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Evolution Test 2 Lec 9
Terms in this set (36)
Which fishy does a doggy paddle?
Fish with lobbed-fins that preadapted before moving on land
Fishes that got a choana
What is a mudskipper?
They lived very close to the land, they don't have all the adaptations as Sarcopterygii. They can come on land for a long period of time, but they can't leave a muddy environment.
Explain evolution of walking in bichirs.
Scientists tested fishes to see if they could walk on land. They compared walking ability to the fish near land and not. The one that was near land could walk better. It wasn't heritable bc it was a learned behavior.
A characteristic formed from natural selection that enhances the survival or reproduction of organisms that bear it
Evolution has no goals, you are adapted for the environment you are in, but.....
You can use something adapted for one thing to do something else....
A character that was not originally shaped by natural selection for that role
The larynx is an example of a
A shift in the function of a trait
A character, previously shaped by natural selection for a particular function (an adaptation), is coopted for a new use
What were the terror birds?
was a big terror animal in South america; dominant predator; modern bird; ostrich like; it was an evolutionary dead end,, they aren't here no mo
The dominant south American predator of the Cenozoic until 2mya
Our closest relatives are__ bc__
reptiles; amnion (which allows eggs outside of aquatic environment)
(n.) a reappearance of an earlier characteristic (leg-ish fins on a shark)
Whales evolved from land animals. They share the same ___ as wolves.
DNA sequences and the molecular clock imply that humans and chimpanzees (our closest living relatives) diverged ___ years ago
5 to 6 mya
___ is the term used for the lineage that is the sister group to chimpanzees (which almost completely lack a fossil record)
Many homonids were contemporaries of ____ until very recently
The majority of human fossils are from __, all the earliest ones are __
Anatomically modern humans (H. sapiens) originated in ___
What are the two explanations for human ancestors?
- "Out of Africa" or "African replacement" did we evolve once from one libe
- Multiregional hypothesis (independent evolution)
What is da earliest hominid yo?
Sahelanthropus tchadensis, niqqqa
Characteristics of Sahelanthropus tchadensis
from the Miocene of Chad 6 to 7mya, primitive features of having small brain, heavy brow ridge; derived features include small canine teeth, flattened face, almost certainly bipedal
Trends in human evolution from chimps
Chimpanzees have large canine teeth, low forehead, prominent face and brow ridge all features that we see in our earliest ancestors that are lost in derived forms like us.
Members of homo range from ___ to ____
pliocene to pleistocene
(homo ergaster, homo erectus)
What is the outcome of Homo neanderthalensis?
Evolutionary dead end - may have been killed off by Homo sapiens; DNA evidence supports some hybridization of Eurasian Homo species. The whole genome is sequenced, HOLLAAAA!
Controversial new description (2003) of a dwarf human species from Indonesia
Nicknamed the hobbit because of small stature; found with stone tools
Fate of Homo floresiensis?
evolutionary dead end, may be microencephaly; we have no DNA
Most recent common ancestor of Chimps and Humans tell us about bipedalism and knuckle walking
MCRA of humans and chimps
may not have even been chimp like?!?!
Change outgroup and you change what is an ___ or pleisiomorphic
The fossil record is ___ and ___ in regards to completeness.
Spotty and incomplete
The detailed fossil record of some groups show____, others groups show long periods of stasis followed by ______
gradualism; relatively punctuated periods of rapid evolution
The origins of many higher taxa are ___ documented in the fossil record with intermediate forms
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