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Achievement-oriented leadership

a leadership style in which the leader sets challenging goals, has high expectations of employees, and displays confidence that employees will assume responsibility and put forth extraordinary effort

Charismatic leadership

the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers


the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, and supportive and shows concern for employees

Contingency theory

a leadership theory that states that in order to maximize work group performance, leaders must be matched to the situation that best fits their leadership style

Directive leadership

a leadership style in which the leader lets employees know precisely what is expected of them, gives them specific guidelines for performing tasks, schedules work, sets standards of performance, and makes sure that people follow standard rules and regulations

Ethical charismatics

charismatic leaders who provide developmental opportunities for followers, are open to positive and negative feedback, recognize others' contributions, share information, and have moral standards that emphasize the larger interests of the group, organization, or society

Initiating structure

the degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks

Leader-member relations

the degree to which followers respect, trust, and like their leaders

Leadership style

the way a leader generally behaves toward followers

Normative decision theory

a theory that suggests how leaders can determine an appropriate amount of employee participation when making decisions

Participative leadership

a leadership style in which the leader consults employees for their suggestions and input before making decisions

Path-goal theory

a leadership theory that states that leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and performance by clarifying and clearing the paths to goals and by increasing the number and kinds of rewards available for goal attainment

Position power

the degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and punish workers


the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals

Situational favorableness

the degree to which a particular situation either permits or denies a leader the chance to influence the behavior of group members

Strategic leadership

the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a positive future for an organization

Supportive leadership

a leadership style in which the leader is friendly and approachable, shows concern for employees and their welfare, treats them as equals, and creates a friendly climate

Task structure

the degree to which the requirements of a subordinate's tasks are clearly specified

Trait theory

a leadership theory that holds that effective leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics


relatively stable characteristics, such as abilities, psychological motives, and consistent patterns of behavior

Transactional leadership

leadership based on an exchange process, in which followers are rewarded for good performance and punished for poor performance

Transformational leadership

leadership that generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interests for the good of the group

Unethical charismatics

charismatic leaders who control and manipulate followers, do what is best for themselves instead of their organizations, want to hear only positive feedback, share only information that is beneficial to themselves, and have moral standards that put their interests before everyone else's

Visionary leadership

leadership that creates a positive image of the future that motivates organizational members and provides direction for future planning and goal setting

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