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SLUH - Bone Physiology (general)
Terms in this set (68)
forms the long axis of the body and includes the bones of the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage;
bones of the upper and lower limbs and the girdles (includes shoulder and hip);
Locations of Elastic Cartilage
external ear, epiglottis
Locations of Fibrocartilage
Intervertebral disk, pubic symphysis, Menisci (knee)
Four types of bones
long, short, flat, irregular
bones that are longer than wide; shaft + two ends; named for shape - not size
type of bone that is thin and flattened, usually a bit curved;
(sternum, scapulae, ribs, and most skull)
bones with complicated shapes;
(vertebrae and hip bones)
type of bones that are as wide as they are long. (patella, carpals and tarsals)
Functions of Bones
anchorage/movement, mineral growth and storage, blood cell formation (hematopoiesis), fat storage
components of the axial skeleton?
skull, vertebral column, rib cage
what bone class do the ribs and skull bones fall into?
dense outer layer of bone
type of bone which forms Honeycomb type of shape (trabeculae). contains red marrow.
Tubular Structure of Long Bone (shaft)
marrow cavity in the diaphysis;
"yellow marrow cavity" in adults
Structure of Long Bone;
Expanded ends; outer shell of compact bone; spongy bone interior; epiphyseal line (remnant of growth plate); articular (hyaline) cartilage on joint surfaces
opening to the marrow cavity for nerve fibers, nutrient blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
cartilage forming cells
bone-forming cells in the periosteum and endosteum - secrete bone matrix
bone-destroying (resorption) cells in the periosteum and endosteum
"osteoprogenitor" - stem cells in the periosteum and endosteum that give rise to osteoblasts
mature bone cells that occupy space (lacunae) that conform to their shape
organic part of the matrix; ground substance and collagen fibers. (calcium phosphate is laid down on top of this).
Inner bone membrane
contains osteoblasts and osteoclasts
Honeycomb structure in spongy bone;
filled with red bone marrow. Gives inner support from all directions.
Red bone marrow (Hematopoietic cells)
Tissue where new blood cells are formed
found in spongy bone.
Haversian system (osteon)
system of interconnecting canals in the microscopic structure of adult compact bone; unit of bone; elongated cylinder functioning as weight-bearing pillar
a layer of bone matrix in an osteon of compact bone; mineral rings
Central (haversian) canal
the canal in the center of each osteon that contains minute blood vessels and nerve fibers that serve the needs of the osteocytes
small spaces, cavities in bone or cartilage which are occupied by cells
tiny canals connecting lacunae to central canal
dense connective tissue surrounding skeletal cartilage;
A dense fibrous membrane covering the outer surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles. inner layer contains osteoblasts for bone growth.
Most common type of cartilage.
gives support, flexibility, resilience;
(articular, costal, respiratory, fetal cartilages)
most flexible cartilage. stands up to repeated bending;(external ear, tip of nose and epiglottis)
highly compressible with tensile strength; high in collagen; (found in intervertebral disks and menisci)
Osteoblast in endosteum and periostrum produce new bone tissue. Increase in bone thickness.
Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within; Increase in bone length.
Describe how bones support
provide a framework that supports the body and cradles its soft organs
Describe how bones protect
the fused bones of the skull protect the brain; vertebrae protect the spinal cord; rib cage protects the vital organs of the thorax
describe bone anchorage
skeletal muscles, attached to bone by tendons, use bones as levers
Describe bones' role mineral storage
bone is a reservoir for minerals (calcium and phosphate mostly); stored minerals are released into the bloodstream as ions
describe bones' role in hematopoiesis
blood cell formation occurs in red marrow cavities in certain bones
describe bones' role in fat storage
fat (source of energy) is stored in medullary cavities
what is the functional relationship between skeletal muscles and bones?
skeletal muscles use bones as levers to cause movement
A smooth, rounded articular projection
Round or oval opening through a bone
shallow depression in a bone
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck, articulates with a socket.
Tubelike passageway within a bone
any bony projection (general term)
hollow cavity within a bone
sharp, slender, often pointed projection
Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (found on Femur)
Small rounded projection or process
steps of endochondral ossification
1. Development of cartilage model
2. Growth of cartilage model
3. Development of primary ossification center in diaphysis
4. Development of medullary cavity
5. Development of secondary ossification centers in epiphyses
6. Formation of articular cartilage & epiphyseal plate
Steps of fracture healing
1. hematoma forms
2. fibrocartilage callus forms
3. bony callus forms
4. bone remodeling occurs
bone develops from a fibrous membrane
Lowers blood calcium levels. stores calcium in bones.
increases blood calcium levels, Lowers calcium in bones.
complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone
ragged bone break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone
bone is broken cleanly; the ends do not penetrate the skin
break in the bone where the bone comes through the skin
Made of fibrous connective tissue. Connects bone to bone
Made of fibrous connective tissue. Connect muscle to bone
a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Knee Joint Label Exercise
Appendicular Skeleton Structures (visual)
Axial Skeleton structures (w/ visuals)
Long Bone Anatomy