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A graph of the relationship between mortality (left axis) and body mass index is shaped like a(n)


Which of the following may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?

Oxygen Consumed

Which of the following is not a known side effect of having insufficient fat stores?

Elevated blood pressure

Jenny is 34 years old and has a BMI of 28. Her body type could be described as "pear-like." John is 55 years old with a BMI of 28, and a body type that is "apple-like." Why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative diseases?

He has central obesity

What is the approximate value for the thermic effect of a 2500-kcalorie diet?

250 kcal

The risks for dying prematurely are doubled when the body mass index first rises above


Which of the following describes the process of thermogenesis?

Generation of Heat

All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except

eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories

What is an emetic?

a substance that induces vomiting

All of the following are characteristics of anorexia nervosa except

in those who recover, energy intakes return to normal

Approximately how many people in the United States are believed to have eating disorders?

5 million

All of the following are features of the health risks associated with excessive body fat except

the risks are higher in black women than in white women

Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger?


What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements?

it is too variable to measure

Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?

Pregnancy increases the PMR

Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index?

It correlates with disease risks

Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?


Typical foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge include all of the following except


What is the range of body fat content for normal-weight women?


Diet recommendations for people with bulimia nervosa include all of the following except

eat colds foods to stimulate satiety

What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines?

Compliance is better

What is the best approach to weight loss?

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

All of the following are hormones that promote satiety except


A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss is known as a(n)

fad diet

As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight?


The dieter's typical responses to a high-protein diet include all of the following except

a slow re-gain of the lost weight

All of the following describe the behavior of fat cells except

the number decreases when fat is lost from the body

All of the following are features of high-protein diets except

they provide for long-term weight maintenance

What serves as the body's chief storage site for lipids?

white adipose tissue

Which of the following is known to cause a reduction in fat cell number in mice?

injection of leptin

Which of the following describes a relationship between leptin and energy balance?

blood levels of leptin usually correlate directly with body fat

Aggressive treatment should be introduced in obese people if they have which of the following risk factors?

High LDL and low HDL

Approximately what percentage of overweight people who intentionally lose weight are able to maintain the weight loss for at least one year?


Which of the following is a relation of "spot reducing" to exercise?

No exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body

At any given time, what percentage of all U.S. women are attempting to lose weight?


Of the following, which is not among the recommended strategies for weight gain in an underweight person?

Forced awakening during the night for supplemental meals and snacks

Which of the following is a feature of ghrelin?

it stimulates appetite and energy storage

Obesity resulting from an increase in the number of fat cells is termed

hyperplastic obesity

Features of the adaptive response to regular physical exercise include all of the following except

it stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period

What is the primary reason that laxatives are generally not effective agents for losing weight?

they act on the large intestine rather than the small intestine

What is a precursor?

a substance that is used to synthesize another compound

Which of the following would be a very good source of vitamin C for the lacto-ovo-vegetarian?


Which of the following is probably required in the diet of human beings?


What is the primary chemical reaction in which thiamin participates as a coenzyme?

Assists in removal of one-carbon units from compounds involved in energy metabolism

What food makes a significant contribution to vitamin C intakes in the U.S. population despite the modest vitamin C concentration?


General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except

they must be consumed daily

Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect the vitamin content of

Vitamin A

Which of the following contains the highest concentration of thiamin in muscle tissue?


The appearance of vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms may be delayed due to high intake of supplements of


Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C?


Which of the following is known to significantly affect the body's folate status?

some anticancer drugs

A low-protein diet in which corn is a principal food has been found to cause a deficiency of what vitamin?


What is the most likely explanation for the impaired functioning of the GI tract resulting from folate deficiency?

Since folate functions, in large part, in the process of cell renewal, a deficiency slows mucosal cell replacement, thereby resulting in decreased GI functioning

Which of the following is a property of vitamin B12?

It is efficiently recycled in the body

What is a chief function of the B vitamins?

Coenzyme participation

Riboflavin is most easily destroyed when exposed to

ultraviolet light

Biotin can be synthesized by

intestinal bacteria

All of the following are features of vitamin B6 metabolism except

it enhances physical performance when supplied at a level of 1 mg/g of dietary protein

Which of the following functions has a requirement for thiamin?

energy release from energy-yielding nutrients

Which of the following features are shared by Retin-A and Accutane?

They have similar structures similar to Vitamin A

Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue

How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?


All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition except

gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults

The major function of vitamin E is to inhibit the destruction of

polyunsaturated fatty acids

What is the role of vitamin E in the metabolism of free radicals?


Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?

exposure to sunlight

Which of the following is not a fat-soluble vitamin?


The effects of vitamin A deficiency are most severe in what population group?


What is the adult AI for vitamin K?

90-120 mg

The plant version of vitamin D is known as


Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body?


What is the Adequate Intake level for vitamin D in individuals around 20 years of age?

5 mg

What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D?

promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone

Which of the following is likely to induce vitamin A toxicity in adults?

consuming high-dose vitamin A supplements

Approximately how many children worldwide have vitamin A deficiency?

100 million

Which of the following enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?

outdoor exposure of the skin to sunlight

All of the following organs are required for the complete synthesis of activated vitamin D except


Which of the following is a feature of vitamin E?

deficiencies occur from inability to absorb dietary lipids

Which of the following symptoms would indicate a vitamin D deficiency?

bowed legs

The approximate percentage of water in pizza is


Magnesium is known to be involved in all of the following except

production of red blood cells

What is hydroxyapatite?

the calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones

Approximately what percentage of the body's calcium is found in the blood?


The minimum amount of water that must be excreted by the body to dispose of its wastes is termed

obligatory water excretion

How does antidiuretic hormone function?

it stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys

Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?

dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown

Salt-sensitive population groups include all of the following except


All of the following are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract except


What is the incidence of bone fractures in African American women in comparison with Caucasian women?

one-half as much

How much calcium would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?

250 mg

The outer, hard shell of bone is called

cortical bone

How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g?

1000 mg

Why are salt tablets generally not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?

they can induce dehydration

Calcium-binding protein acts within the


The normal blood pH range is approximately


Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?

acts as principal intracellular electrolyte

All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except

lactose in the diet

Common side effects of taking a high-dose calcium supplement include all of the following except

increased iron absorption

Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following is most responsible for maintaining her blood calcium levels in the normal range?

parathyroid hormone

What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products?


Among the following groups, which has the highest percentage of body water?


Among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcium-dense?

calcium carbonate

Which of the following is not a function of water in the body?

source of energy

All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration except

spastic muscles

What component of soy is thought to account for most of its beneficial effects on bone health?


The primary mechanism by which soy consumption may lower the risk for osteoporosis is related to

the estrogen-like activity of soy phytochemicals

Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates?

spinach and sweet potatoes

Which of the following is a feature of calcium supplements?

common antacids are used as a source of calcium

What percentage of a person's total sodium intake derives from naturally occurring food sodium?


Sulfur is present in practically all


Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?

higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness

All of the following are characteristics of dolomite supplements except

they are usually sold as a very pure product

Which of the following is characteristic of calcium nutrition in teenagers?

the intake of calcium is higher in boys than girls because they eat more food

What is the force that moves water into a space where a solute is more concentrated?

osmotic pressure

Antiresorptive drug treatments for osteoporosis work primarily by

inhibiting the activities of the bone-degrading cells

What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for salt?

1 teaspoon

When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?

sodium and chloride

All of the following are typical ingredients in an oral rehydration therapy formula except


What is the minimum water intake for a 65-kg adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcalories?

2500 mL

Under which of the following conditions are certain supplements of zinc reported to be beneficial?

in the treatment of toxicity from certain other metals

What is the adult RDA for iodine?

150 mg

Which of the following foods are known to contain goitrogens?

cauliflower and broccoli

Your uncle Carlos has survived two heart attacks, and recently asked if he might be deficient in selenium, which he had just heard is essential to heart health. You are aware of his food habits and explain that his condition could not be the result of a dietary deficiency of selenium because

selenium is prevalent in most food groups

Which of the following describes one aspect of iron toxicity?

among men in the united states, it is twice as common as iron deficiency anemia

Which of the following is known to enhance iron absorption?

foods containing Vitamin C

All of the following are classified as phytonutrients except


Which of the following is characteristic of lead in the body?

blood concentrations correlate with low IQ scores

Zinc is highest in foods that also contain a high amount of


Approximately how many people worldwide are thought to be affected by iron deficiency?

1.2 billion

Evidence to date in animals and/or human beings suggests that normal bone metabolism requires all of the following trace minerals except


What dietary ratio of iron to zinc inhibits zinc absorption?

greater than 2 to 1

All of the following are known to result from excessive zinc intake except

galvanized liver and kidneys

All of the following factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron except

calcium form milk

Which of the following minerals functions primarily in reactions that consume oxygen?


What is the optimal fluoride concentration in community water supplies?


Among the following, which does not contain the MFP factor?


Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?


One of the thyroid gland hormones is called


Which of the following is a characteristic of chromium in nutrition?

whole grains represent an excellent source

Which of the following describes the role of protein in the diet of competitive athletes?

The need for protein in weight lifters and marathon runners may be up to 75-100% higher than the RDA

Which of the following is least likely to affect the size of the body's glycogen stores?

Type of supplements taken

Which of the following is an effect of exercise on protein metabolism?

Protein synthesis is inhibited during exercise

Which of the following is a characteristic of oxygenated water use in athletes?

The oxygen in the water is without benefit

A muscle that increases in size in response to use is an example of


What type of chemicals are DHEA and androstendione?


For maximum benefits, cardiorespiratory endurance episodes should be sustained for at least

20 minutes

Which of the following are features of physical activity and exercise?

Exercise, but not physical activity, is thought to be vigorous, structured, and planned

Sports drinks begin to provide an advantage over plain water for athletes when their exercise periods first exceed

45 minutes

Athletes can safely add muscle tissue by

putting a demand on muscles by making them work harder

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