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Terms in this set (154)
Lived near the Mississippi River, 3000BC to 1700BC, extensive trade networks, mounds were elaborate burial sites, believed in some form of an afterlife; Cahokia was a large city near St. Louis with 30,000 people in 900AD
Cliff dwelling culture in the American Southwest, built their cities into the cliff sides, had many rooms, structures resembled apartment buildings, very skilled astronomers
Traced through the maternal line, Inheritance and social statue determined by the mother rather than the father
English religious group that followed the teachings of John Calvin and wanted to purify the Church of England of its surviving Catholic influences. Very strict, founded Massachusetts Bay Colony
Coureurs de bois
French frontiersmen that engaged in the fur trade. They lived far from other colonial settlements and learned to live with the natives
Armed force consisting of ordinary citizens that was used either to defend the colony or fight local wars with the natives, very important because lack of British military in the area meant that colonists had to fight for themselves
Vast estates along the Hudson River established by the Dutch that had a single landlord and relied on peasant labor, system was never successful.
Informal name for members of the Society of Friends, believed that God, in the form of the Inner Light, was present in everyone, were pacifists that rejected oaths, sacraments, and strict religious practices, founded Pennsylvania.
Small colony founded by Separatists (Pilgrims), first permanent English colony in New England
Sir Walter Raleigh
Obtained a royal charter for a colony, tried twice to found a colony in Roanoke, failed both times, second group of settlers disappeared, Roanoke is first English colony in America but doesn't survive
First permanent English colony in America, 1607, capital of Virginia for most of 17th century, first several years were horrible, disease and starvation killed most of the settlers, John Smith saves the colony, many conflicts with the natives, begins growing tobacco and becomes very profitable
Captain John Smith
Leader of Jamestown colony during the difficult times of 1607-1609, forced the men to work, made alliances with natives, worked with Pocahontas to ensure peace, saved the Jamestown colony from starvation
Business that resembled a modern corporation, people invested by buying shares of the company, each share holder had one vote regardless of the number of shares owned, first permanent English colonies in America were established by joint-stock companies
House of Burgesses
Early Virginian elected assembly that met with the governor and council to make laws and set tobacco prices, first convened in 1619, America's first elected assembly
Young men from England that came to the colonies to work, they had their passage to the colonies paid for by planters, in exchange, they would work for the planter for several years, at the end of their term they were set free and given land, money, and a gun
A colony directly controlled by the English monarch, governor and council appointed by the monarch, governor had a lot of power and elected assemblies did not have very much political power but held influence over the colonist themselves
Colony owned by an individual that held most of the political power, the identities of these colonies were often shaped by the owner and his beliefs
Separatists from the Church of England, sailed on the Mayflower and founded Plymouth in 1620, had trouble getting their colony started, saved by Squanto and his agricultural knowledge, very strict religious beliefs, celebrate the first Thanksgiving in 1621
Official that enforced the laws in the early New England colonies, usually a justice of the peace or a judge in a high court
Massachusetts Bay Company
Joint-stock company chartered by Charles I in 1629, controlled by Puritans that took the charter to New England to found the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the charter effectively became the constitution for the colony
Religious radical who attracted a large following in Massachusetts. She warned that nearly all of the ministers were preaching a covenant of works instead of a covenant of grace. She was convicted of the Antinomian heresy after claiming she talked directly to God. She was banished to Rhode Island in 1638.
Period beginning in 1660 that began with the restoration of Charles II to the English throne. Ended in 1688 with the ascension of William and Mary.
Political/economic belief that national power came was directly related to the wealth of a country in gold or silver. This belief greatly increased trade and fostered the belief that colonies were essential to national power.
Balance of trade
Relationship between imports and exports. Favorable balance of trade meant that exports were worth more than imports
Colonial staple crops such as sugar and tobacco that could only be shipped to England or an English territory under the Navigation Acts
Confederation of five native American nations all located in or around New York. Active in fur trade. Very powerful military and political alliance
War that devastated much of southern New England in 1675-1676. Began as a conflict between the Wampanoags and Plymouth but evolved into a regional war between all the New England colonies and most of the region's natives.
Most serious challenge to royal authority until 1775. Erupted in 1676 after Bacon and governor Berkeley couldn't agree on how to combat native Americans. Bacon burned Jamestown to the ground
Bloodless overthrow of king James II in 1688 by William of Orange and his wife Mary. They were invited to take the throne by Parliament.
Salem witch trials
1692 trials of women accused of witchcraft. Led to 20 executions. Signaled the end of Puritan control of New England
Most successful native uprising in American history. Pueblo tribe rose against the Spanish in 1680 and killed 21 missionaries, desecrated churches, and destroyed every Spanish building in the area.
Common law doctrine in which the legal personality of the husband "covered" that of the wife and allowed him to make legally binding decisions.
Crescent shaped blood cell found in some Africans. Helped protect against malaria but could also cause a very painful form of anemia.
System of slave labor where slaves had to complete certain assigned tasks every day. After the tasks were finished, the slaves had control over how their time was spent. Primarily used on rice plantations and was preferred by slaves because it gave some degree of freedom.
Simple language spoken by newly imported African slaves. Was originally a simple language all slaves could understand, but evolved into modern black English
The crime of criticizing government officials
New interests in science and philosophy that became widespread in about 1660. Nearly all enlightened men were religious moderates that were more interested in science than in religious doctrine. They favored broad religious toleration and valued logic over superstition.
Immense religious revival that swept across the protestant world in the 1730s and 1740s
A style of Christian ministry that includes much zeal and enthusiasm. Evangelical ministers emphasized personal conversion and personal faith rather than religious rituals and customs.
The act of appointing people to government jobs or awarding them government contracts based on political favoritism rather than skill. Often used by royal governors to control the colonial elite.
French and Indian War
War between France and Britain for control of North America. Britain conquered Canada and drove France out of North America in this war. Large expenses led to the taxes that provoked the revolution.
Inter-colonial congress that met in Albany in 1754. It urged the Crown to take direct control of all relations with natives. It also proposed a plan to unify all the colonies, but this plan was not accepted.
Boston printer, inventer, and politician. Published Poor Richards Almanac and Pennsylvania Gazette. Founded America's first Masonic lodge, Philadelphia hospital, Union Fire company, and University of Pennsylvania. Famous for his electrical experiments. Most famous American in the world by 1760, was influential in the decisions that came to shape the future of America.
A type of war involving men that were not professional soldiers. Also applies to guerrilla warfare, usually targeting civilians. Was very effective against European armies because they were trained to fight very organized European style battles.
Peace of Paris
1763 treaty between England and France that ended the French and Indian War. England gains Canada and Florida. France gives Louisiana to Spain as payment for help in the war. Major victory for Britain.
One of the most popular public officials in 1700s England. Best known as the war minister that organized the war effort against France in the French and Indian War.
Head of the British government between 1763 and 1765. Passed the Sugar, Quartering, Currency, and Stamp Acts. Provoked the imperial crisis of 1765-1766. Pitt's brother-in-law.
Ottawa chief who was responsible for the Indian uprising against the British in 1763-1764. The war brought together several tribes and captured 10 British forts.
Concept that the English Parliament represented all citizens of the empire instead of just the people that voted for them. Theory said that the colonists were represented even though they didn't vote.
Sugar Act of 1764
Placed taxes on Maderia wine, coffee, sugar, and molasses. Molasses was taxed at a rate of 3 pence/gallon. Was avoided because merchants could bribe officials for 1 pence/gallon.
Passes by Greenville in 1765. Imposed taxes on most printed documents and legal papers. MASSIVE colonial resistance provoked an imperial crisis.
Taxes on land, people, or sold items. Colonists thought that only colonial legislatures could pass internal taxes.
Import taxes or port duties. Colonists thought that Parliament could impose these.
Agreements not to import items from Britain. Designed to put pressure on Britain to force the repeal of unpopular taxes.
Sons of Liberty
Violent Boston artisan protestors. Defied British taxes and led violent protests and riots.
Act that declares the power of Parliament over all the British territories.
Townshend Revenue Act
Passed by Parliament in 1767. Taxed tea, paper, glass, red and white lead, and paint. Provoked the imperial crisis of 1767-1770. All taxes except tea were repealed in 1770.
Royal courts that handled disposition of enemy ships in war time. Also were responsible for regulation of colonial commerce and disputes between ship crews. Regulation of commerce was the most controversial issue of these courts.
General Thomas Gage
British military commander of Boston and the surrounding areas. Liked to use force to try and manage the colonists.
Wealthy Boston smuggler. His ship was named Liberty. He used his power and wealth to fund the Sons of Liberty and became one of our Founding Fathers.
Member of Parliament and opponent to the King. Won elections but was refused his seat in Parliament by the King. This led to protests and riots. These actions provoked a legal crisis in England.
Heart of the English legal system. It was based on precedents and judicial decisions. Courts offered due process through courts and juries. The jury usually consisted of local men.
Confrontation between protesters and soldiers that happened on March 5, 1770. Five colonists were killed and six were wounded. This confrontation sparked protests and riots. The incident was used as a rallying cry by the Sons of Liberty.
Committees of Correspondence
Bodies formed on local and colonial levels that played an important role in exchanging ideas and information. They primarily spread anti-British material and were an important first step in unifying the 13 colonies.
Slave girl bought by the Wheatley family in 1761. She was taught to read and write and published a volume of her poems in 1767. Visited London in 1773 and was freed on her return. She became an international celebrity.
Boston Tea Party
On December 16, 1773, the Sons of Liberty threw 342 crates of tea into Boston harbor. They did this to oppose the Tea Tax and to make sure that the merchants would not pay the tax on the British tea. They did all this while dressed as Indians.
Series of Acts that resulted from the Boston Tea Party.
Boston Port Act-Port of Boston closed
Quartering Act-Soldiers quartered in private homes
Admin. of Justice Act-Soldiers can be tried outside of Boston if they commit a crime
Mass. Gov't. Act-Overturned the charter of 1691
Quebec Act-Basically made Canada French again
First Continental Congress
Met in Philadelphia in September and October 1774 to organize resistance against the Intolerable Acts. Georgia didn't send a delegate. It defined American rights and sent petitions to the King. It also created the Association.
Boston silversmith that spread the news of the British movement towards Lexington and Concord. He was captured and Samuel Prescott finished the mission.
17,000 German mercenaries hired by the British to fight in the Revolution. They were the best troops on the British side but were beaten at the battle of Trenton.
Second Continental Congress
Colonial body that met in Philadelphia in 1775 after the battles at Lexington and Concord. It organized the Colonial Army, appointed George Washington as commander of the Army, and managed the war. It signed the Declaration of Independence in July 1776 and drafted and enforced the Articles of Confederation.
Author that wrote Common Sense. This pamphlet was against the British monarchy and supported colonial unity. It was very popular and sold over 100,000 copies in a few months.
One of the five men that was tasked with writing the Declaration of Independence. He was one of the Founding Fathers and was very active in early American politics. He was elected President and had a significant impact on America.
Declaration of Independence
Document written by Thomas Jefferson, with help from others, that established American independence from England. It listed the complaints against King George and established that all men were created equal. It was signed on July 4th, 1776.
General William Howe
Commander of British army in North America from 1776 to 1778. Won major victories in New York and New Jersey in 1776, but Washington regained New Jersey in his Trenton campaign. Howe took Philadelphia in 1777 but was removed from command after the British surrendered at Saratoga.
Veteran of the French and Indian War, named commander of the army by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 and won victories at Boston, Trenton, Princeton, and Yorktown, where Cornwallis surrendered in 1781. Unanimously voted as first president.
People in the colonies that remained loyal to Britain during the Revolution. They made up about 1/6 of the population.
Separation of powers
The idea that a free government should have three independent branches capable of checking or balancing the other two. These branches are executive, legislative, and judicial.
Patriotism and the willingness of a free and independent people to subordinate their interests to the common good and even die for their country.
The governmental theory that all political power must be derived from the people that are being governed.
State constitution that affirmed the rights of life, liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness. Condemned hereditary privilege, called for rotation in office, guaranteed trial by jury and due process, and celebrated religious liberty. Model was followed by many other states.
Constitution that called for a 12 man governing body led by a single president. All freemen who paid taxes and their sons could vote. Council of Censors was to meet every 7 years to make sure the constitution wasn't broken. Many people disliked it.
Each house was to be elected every year. Governor would be popularly elected and have veto power that could be overridden by a 2/3 majority. All free adult men could vote. Began with a Bill of Rights. Now is the oldest functioning constitution in the world.
Articles of Confederation
Series of resolutions from Congress that joined the states together. They were a precursor to the US Constitution. They were finally approved by all the states in 1781.
Unhappy American general that tried to betray West Point to the British. He felt that he was no being recognized for his heroic actions at Saratoga. His betrayal attempt failed and he fled to become a general in the British army.
The release from either slavery or involuntary bondage. Gradual emancipation was introduced in Pennsylvania and provided for the eventual release of slaves born after the law went into effect on their 28th birthday.
The act of freeing a slave by the owner. Slave owners were sometimes paid by state governments to release their slaves, although this was rare. Manumission was approved in Maryland and Virginia, among other states.
Idea that women were much more caring and better with children than men. Women were given increased responsibilities in the home, such as educating the children. Women were also responsible for encouraging patriotism.
A pioneer and settler of Kentucky. Along with 30 other men, he cut the Wilderness Road from Maryland to Kentucky in 1775. He was a politician for some time. He fought and died at the Battle of the Alamo. He became a folk legend and famous frontiersman.
Ordinance that established the Northwest Territory between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes. Adopted by Congress in 1787, it abolished slavery in the territories and provided that it be dividd into 3 to 5 new states that would eventually be admitted into the US as equal members of the Union.
A compromise that was made in the Constitution regarding slaves and representation. The compromise was that each slave would be counted as 3/5th of a person for the purposes of congressional representation.
Laws to postpone or delay something. Many states passed stay laws in the 1780s to delay debts because of the serious economic troubles faced by the country at the time.
An uprising of farmers in western Massachusetts in the winter of 1786-1787. They objected to high taxes and foreclosures for unpaid debts. Militias from eastern Massachusetts had to be called in to repress the uprising.
An economist and fairly radical founding father. He was an economist and proposed many economic structures for the United States. He was a Federalist and was the Secretary of the Treasury. He was very radical and was killed in a duel by Aaron Burr.
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
The Federalists were the supporters of the Constitution. They were upper class politicians. The Federalists included Madison, Hamilton, and John Jay. They wrote anonymous essays in newspapers to support the Constitution. Anti-Federalists were primarily poor locals that did not have the same access to newspapers.
The supreme law of the United States. It has a Bill of Rights that guarantees rights to all Americans. It established a republican government with a president, a supreme court, and a two house Senate. It was ratified by all 13 states by 1790. It has been amended many times but is still the governing document of the US.
Term used in the 18th and 19th centuries to refer to the western settlements and the supposed misfits that lived there. These settlements were filled with immigrants and represented the edge of the United States.
Understood in the early republic as the ability to live up to neighborhood economic standards while protecting the long-term independence of the household.
Work such as converting raw materials into finished products done by women and children to provide additional income for the household.
Elaborate system of neighborhood debts and bartering that was primarily used in the South and West where little cash money was available for use.
System in which farmers worked and lived on land that they did not actually own. It was primarily used by poor families that could not afford to buy a piece of land for their families to work on.
Treaty of Greenville
Treaty signed between the US government and the native Americans near Ohio. It was signed after Mad Anthony Wayne defeated them at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. It forced them to give about 2/3 of their land to the US.
Brother of Tecumseh. His religious vision in 1805 called for the unification of Indians west of the Appalachians and foretold the defeat and disappearance of the whites that had begun to overtake the continent.
Shawnee leader who assumed the political and military leadership of the pan-Indian religious movement that was begun by his brother Tenskwatawa.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle between Tecumseh's Native American confederation and a US army led by William Henry Harrison. The US forces badly defeated the Natives and destroyed Prophetstown.
A way of killing trees with minimal effort. A line is cut around the tree so that sap can not rise to the upper levels of the tree in spring. This causes the tree to die and fall down with little effort.
The name for settlers of the Western lands of the new US. They were frequently drunk and violent and had little value for education. Their appearance and behavior was appalling to outside visitors.
A Connecticut tutor that developed a device to remove the seeds from cotton with very little effort. The cotton gin revolutionized agriculture and led to an explosion in the production of cotton and a rise in Southern slavery.
Small farms of up to 5 acres where slaves could produce their own crops after they had finished their work under the task system. They could use the products themselves or sell them at a local market to earn money.
Cheap contracted work done by semiskilled outworkers that came to replace skilled artisans in cities. This cheap labor pushed artisans out of the market and forced them to become wage laborers.
The authority held by men over society. It began to decrease in strength as new jobs and unskilled labor began to change how society functioned. This decline meant that women and children began to have more opportunities to work and live without being controlled by a male.
The term used for the United States in the early 1800s. Large production of grain meant that there was a spike in the production of whiskey in the early republic. The average annual consumption of hard spirits was 5 gallons per person in 1830.
Granting the vote to all white men. Some states required property ownership to vote, but many states only required tax payment to be an eligible voter. 93% of free blacks were restricted from voting even though they lived in free states.
The belief held by many educated people that stated that God had created the world but didn't actively intervene in human affairs.
An event in evangelical churches that was a personal transformation that resulted from directly interacting with the Holy Spirit. This experience was a requirement for many preachers while a formal education was not required.
Belief that all theological and institutional changes since the end of biblical times were man-made mistakes and that religious organizations muse restore themselves to the purity and simplicity of the apostolic church.
Methodist ministers who traveled from church to church in rural areas because many communities didn't have established churches or preachers.
Ministers that didn't have their own churches and simply traveled around preaching to anyone that would listen.
Outdoor revival that ofter lasted for days. It was an important means of spreading evangelical Christianity in the early days of the United States.
African American Christians
Thousands of former slaves embraced Christianity. Informal storytelling and friendly preachers proved to be very attractive to the black community. The first large black churches were founded in Philadelphia and by 1820 there were about 700 all black churches in the US.
A very carefully planned but ultimately unsuccessful rebellion of slaves around Richmond and the surrounding area in 1800. The revolt was supposed to include over 1,000 men and drive all slaveholders out of the country. The rebellion failed when it rained on the appointed day.
A tax on all imports entering a country.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution that protect the rights of individuals to petition the government, write and speak freely, practice religion, have fair trials, and other essential rights. It was needed to get the Constitution passed by all the states.
Judiciary Act of 1789
A Congressional Act that established a six member Supreme Court, three circuit courts, and thirteen district courts. It made it possible for cases to be appealed and then tried by several different courts, with the Supreme Court being the highest court in the country.
Courts that meet at different places within a district. They aren't at a fixed location and often move around.
Report on Public Credit
A report by Alexander Hamilton that suggested that Congress assume the state debts and and combine them with the federal and domestic debts to make one unified national debt. The report suggested that this debt would be a permanent fixture of the government.
Internal taxes that are levied on goods or services.
A rebellion of 6,000 western Pennsylvanians that were angered by the new Federal excise tax on whiskey. They threatened to burn down Pittsburgh and were stopped by a Federal army led by Mad Anthony Wayne. Only two rebels were found guilty and were pardoned by Washington.
Bank of the United States
A bank chartered by Congress that would hold the funds of the United States government. It would print and back a national currency and would regulate independent banks in states. The stock of the bank would be paid for with specie, making the bank very important in the economy.
The process of abolishing a treaty so that it is no longer in legal effect.
A French citizen sent to the US to enlist American aid for France's war against the British. He opened French colonies to American trade, allowing American merchants a choice between shipping to England or France. His actions caused the British to seize any American ship trading with France.
A prominent politician that brokered many treaties and served as ambassador to many different countries. He was the first chief justice of the supreme court and was sent to Britain by Washington in 1794 to try to resolve disputes between the two countries.
Removal of American sailors from their merchant ships to serve in the British navy. It was a form of legal kidnapping that was regularly practiced by the British. This was a major issue between the US and Britain and was a partial cause of the war of 1812.
The act of charging a public official with misconduct in office. This process, if successful, leads to the removal of the official from office. This process is very rarely used against US presidents.
Incident that led to an undeclared was between the US and France. Before US negotiators were even allowed to speak to French diplomats, they had to pay a bribe of $250,000 and loan the French government over $12,000,000. The US diplomats simply went home.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Acts passed in the late 1790s that extended the naturalization period from 5 to 14 years, empowered the President to detain enemy aliens during wartime, deport dangerous immigrants, and arrest and fine those that wrote or spoke against the government. They generated enormous resistance from the Republicans.
A term used to describe Alexander Hamilton and some of his less moderate supporters. They wanted the naval war with France to continue and also wanted to severely limit the rights of an opposition party.
Vice President to Thomas Jefferson who killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel and eventually hatched schemes to detach parts of the west from the United States.
Chief Justice John Marshall
The chief justice of the Supreme Court that was committed to the Federalist ideas of national power. He laid the basis for judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of Congressional acts. He was also the secretary of state under John Adams
The name for any governmental action that takes place between the time when the party in power loses an election and the time when the new party takes office.
Federal judicial officials that were appointed under the Judiciary Act of 1801 in the very last days of John Adams's presidency. They caused a lot of controversy in American politics.
Justice Samuel Chase
A Supreme Court justice that was targeted for impeachment by Congress after the midnight judge incident. He was not very popular but was ultimately not impeached. He was partisan but Congress could not find enough evidence that he was bad to legally remove him.
Marbury v. Madison
1803 case involving the disputed appointment of a federal justice of the peace in which Chief Justice John Marshall expanded the Supreme Court's authority to review Congressional legislation.
The Supreme Court's power to rule on the constitutionality of congressional acts. It was established in 1803 by John Marshall in Marbury v. Madison.
Land purchase in 1803 that doubled the size of the United States. The land was purchased from France for $15,000,000 and was explored by Lewis and Clark. It was an extremely important event that shaped how the country developed.
An act passed by Congress in 1806. It was in response to Britain seizing American ships and sailors. The act forbade the importation of all British goods that could be either made in the US or bought from another country.
A government order that prohibits the movement of merchant ships or goods in or out of a certain country.
A prominent founding father and politician. He was an old friend of Jefferson and became president in 1808. He was one of the original Federalists and was instrumental in writing and passing the Bill of Rights. He was president during the War of 1812.
Macon's Bill No. 2
The 1810 bill that ended the ban on trade with France and Britain. The bill also allowed the president to reimpose the ban on one country if the other removed its restrictions on American trade. This bill indirectly led to war when France removed sanctions on American trade, meaning that trade to England was stopped again.
Members of the 20th Congress that promoted war with Britain. Many of them were young Republicans from southern and western areas of the country and were nationalists. They were able to gain control of Congress in 1812.
Massacre at Fort Mims
An incident during the War of 1812 when a group of Red Stick indians attacked a group of white settlers at the house of George Mims. The indians killed almost 250 white settlers and provoked anger from the US. This also led to Andrew Jackson slaughtering the indians the next spring.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
Battle in Alabama between Andrew Jackson and his Tennessee militia. They attacked the Red Sticks that had fortified themselves at horseshoe bend. The US forces slaughtered the natives and broke indian power east of the Mississippi forever.
A Federalist convention in 1814 that wanted to amend the Constitution. They proposed removing the 3/5ths compromise, removing the electoral college, denying naturalized foreigners the right to hold office, make it more difficult for states to enter the union, and make it harder to declare war. This disaster was the end of the Federalists.
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the War of 1812. It was signed on Christmas Eve 1814 and simply ended the war with no conditions. It was signed in the Belgian city of Ghent after the defeat of Napoleon spurred peace efforts.
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