium deficiency is characterized by
hyperglycemia
All of the following are chief storage sites for surplus iron except the
muscle
What is the oxygen carrying protein of muscle cells?
Myoglobin
Which of the following is a feature of the disorder hereditary hemochromatosis?
It is the most common genetic disorder in the United States
The erythrocyte protoporphyrin level is used as an indicator of
late iron deficiency
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for fluoride?
10 mg
Which of the following symptoms would ordinarily not be found in individuals with iron-deficiency anemia?
Diminished sense of smell
A child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
red meat
You have just been hired by the World Health Organization to promote nutrition education and policies in a small country in Asia, whose population has a high prevalence of goiter. Which of the following policies would be the best to implement with respect to iodine status, cost, and efficiency?
Fortify the salt with iodine
Under normal circumstances, what is the average percentage of dietary iron that is absorbed?
18
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for copper?
10 mg
What is the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances?
Pica
Which of the following individuals would most likely need an iron supplement?
Pregnant female
What is the function of MFP factor?
Enhances iron absorption
What nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism?
Iodine
Approximately how much iron would be provided by a balanced diet supplying 2000 kcalories?
12 mg
Which of the following is a feature of iron absorption?
It is higher in people with iron deficiency
Which of the following represents the order of the stages of iron deficiency?
Iron stores decline - iron transport diminishes - hemoglobin synthesis falls
All of the following are considered heavy metals except
iron
Which of the following nutrients enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract?
Vitamin C
Common terms that describe the body's accumulation of excess iron include all of the following except
hemoglobinemia
Which of the following minerals undergoes enteropancreatic circulation during normal metabolism?
Zinc
What are the known effects of raising animals on diets containing retinoic acid as the only source of vitamin A?
Blindness develops
A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following except
bananas
Keratinization of lung cells may result from
deficiency of vitamin A
The major form of vitamin K in foods is known as
phylloquinone
What is a free radical?
A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
To decrease risk for vitamin A toxicity-related birth defects, it is suggested that pregnant women limit vitamin A supplements to less than
4 times RDA
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin A in foods?
Chlorophyll in dark green leafy vegetables masks the presence of beta-carotene
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)
antioxidant
Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?
Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet
Which of the following is a characteristic of free radicals?
They arise from normal metabolic reactions
Which of the following describes an association of vitamin A and vision?
Light causes retinal to shift from a cis to a trans configuration
In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
Skeletal
Which of the following disorders may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
Erythrocyte hemolysis
Why are vitamin E deficiencies rarely observed in human beings?
The vitamin is widespread in foods
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D synthesis?
Dark-skinned people require longer sunlight exposure than light-skinned people to synthesize equivalent amounts of vitamin D
Which of the following is known to require vitamin K for its synthesis?
Prothrombin
Recently, there has been a lot of news about the importance of antioxidants in the diet. Which of the following vitamins has been noted as preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins?.
E
What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?
Newborns
Approximately what percentage of the body's store of vitamin K is derived from GI tract bacterial synthesis?
50
Among the following, which contains the highest concentration of vitamin E?
Corn oil
Why are people with iron overload at increased risk for infections?
Iron-rich blood favors growth of bacteria
The most common cause of iodine deficiency is
insufficient intake of iodine from foods.
Which of the following is known to cause discolored enamel of the teeth?
Excessive fluoride in the water
What is the chief transport substance for zinc in the circulation?
Albumin
Approximately how much iodized salt must be consumed to meet but not exceed the RDA for iodine?
1/2 teaspoon
Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?
Shellfish
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron utilization?
Most of the body's iron is recycled
Which of the following nutrients has functions similar to those of vitamin E?
Selenium
What fraction of the total iron content of a normal diet is heme iron?
1/10
Which of the following is a protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues?
Transferrin
What is a glucose tolerance factor?
A small organic compound that promotes the action of insulin
What percentage of the iron in meat is nonheme iron?
60
Commercially available zinc-containing lozenges are advertised to be effective against
the common cold.
Zinc is known to play an important role in all of the following functions except
oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for iron?
45 mg
What is hepcidin?
A liver-derived hormone that helps regulate iron absorption and transport
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency?
People with anemia generally become fatigued only when they exert themselves
Which of the following is a common side effect from taking iron supplements?
Constipation
What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
Hemoglobin
Which of the following characteristics is shared by zinc and iron?
Proteins in the blood are needed for their transport