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characterized by misarticulations

phonetic disorders

_____ are not cognitive linguistic(organizational) or perceptually based problems

phonetic disorders

irregular products remain consistent, occurring in every tested word and position

phonetic disorder

positional constraints are discovered, the organization or phonotactics may not be intact

phonemic disorder

when no pattern can be discovered, (the client produces the sounds correctly in some words and incorrectly in others. factors should be considered:

1. phonetic context
2. possibility of emerging sound

guidelines for beginning therapy

1. stimulability
2. correct production of sound in a specific context.
3. sounds affecting intelligibility
4. developmentally earlier sounds

if phonemic impairment is suspected, thorough_________ becomes necessary

phonological assessment

phonemic organizational scheme are:

1. inventory of speech sounds
2. distribution of speech sounds
3. syllable shapes and constraints
4. phonological contrasts
5. phonological error patterns

syllable constraint

any restriction or limitation established in the production of syllable shapes

main goal fo syllable shapes analysis

determine whether the client has basic syllable structures and which ones.

if 2 ore more phonemes are represented by same sound production, this indicates

contrastive phonemic function has not been realized

emphasis on contrastive use of sounds, not on their accurate production

phonemic disorders

phonological processes:
chronological mismatch

child who demonstrates persistence of early simplifying processes together with patterns that are characteristic of later stages of phonological development

phonological processes:
systematic sound preference

single phonetic realization for several different phonemes.

phonological processes:
variable use of processes

process operating on one target sound may in one context still be active and in another already suppressed,

factors influencing speech sound intelligibility include:

number, type and consistency of speech sound errors.

intelligibility of utterance is influenced by:

1. loss of phonemic contrasts
2. difference between target and its realization
3. frequency of abnormality in client's speech
4. extent to which listener is familiar with client's speech

measures of severity

degree of involvement

>90 severity


65-85 severity


50-65 severity

moderate severe

<50 severity


Sounds patient can produce:
can be produced easily; used meaningfully and contrastively


Sounds patient can produce:
produced only upon request; not used consistently, meaningfully or constrastively; not used in connected speech


articulation disorders

phonetic disorders

phonological disorders

phonemic disorders

phonetic disorders are based on difficulty

learning to physically produce the intended phonemes.
problem with articulators

distortions,more likely

phonetic disorder

treated by teaching the child how to physically produce the sound and having them practice its production until it becomes natural

phonetic disorder

motor speech disorders

phonetic disorder

phonemic disorder, child is having trouble learning

the sound system of the language, failing to recognize which sounds contrasts contrast meaning.

/k/ and /t/ may not be recognized as having different meanings.

phonemic disorders

phoneme collapse

sounds sound the same.

subsitution more likely

phonemic disorders

treated using minimal pairs to draw child's attention to difference and its effect on communication

phonemic disorders

language system that is affected

phonemic disorders

for a client with a ______ disorder, a phonological assessment battery will be introduced

phonemic disorer

organizational categories for phonological assessment battery include:

1. inventory and distribution of sounds
2. syllable shapes and constraints
3. phonological contrasts
4. phonological rules/patterns

inventory of speech sounds

list of speech sounds that the client can articulate within normal limits.

distribution of speech sounds

refer to where the norm and aberrant articulations occurred within a word.

syllabication analysis procedure is based

on where the consonants occur relative to the vowel nuclei.

clients with ___disorders are characterized by impaired phonemic systems


show difficulties using phonemes constrastively to differentiate meaning.


loss of phonemic contrast is the central problem of clients with _______

phonemic disorders

consistent loss

exact same realization (substation, omission) every time

inconsistent relaization

substitutions of deletions that occur only in certain contexts.

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