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clear, watery fluid formed from interstitial fluid

lymph node

a mass of tissue found along the course of a lymph vessel


cells that are important in fighting infection and multiply rapidly when they come into contact with an antigen-- primary cells of the immune system (T and B)


foreign substance

skin and mucous lining

first defense against foreign substances


engulf antigens

complement proteins

lyse the cell wall of the antigen


inhibit viral replication and activate surrounding cells that have antiviral actions

inflammatory response

series of events in response to antigen invasion or physical injury

MHC markers

on the plasma membrane of cells -- distinguish between self and nonself cells


recognize foreign antigen MHC markers on cell surface--multiply and give rise to clones

memory T-cells

recognize bacteria or viruses that they have encountered before

helper T-cells

activate B-cells and other T-cells to respond to infected cells

cytotoxic T-cells

recognize and kill infected cells

cell-mediated response

activation of T-cells


made in bone marrow, mature in thymus

humoral immunity

when B-cells encounter antigen presenting cells with foreign MHC markers, they are activated and produce clones

memory B-cells

produce antibodies that bind to the antigens that originally activated them


disease that interferes with immune system-- wipes out helper T-cells-- people die of infections


produce antibodies


fight infection and help B-cells

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