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phonemic vs. phonetic
characterized by misarticulations
_____ are not cognitive linguistic(organizational) or perceptually based problems
irregular products remain consistent, occurring in every tested word and position
positional constraints are discovered, the organization or phonotactics may not be intact
when no pattern can be discovered, (the client produces the sounds correctly in some words and incorrectly in others. factors should be considered:
1. phonetic context
2. possibility of emerging sound
guidelines for beginning therapy
2. correct production of sound in a specific context.
3. sounds affecting intelligibility
4. developmentally earlier sounds
if phonemic impairment is suspected, thorough_________ becomes necessary
phonemic organizational scheme are:
1. inventory of speech sounds
2. distribution of speech sounds
3. syllable shapes and constraints
4. phonological contrasts
5. phonological error patterns
any restriction or limitation established in the production of syllable shapes
main goal fo syllable shapes analysis
determine whether the client has basic syllable structures and which ones.
if 2 ore more phonemes are represented by same sound production, this indicates
contrastive phonemic function has not been realized
emphasis on contrastive use of sounds, not on their accurate production
child who demonstrates persistence of early simplifying processes together with patterns that are characteristic of later stages of phonological development
systematic sound preference
single phonetic realization for several different phonemes.
variable use of processes
process operating on one target sound may in one context still be active and in another already suppressed,
factors influencing speech sound intelligibility include:
number, type and consistency of speech sound errors.
intelligibility of utterance is influenced by:
1. loss of phonemic contrasts
2. difference between target and its realization
3. frequency of abnormality in client's speech
4. extent to which listener is familiar with client's speech
measures of severity
degree of involvement
Sounds patient can produce:
can be produced easily; used meaningfully and contrastively
Sounds patient can produce:
produced only upon request; not used consistently, meaningfully or constrastively; not used in connected speech
phonetic disorders are based on difficulty
learning to physically produce the intended phonemes.
problem with articulators
treated by teaching the child how to physically produce the sound and having them practice its production until it becomes natural
motor speech disorders
phonemic disorder, child is having trouble learning
the sound system of the language, failing to recognize which sounds contrasts contrast meaning.
/k/ and /t/ may not be recognized as having different meanings.
sounds sound the same.
subsitution more likely
treated using minimal pairs to draw child's attention to difference and its effect on communication
language system that is affected
for a client with a ______ disorder, a phonological assessment battery will be introduced
organizational categories for phonological assessment battery include:
1. inventory and distribution of sounds
2. syllable shapes and constraints
3. phonological contrasts
4. phonological rules/patterns
inventory of speech sounds
list of speech sounds that the client can articulate within normal limits.
distribution of speech sounds
refer to where the norm and aberrant articulations occurred within a word.
syllabication analysis procedure is based
on where the consonants occur relative to the vowel nuclei.
clients with ___disorders are characterized by impaired phonemic systems
show difficulties using phonemes constrastively to differentiate meaning.
loss of phonemic contrast is the central problem of clients with _______
exact same realization (substation, omission) every time
substitutions of deletions that occur only in certain contexts.